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Enhanced Phagocytosis and Antibody Production by Tinospora cordifolia - A new dimension in Immunomodulation
MS Ranjith, AJA Ranjitsingh, SG Shankar, GS Vijayalaksmi, K Deepa, HS Sidhu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) is a widely used shrub in ayurvedic systems of medicine known to possess immunomodulatory properties. In the present study the aqueous extract of T. cordifolia was found to enhance phagocytosis in vitro. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts also induced an increase in antibody production in vivo.
Productivity and soil attributes as influenced by resource conservation technologies under rice- wheat system in Nepal
G Sah, SC Shah, SK Sah, RB Thapa, A McDonald, HS Sidhu, RK Gupta, P Wall
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9007
Abstract: Rice-wheat system provides food, income, and employment to over 83 % of the people and contributes to national food security in Nepal. Sustainability of the system is under threat because of increasing cultivation cost and declining soil fertility. On-farm experiments were carried out to determine the effects of tillage and crop establishment methods, crop residue management, and nitrogen levels that affect soil attributes and productivity of the rice-wheat system during 2010- 2011at Bara, Nepal. The treatment consisted of three tillage and crop establishment methods viz. Conventional tillage (CT), Permanent bed planting (PB), and Zero-tillage (ZT); two residue management levels viz. Residue retention and Residue removal; and three nitrogen levels viz. Zero nitrogen, farmer’s dose (80 and 100 kgha-1 N for rice and wheat, respectively), and abundant nitrogen (120 kgha-1 N for both rice and wheat crop). The experiments were laid out in strip-split plot design with three replications. The research results revealed that rice grain yield was significantly higher in the plots receiving N level as applied by farmers that was similar to abundant nitrogen dose. Wheat grain yield was significantly higher with zero tillage compared to permanent bed planting and conventional tillage. Significantly higher wheat grain yield was also obtained due to abundant nitrogen dose than zero dose nitrogen which was similar to farmers’ dose of N as well. There was no significant difference in grain yield of rice and wheat due to residue retention, although, it improved soil moisture. In wheat crop, zero-till planting and increased nitrogen application conserved soil moisture, enhanced soil electrical conductivity and lowered soil temperature. It can be concluded that rice and wheat can be grown successfully with zero tillage and farmer’s nitrogen dose without any yield penalty.
Characterisation and Corrosion-Erosion Behaviour of Carbide based Thermal Spray Coatings  [PDF]
Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor S. Sidhu, Buta S. Sidhu
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.116041
Abstract: Thermal spraying has emerged as a suitable and effective surface engineering technology and is widely used to apply wear, erosion and corrosion protective coatings for various kinds of industrial applications. Cr3C2-based coatings have been applied to a wide range of industrial components. Cr3C2-NiCr coatings offer greater corrosion and oxidation resistance, also having a high melting point and maintaining high hardness, strength and wear resistance up to a maximum operating temperature of 900 °C. The corrosion resistance is provided by NiCr matrix while the wear resistance is mainly due to the carbide ceramic phase. This paper reviews the performance, developments and applications of Cr3C2-NiCr thermal spray coatings for corrosion/erosion-corrosion under different types of environments and outlines the characterization of Cr3C2-NiCr coatings with respect to their microstructure and mechanical properties, together with some brief characterisation work by the author for HVOF sprayed 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating on T91 boiler steel.
Significance of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
Jasdeep Sidhu
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The study of ultra high energy cosmic rays is a very important scientific problem. It is likely to have a huge impact in our understanding of the universe. Very high energy particles have been observed to hit the Earth whose origin is likely to be outside our Galaxy. Infact, particles with energies exceeding 10^ (20) electron volts which only hit the earth once in a century have been observed recently. The source of these high energy particles remains a deep and fascinating mystery yet to be resolved. Recently, a huge detector 30 times the size of the city of Paris is built by Pierre Auger Observatory to study these high energy particles. These detectors use the properties of Cherenkov radiation to identify the particles. Firstly, the paper will briefly explain the scientific motivation behind studying ultra high energy cosmic rays. Secondly, this paper will try to explain the reasons behind using water Cherenkov detectors. Thirdly, the paper within its limited scope, will try to give an overview of the exact process by which ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are detected using surface and water Cherenkov detectors.
Instant Replay: Investigating statistical Analysis in Sports
Gagan Sidhu
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Technology has had an unquestionable impact on the way people watch sports. Along with this technological evolution has come a higher standard to ensure a good viewing experience for the casual sports fan. It can be argued that the pervasion of statistical analysis in sports serves to satiate the fan's desire for detailed sports statistics. The goal of statistical analysis in sports is a simple one: to eliminate subjective analysis. In this paper, we review previous work that attempts to analyze various aspects in sports by using ideas from Markov Chains, Bayesian Inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The unifying goal of these works is to achieve an accurate representation of the player's ability, the sport, or the environmental effects on the player's performance. With the prevalence of cheap computation, it is possible that using techniques in Artificial Intelligence could improve the result of statistical analysis in sport. This is best illustrated when evaluating football using Neuro Dynamic Programming, a Control Theory paradigm heavily based on theory in Stochastic processes. The results from this method suggest that statistical analysis in sports may benefit from using ideas from the area of Control Theory or Machine Learning
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) with Chondroid-Myxoid-Chordoid Features Mimicking Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma  [PDF]
Sonia Brar, Christian Tvetenstrand, Jagmohan Sidhu
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2012.23016
Abstract: Epithelioid gastrointesinal tumors (GISTs) are less likely to have c-kit gene mutations (and express CD117) than spindle cell GISTs. CD117 negative/c-kit negative GISTs can have platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRα) gene mutations, overexpress PDGFRα protein and respond to imatinib mesylate. Many cases of CD117-negative/CD117-weakly positive, c-kit mutation negative and PDGFRα mutation positive myxoid epithelioid GISTs and one case of CD117-positive GIST with chondro-myxoid features mimicking chondrosarcoma have been reported. We report a case of myxoid epithelioid GIST with predominance of chondroid and chordoid areas resembling an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma that was strongly positive for CD117, PDGFRα and DOG1 (Discovered on GIST 1) by immunohistochemistry, but lacked c-kit and PDGFRα gene mutations. It is possible that CD117 is strongly positive if a myxoid epithelioid GIST has chondroid/chordoid appearance, but a larger study is needed to confirm this association. CD117 expression in GISTs is important, because GISTs showing CD117 positivity respond to imatinib. No comment can be made about the prognostic significance of chondroid/chordoid appearance in the GISTs.
A Clinico-Pathological Study of Poly Morphous Light Eruption  [PDF]
Prasad Pullabatla, Kaviarasan Pitchai Kaliyaperumal, Udhay Sidhu
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.23041
Abstract: The prevalence of PMLE varies from 5% to 15% in various studies across the world. PMLE is noticed in the first three decades of life. The mean age in females is 33 years whereas in males it is 35 years. Females are more often affected than males. PMLE appears to be an immunologically mediated response possibly a delayed hypersensitivity phenomenon to a photo antigen induced or up regulated in the skin after sun exposure. One hundred new PMLE cases were included in a two year period from 2006-8. All patients, who had been on treatment and with concomitant dermatoses were excluded. On histo-pathological examination 68% showed diagnostic features, 20% showed grade-II features and 12% grade-III features. Histo-pathological grading also varied with the duration of the disease. Early lesions showed only grade-II and III picture whereas the diagnostic picture was evident with the longer duration of the disease. In the plaque type, 14 cases showed characteristic histology after three to four months. In conclusion PMLE is commonly observed in females between 21 - 30 years of age. Pruritus is the chief complaint and the time required for the development of rash increases with time of sun exposure. Most common morphological type is papule on the forearm. Papules and plaque type of lesions of PMLE of longer duration clinched the histo-pathological diagnosis.
Accidental Intra-Arterial Injection during Test Dose of Injection of Benzyl Penicillin: Complications and Management—A Case Report  [PDF]
Amarjit Singh, Kuldip Singh Sidhu, Shivaji Rai
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.46043
Abstract:
An 18 years old female patient was given a test dose of Benzyl penicillin in the Antecubital Area on the right forearm by a staff nurse of the department. After the injection, the patient complained of severe pain in the right forearm distal to the injection site. This was followed by blanching of the right forearm and hand. She was immediately heparinised followed by other symptomatic treatments. After 12 hours, a bluish discoloration developed on the hand, both on dorsal and palmar aspect, sparing the thumb. This recovered with medication, except the late development of dry gangrene of the tip of distal phalanx of the little finger which got shrivelled later on. Color Doppler flow study, echocardiography, and CT angiography of the right upper limb were done. Understanding of the pathogenesis and prompt action can help in saving a limb. Education of the medical professionals involved in administering injection is necessary so that they become aware of abnormal course or anomalous anatomy of vessels of upper limb. This can help to prevent the complications.
Kynurenine and serotonin pathways: A review
HS Adegbusi
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This paper seeks to elucidate the two-key pathways involving tryptophan matabolism, namely, kynurenine and serotonin pathways. In the kynurenine pathway (KP), the discussion considers the steps of the oxidative degradation of tryptophan to yield nicotinate mononucleotide, a precursors for the biosynthesis of nicotinate nucleotides ( NAD+ and NADP+), while serotonin pathway (SP) considers the biosynthesis of serotonin from tryptophan. Two different isoforms of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are involved in SP: Tryptophan hydroxylase -1 (TPH1) catalysis SP in enterochromaffin cells of the gut, while Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) catalysis SP in the nerve cells of the central nervous system, the brain. Emphasis is given to the relevance of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) in KP and also identified in the pathway of KP is the liberation of alanine as a biproduct, a basis for the gluconeogenecity of tryptophan. Serotonin, a major bioactive end-product of SP is a potent neurotransmitter, vasoconstrictor, regulation of intestinal motility and a player in cognitive function. Foods that give an increased ratio of tryptophan to phenylalanine and leucine such as nuts of walnut, plantains, bananas, dates, pineapples and tomatoes are good sources of serotonin. Research suggests a diet rich in carbohydrates and low protein is also a good source. Owning to the significance of some the major bioactive end-products, intermediates and byproducts of these pathways for the well-being and happiness of human beings, more research should be carried out therein not only to unravel some of the disorders they may be associated with but to also help in the development and production of; therapeutic drugs for psychiatric and sexual disorders, and intestinal antidote.
Considerations in selecting rapid-onset opioids for the management of breakthrough pain
Smith HS
Journal of Pain Research , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S40745
Abstract: nsiderations in selecting rapid-onset opioids for the management of breakthrough pain Review (492) Total Article Views Authors: Smith HS Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 189 - 200 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S40745 Received: 26 November 2012 Accepted: 17 January 2013 Published: 06 March 2013 Howard S Smith Departments of Anesthesiology, Medicine, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Breakthrough pain (BTP) is a transitory pain that occurs despite the use of long-term, around-the-clock analgesia. It is highly prevalent in certain populations and places a significant burden on patients, their families, caregivers, and health-care systems. Despite its prevalence and impact, BTP is sometimes unrecognized and often undertreated. Various formulations of fentanyl – a rapid-onset opioid with short duration of action – are available for the management of BTP. The efficacy of formulations using transmucosal, transbuccal, sublingual, and intranasal administration routes has been demonstrated for BTP treatment in clinical trials. However, a lack of head-to-head trials evaluating their relative efficacy makes it challenging for physicians to reach informed decisions on the most efficacious intervention for individual patients. In the absence of clear data on the relative efficacy of fentanyl formulations, prescribing decisions need to be based on physician understanding and experience and product cost and availability, taking into account the individual patient's needs, the ability of the patient or caregivers to administer medication, and the patient's wishes. This review evaluates current pharmacologic methods of alleviating BTP and discusses factors that should be considered when selecting the most appropriate formulation for individual patients. With the range of fentanyl formulations available, it is now possible to successfully address BTP in the majority of patients.
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