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Variation on agro-morphological traits in Nepalese foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L) P Beauv)
RB Amgai, S Pantha, TB Chhetri, SK Budhathoki, SP Khatiwada, A Mudwari
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7528
Abstract: Foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L) P Beauv) falls on the category of underutilized crops in Nepal and mainly cultivated in Karnali region of the country. It is hardy crop and considered as one of the potential crops for future food security with respect to climate change. Five accessions of Nepalese foxtail millet were purposefully selected for evaluation of the agro-morphological characteristics. Foxtail landraces from Dolpa, Mugu, Bajura, Bajhang and Lamjung districts of Nepal were evaluated at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal during 2010. The plot size was 1m 2 and there were five samples. Days to heading and days to maturity varied from 33-56 and 59 to 87 days after germination respectively. Similarly, flag leaf length/breadth ratio, flag leaf sheath length, ligule length, peduncle length, peduncle exertion and plant height varied from 3.84-10.90, 5.47-9.84 cm, 0.1-0.2 mm, 10-22.57 cm, 2.7-13.58 cm and 41.67-120 cm, respectively. Fruit and apiculus color varied from straw to black. All accessions were actively growing with very slight lodging. Similarly, the thousand grain weight varies from 1.064 g to 2.172 g. This variation is useful in foxtail millet breeding program. Similarly, the significant correlation between thousand kernel weight and total basal tiller (r=-0.975) showed that foxtail millet lines with low tillering ability is better for yield enhancement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7528 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.133-138
Violence against Women Living with HIV: A Cross Sectional Study in Nepal
Nirmal Aryal,Pramod Raj Regmi,Naba Raj Mudwari
Global Journal of Health Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n3p117
Abstract: Background: Violence against Women (VAW) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues and there is an increasing evidence of their intersection. Data are sparse on the intersection of VAW and HIV in South Asia region. We aimed to identify different forms and magnitude of violence incurred by women living with HIV, and analyse causes and consequences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 43 HIV positive women in three districts of Nepal, in the period of March-May 2008. Data was collected through semi-structured interview questionnaire. Results: The vast majority of the participants (93.02%) had suffered from at least one form of the violence. The prevalence of violence rose up sharply after being diagnosed with HIV positive than before (93.02% vs.53.5%). Forty-five percent of the participants reported their husbands being main perpetrator of violence. Self-humiliation and health and treatment problem were the major consequences of violence as reported by 90% and 77.5% of the participants respectively. Conclusion: Violence was observed to be highly prevalent among women living with HIV in Nepal. Further larger and nationally representative researches are imperative to better understand the cross-section between VAW and HIV. Our finding recommends to prioritizing programs on social aspects of HIV such as violence.
Wheat gene pool and its conservation in Nepal
Bal K Joshi,Ashok Mudwari,Madan R Bhatta
Conservation Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/cs.v1i1.9584
Abstract: Aim This paper explores diversity of wheat gene pool present in the Nepalese bread wheat cultivars and landraces, and discusses their conservation initiatives. Location Nepal. Material and Methods This study is carried out using an extensive literature survey on distribution of landraces and wild relatives of wheat in Nepal. Key findings The results showed that there were 35 improved wheat cultivars, 540 landraces and 10 wild relatives of wheat in Nepal. Mexico, India and Nepal were the countries of origin for 35 cultivars. A total of 89 ancestors of wheat originated from 22 countries were used to develop 35 cultivars. The highest number of ancestors was from India. Ancestors of both aestivum and durum species having winter, spring and intermediate growth habit indicated that these species were of wide gene pool. The genetic erosion in wheat gene pool is the main conservation challenge of landraces due to introduction of improved varieties. Conservation implications Genetic diversity of wheat is indispensible for sustainable wheat production. Therefore, on-farm and ex-situ conservations of cultivars, landraces and wild varieties of wheat and their use in breeding programs are necessary for maintaining existing genetic diversity.? ? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/cs.v1i1.9584 ? Conservation Science 2013 1(1), 39-46
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004
Abstract:

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

Equilibria and Stability in Glycine, Tartrate and Tryptophan Complexes, Investigation on Interactions in Cu(II) Binary and Ternary Systems in Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials (OJINM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.41001
Abstract:

The acidity and stability constants of M(Gly)1, M(Ttr)1, and M(Trp)1 M: Cu2+, Cu(Bpy2)2+, and Cu(Phen3)2+ complexes, were determined by potentiometric pH titration. It is shown that the stability of the binary Cu(L), (L: Gly, Ttr, and Trp) complex is determined by the basicity of the carboxylate group on one side and amino group on the other side. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium, Cu(Ha4)2+ + Cu(L) \"\"Cu(Har)(L) + Cu2+, is displacement due to the well known experience that mixed ligand complexes formed by a divalent 3d ion, a heteroaromatic N base and an O donor ligand possess increased stability. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Cu2+, Cu(Bpy)2+ or Cu(Phen)2+

Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Grid Interface Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  [PDF]
Adel A. A. Elgammal
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2014.62006
Abstract:

This paper presents a closed-loop vector control structure based on adaptive Fuzzy Logic Sliding Mode Controller (FL-SMC) for a grid-connected Wave Energy Conversion System (WECS) driven Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG). The aim of the developed control method is to automatically tune and optimize the scaling factors and the membership functions of the Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC) using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms (MOGA) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). Two Pulse Width Modulated voltage source PWM converters with a carrier-based Sinusoidal PWM modulation for both Generator- and Grid-side converters have been connected back to back between the generator terminals and utility grid via common DC link. The indirect vector control scheme is implemented to maintain balance between generated power and power supplied to the grid and maintain the terminal voltage of the generator and the DC bus voltage constant for variable rotor speed and load. Simulation study has been carried out using the MATLAB/Simulink environment to verify the robustness of the power electronics converters and the effectiveness of proposed control method under steady state and transient conditions and also machine parameters mismatches. The proposed control scheme has improved the voltage regulation and the transient performance of the wave energy scheme over a wide range of operating conditions.

Geochemical Characteristics and Chemical Electron Microprobe U-Pb-Th Dating of Pitchblende Mineralization from Gabal Gattar Younger Granite, North Eastern Desert, Egypt  [PDF]
Hassan A. A. Shahin
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.41003
Abstract:

Pitchblende mineralization was studied in the younger granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar, north Eastern Desert, Egypt using electron scanning microscope (ESM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA). This study revealed that this pitchblende contains significant Zr content reaching up to (66.80% ZrO2), which suggests that volcanic rocks were probably the source of such a deposit. High level emplaced high-K Calc-alkaline plutons as Qattar granite may have been associated with their volcanic equivalent emplaced in the surrounding area or now eroded. Lead content of the pitchblende mineralization is high and with moderate volcanics (up to 7.71% PbO). In contrast, it is low in ThO2, Y2O3 and REE2O3. High Zr and Pb content associated with pitchblende mineralization from Gattar granite indicates

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