The present work aims to elaborate a review of the geochemical aspects used to compose the Raw Water Quality Index (WQI), highlighting lake environments and their importance for management practices. This paper is a bibliographic review based on specialized scientific and legislative literature conducted between April 2016 and March 2019. The scientific articles were selected by searching the Scielo database and the Periódicos Capes and the database search was performed using the terminologies registered in the Descriptors (Thesaurus) or Keywords (Scopus and Web of Science) for geosciences and environmental sciences. The WQI is the main quality index used in the country and is calculated based on nine parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total residue, biochemical oxygen demand, thermotolerant coliforms, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and turbidity). The values determined through the calculation of the WQI are classified in ranges that define the water quality, which varies between different Brazilian states. Among its mishaps, it is noteworthy that the WQI does not analyze other factors important for public supply, such as toxic substances (eg: heavy metals, pesticides, organic compounds), pathogenic protozoa and substances that interfere with the organoleptic properties of water, which are under other management tools. The systemic model of water resources management adopted for Brazil is still in the process of improvement, because it still works through a decentralized system where the public authorities, at different levels, have an active voice, thus requiring the commitment to make a long-term monitoring based on a reliable geochemical analysis, so that an integrated management can be carried out, allowing the synthesis and characterization of the current state and management criteria of lake environments, with the main objective of facing the conservation challenges allied to sustainable use of its resources.
Cite this paper
Silva, A. , Azevedo, I. and Cruz, M. (2020). The Importance of Geochemistry in the Management of Lake Environments: Analysis of Parameters Composing the Water Quality Index (Wqi). Open Access Library PrePrints, 4, e261. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.preprints.1200261.
Silva, J. A. A.; Nobre, A. D.; Manzatto, C. V.; Joly, C. A.; Rodrigues, R. R.; Skorupa, L. A.; Nobre, C. A.; Ahrens, S.; May, P. H.; Sá, T. D. A.; Cunha, M. C.; Rech Filho, E. L. (2011) O Código Florestal e a ciência: Contribui？？es para o diálogo. S？o Paulo: Sociedade Brasileira Para o Progresso da Ciência, SBPC; e Academia Brasileira de Ciências, ABC, 124p.
BRASIL. Ministério do Meio Ambiente; Agência Nacional de águas. Programa das Na？？es Unidas para o Meio Ambiente. (2007) Gest？o dos recursos hídricos no Brasil: evolu？？o e “estado da arte”. GEO BRASIL: recursos hídricos. Brasília.
Aleksander-Kwaterczak, U.; Zdechlik, R. (2016) Hydrogeochemical characteristics of interstitial water and overlying water in the lacustrine environment. Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 75, n. 20, p. 1352.
Hanson, P. C., Carpenter, S. R., Armstrong, D. E., Stanley, E. H., & Kratz, T. K. (2006) Lake dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved oxygen: changing drivers from days to decades. Ecological Monographs, v. 76, n. 3, p. 343-363.
Hachich, E. M. et al. (2012) Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies. Braz. J. Microbiol. S？o Paulo, v. 43, n. 2, p. 675-681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000200032.
Hodge, J. et al. (2016) Assessing the Association between Thermotolerant Coliforms in Drinking Water and Diarrhea: An Analysis of Individual–Level Data from Multiple Studies. Environmental health perspectives, v. 124, n. 10, p. 1560-1567.
SMITH, M., MINTEER, C., LAKE, E.C., WHEELER, G.S., TIPPING, P.W. (2016) Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues. Ecological Society of America (ESA), https://eco.confex.com/eco/2016/preliminaryprogram/abstract_59794.htm
Mirzaei, N. et al. (2015) Survey of effective parameters (water sources, seasonal variation and residual chlorine) on presence of thermotolerant coliforms bacteria in different drinking water resources. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, v. 7, n. 3, p. 9680-9689.
Gong, L. J., Yang, X. F., Xiong, B. X., Li, G. P., & Chen, X. L. (2012) Study on Nitrogen, Phosphor and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Differnt Categories of Aquaculture Lakes by Means of Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. In: Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, p. 369-377.
Min, K. R.; Zimmer, M. N.; Rickard, A. H. (2010) Physicochemical parameters influencing coaggregation between the freshwater bacteria Sphingomonas natatoria 2.1 and Micrococcus luteus 2.13. Biofouling, v. 26, n. 8, p. 931-940.
Zlatanovi？, L.; Van Der Hoek, J. P.; Vreeburg, J. H. G. (2017) An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system. Water research, v. 123, p. 761-772.
Gloria, L. P.; Horn, B. C.; Hilgemann, M. (2017) Avalia？？o da qualidade da água de bacias hidrográficas através da ferramenta do índice de Qualidade da água-IQA. Revista Caderno Pedagógico, v. 14, n. 1.