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Response of maize genotypes to gray leaf spot disease (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in the hills of Nepal
G Manandhar, GO Ferrara, TP Tiwari, S Baidya, ASR Bajracharya, BR Khadge, L Narro
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7524
Abstract: Gray leaf spot (GLS) is an important and destructive disease of maize in the hills of Nepal. The occurrence of this disease is recorded for the first time in the country in 2006. Several genotypes of maize supposed to be resistant to gray leaf spot in SARMP Zimbabwe and CIAT Colombia were evaluated together with other varieties in observation nursery conducted at farmer’s fields as well as at Khumaltar (NARC research station in the Kathmandu Valley) during 2008 and 2009. Ten out of 28 genotypes of maize were identified as resistant to moderately resistant to GLS. The disease incidence was higher on the open pollinated varieties of maize. The severity of GLS on genotypes of maize observed as 3.0 and 2.2, respectively at Baluwapati and Dhungkharka in Kavrepalanchwok and 2.0 at Khumaltar in Lalitpur during 2008. The severity of GLS was observed as high as 2.4 at Pakhribas in Dhankuta and 1.7 at Khumaltar in 2009. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7524 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.93-101
Diagnosis and Treatment of Leprosy Reactions in Integrated Services - The Patients' Perspective in Nepal
Sonia F. Raffe ,Min Thapa,Saraswoti Khadge,Krishna Tamang,Deanna Hagge,Diana N. J. Lockwood
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002089
Abstract: Leprosy care has been integrated with peripheral health services, away from vertical programmes. This includes the diagnosis and management of leprosy reactions, which cause significant morbidity. We surveyed patients with leprosy reactions at two leprosy hospitals in Nepal to assess their experience of leprosy reaction management following integration to identify any gaps in service delivery. Methods Direct and referral patients with leprosy reactions were interviewed in two of Nepal's leprosy hospitals. We also collected quantitative and qualitative data from clinical examination and case-note review to document the patient pathway. Results Seventy-five patients were interviewed. On development of reaction symptoms 39% presented directly to specialist services, 23% to a private doctor, 17% to a district hospital, 10% to a traditional healer, 7% to a health post and 4% elsewhere. Those who presented directly to specialist services were 6.6 times more likely to start appropriate treatment than those presenting elsewhere (95% CI: 3.01 to 14.45). The average delay between symptom onset to commencing corticosteroids was 2.9 months (range 0–24 months). Obstacles to early presentation and treatment included diagnostic challenge, patients' lack of knowledge and the patients' view of health as a low priority. 40% received corticosteroids for longer than 12 weeks and 72% required an inpatient stay. Treatment follow-up was conducted at locations ranging from health posts to specialist hospitals. Inconsistency in the availability of corticosteroids peripherally was identified and 41% of patients treated for leprosy and a reaction on an outpatient basis attended multiple sites for follow-up treatment. Conclusion This study demonstrates that specialist services are necessary and continue to provide significant critical support within an integrated health system approach towards the diagnosis and management of leprosy reactions.
Human Beta-Defensin 3 Is Up-Regulated in Cutaneous Leprosy Type 1 Reactions
Anna L. Cogen ,Stephen L. Walker,Chrissy H. Roberts,Deanna A. Hagge,Kapil D. Neupane,Saraswoti Khadge,Diana N. J. Lockwood
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001869
Abstract: Background Leprosy, a chronic granulomatous disease affecting the skin and nerves, is caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). The type of leprosy developed depends upon the host immune response. Type 1 reactions (T1Rs), that complicate borderline and lepromatous leprosy, are due to an increase in cell-mediated immunity and manifest as nerve damage and skin inflammation. Owing to the increase in inflammation in the skin of patients with T1Rs, we sought to investigate the activation of the innate immune system during reactionary events. Specifically, we investigated the expression levels of human beta-defensins (hBDs) 2 and 3 in the skin of patients with T1Rs, in keratinocytes, and in macrophages stimulated with M. leprae and corticosteroids. Results Skin biopsies from twenty-three patients with Type 1 reactions were found to have higher transcript levels of hBD3 as compared to fifteen leprosy patients without Type 1 reactions, as measured by qPCR. Moreover, we observed that keratinocytes but not macrophages up-regulated hBD2 and hBD3 in response to M. leprae stimulation in vitro. Corticosteroid treatment of patients with T1Rs caused a suppression of hBD2 and hBD3 in skin biopsies, as measured by qPCR. In vitro, corticosteroids suppressed M. leprae-dependent induction of hBD2 and hBD3 in keratinocytes. Conclusions This study demonstrates that hBD3 is induced in leprosy Type 1 Reactions and suppressed by corticosteroids. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that keratinocytes are responsive to M. leprae and lend support for additional studies on keratinocyte innate immunity in leprosy and T1Rs. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN31894035
Mycobacterium leprae virulence-associated peptides are indicators of exposure to M: leprae in Brazil, Ethiopia and Nepal
Bobosha, Kidist;Tang, Sheila Tuyet;van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J;Bekele, Yonas;Martins, Marcia VSB;Lund, Ole;Franken, Kees LMC;Khadge, Saraswoti;Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade;Gon?alves, Heitor de Sá;Hussien, Jemal;Thapa, Pratibha;Kunwar, Chhatra B;Hagge, Deanna A;Aseffa, Abraham;Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal;Pereira, Geraldo MB;Ottenhoff, Tom HM;Geluk, Annemieke;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762012000900018
Abstract: silent transmission of mycobacterium leprae, as evidenced by stable leprosy incidence rates in various countries, remains a health challenge despite the implementation of multidrug therapy worldwide. therefore, the development of tools for the early diagnosis of m. leprae infection should be emphasised in leprosy research. as part of the continuing effort to identify antigens that have diagnostic potential, unique m. leprae peptides derived from predicted virulence-associated proteins (group iv.a) were identified using advanced genome pattern programs and bioinformatics. based on human leukocyte antigen (hla)-binding motifs, we selected 21 peptides that were predicted to be promiscuous hla-class i t-cell epitopes and eight peptides that were predicted to be hla-class ii restricted t-cell epitopes for field-testing in brazil, ethiopia and nepal. high levels of interferon (ifn)-γ were induced when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) from tuberculoid/borderline tuberculoid leprosy patients located in brazil and ethiopia were stimulated with the ml2055 p35 peptide. pbmcs that were isolated from healthy endemic controls living in areas with high leprosy prevalence (echigh) in ethiopia also responded to the ml2055 p35 peptide. the brazilian echigh group recognised the ml1358 p20 and ml1358 p24 peptides. none of the peptides were recognised by pbmcs from healthy controls living in non-endemic region. in nepal, mixtures of these peptides induced the production of ifn-γ by the pbmcs of leprosy patients and echigh. therefore, the m. leprae virulence-associated peptides identified in this study may be useful for identifying exposure to m. leprae in population with differing hla polymorphisms.
Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study
Becky L. Rivoire ,Nathan A. Groathouse,Stephen TerLouw,Kapil Dev Neupane,Chaman Ranjit,Bishwa Raj Sapkota,Saraswoti Khadge,Chatra B. Kunwar,Murdo Macdonald,Rachel Hawksworth,Min B. Thapa,Deanna A. Hagge,Melinda Tibbals,Carol Smith,Tina Dube,Dewei She,Mark Wolff,Eric Zhou,Mamodikoe Makhene,Robin Mason,Christine Sizemore,Patrick J. Brennan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002811
Abstract: Background New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. Methods A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 μg, 1.0 μg and 0.1 μg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 μg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 μg (high dose) and 0.1 μg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. Findings In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 μg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens showed lower specificity (70% and 60%) and sensitivity (10% and 15%). BL/LL leprosy patients were anergic to the leprosy antigens. Interpretation MLSA-LAM and MLCwA at both high (1.0 μg) and low (0.1 μg) doses were found to be safe for use in humans without known exposure to leprosy and in target populations. At a sensitivity rate of 20–25% these antigens are not suitable as a skin test for the detection of the early stages of leprosy infection; however, the degree of specificity is impressive given the presence of cross-reactive antigens in these complex native M. leprae preparations. Trial Registration
T-Cell Regulation in Lepromatous Leprosy
Kidist Bobosha ,Louis Wilson,Krista E. van Meijgaarden,Yonas Bekele,Martha Zewdie,Jolien J. van der Ploeg- van Schip,Markos Abebe,Jemal Hussein,Saraswoti Khadge,Kapil D. Neupane,Deanna A. Hagge,Ekaterina S. Jordanova,Abraham Aseffa,Tom H. M. Ottenhoff,Annemieke Geluk
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002773
Abstract: Regulatory T (Treg) cells are known for their role in maintaining self-tolerance and balancing immune reactions in autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. However, regulatory mechanisms can also lead to prolonged survival of pathogens in chronic infections like leprosy and tuberculosis (TB). Despite high humoral responses against Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients have the characteristic inability to generate T helper 1 (Th1) responses against the bacterium. In this study, we investigated the unresponsiveness to M. leprae in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of LL patients by analysis of IFN-γ responses to M. leprae before and after depletion of CD25+ cells, by cell subsets analysis of PBMC and by immunohistochemistry of patients' skin lesions. Depletion of CD25+ cells from total PBMC identified two groups of LL patients: 7/18 (38.8%) gained in vitro responsiveness towards M. leprae after depletion of CD25+ cells, which was reversed to M. leprae-specific T-cell unresponsiveness by addition of autologous CD25+ cells. In contrast, 11/18 (61.1%) remained anergic in the absence of CD25+ T-cells. For both groups mitogen-induced IFN-γ was, however, not affected by depletion of CD25+ cells. In M. leprae responding healthy controls, treated lepromatous leprosy (LL) and borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BT) patients, depletion of CD25+ cells only slightly increased the IFN-γ response. Furthermore, cell subset analysis showed significantly higher (p = 0.02) numbers of FoxP3+ CD8+CD25+ T-cells in LL compared to BT patients, whereas confocal microscopy of skin biopsies revealed increased numbers of CD68+CD163+ as well as FoxP3+ cells in lesions of LL compared to tuberculoid and borderline tuberculoid leprosy (TT/BT) lesions. Thus, these data show that CD25+ Treg cells play a role in M. leprae-Th1 unresponsiveness in LL.
第四紀以來中國北方出現過的喜暖動物及其古環境意義
<BR>同號文,<BR>
中國科學 地球科學 中國科學 地球科學 , 2007,
Abstract: ?經過長期演化,中國動物地理格局才形成了現今大致以淮河-秦嶺-橫斷山-喜馬拉雅山一線為界線的兩大動物區系,該線以北屬于古北界,以南屬于東洋界.中國北方第四紀的化石點有數百個之多,而其中有60多處含東洋界分子,其動物類別有20多個屬種,其中以豪豬、獼猴、古菱齒象、額鼻角犀和水牛等屬種最為常見.在第四紀,東洋界動物大量出現于華北地區,有三種解釋:其一是動物群隨氣候波動或季節變化自南而北的遷徙;其二是這些動物原本就起源于北方,只是后來由于環境變化而退縮到了東洋界;其三是這些動物本來不是真正的喜熱動物.研究表明,這些出現于北方地區的東洋界動物很少發現于黃土堆積中,并且含有這些化石的地點絕大多數都落在我國現代氣候分區的暖溫帶范圍內;在化石組合方面,這些喜暖動物很少與耐寒動物共生.由此看來,這些化石總體上是反映較溫暖的氣候條件,但并非很炎熱.因為這些曾經出現在北方地區的東洋界分子,不是真正的熱帶動物,而是分布范圍較廣的東洋界分子,其中一些如今仍然生存于淮河以北;此外,至今在北方地區并未發現過真正的熱帶動物記錄,例如鱗甲類、原猴類(懶猴和眼鏡猴)和類人猿(巨猿、猩猩及長臂猿)等.在整個第四紀,盡管晚更新世時間跨度很短,但在此期間喜暖動物在北方地區出現的頻次卻很高,分布范圍也最廣,這說明晚更新世的氣候最為動蕩.
Ordinary Biodiversity, Local Stakeholders and Forest Management as a Driver for Regional Sustainable Development  [PDF]
Hervé Brédif, Laurent Simon
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.43032
Abstract:

The protection of biodiversity which had long been bounded up with emblematic “natural” spaces is now increasingly focusing on ordinary biodiversity and rural agricultural land and forests as well as on urban and peri-urban spaces. Such ordinary biodiversity has its own specific features which make it both a relative and uncertain topic of research. Traditional nature protection instruments do not work on this dimension of the planet’s living tissue and new tools need to be deployed in conjunction with regional and local stakeholders that will provide long-term sustainable solutions for biodiversity and for local and regional development more generally. Research conducted on the Plateau de Millevaches explores the possibilities for shared caring for this biodiversity.

Nazis by Kraut: A Playful Application of Moral Self-Licensing  [PDF]
Claude Messner, Adrian Brügger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.69112
Abstract: Doing something moral gives one a license to do something immoral. This form of moral compen-sation is called “moral self-licensing”. Interestingly, the moral behavior can take place in another domain than the subsequent immoral behavior. For example, buying eco-friendly products gives one a license to steal. This article is based on the idea that a healthy diet has a moral dimension. As a consequence, consuming a healthy product should give one a license for immoral behavior. This research supports this hypothesis on a playful study. This study shows that drinking sauerkraut juice contributes to a stronger support of Nazi-esque right wing ideology than drinking either nothing or a less-healthy beverage (Nestea).
Drought Effects on Early Growth and Mortality of Three Oak Species in the Upper Rhine Valley  [PDF]
Sandrine Brèteau-Amores
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.72020
Abstract: Pedunculate oak and sessile oak are important natural species in the Upper Rhine Valley. The increasing mortality of these oak species has been observed since the 1980s in this region, mainly due to severe droughts. Turkey oak is known to be highly productive and drought-resistant. The goal of this article is therefore to investigate the adaptability to drought of these three young oak species growing at the same site, and to show to what extent Turkey oak can be substituted for these native oak species. Stand measurements and retrospective analyses of radial growth were performed within the framework of the eight-year-old “Mooswald” afforestation experiment in order to determine stand volume, mortality and resistance/resilience to drought for each species. Turkey oak shows significantly higher stand volume and significantly lower mortality than sessile oak. Values of these two parameters for Turkey oak and sessile oak are not significantly different from those of pedunculate oak. However, Turkey oak is not more resistant to drought than the other oak species. Sessile oak has the highest mortality and the smallest stand volume, while pedunculate oak is the least resilient to drought. These results are only a trend that must be confirmed in older stand stages and investigation in young stands must continue, supported by better monitoring and improved tools.
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