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Heterosis and yield potentialities of promising maize hybrids suitable for Terai and inner Terai environments of Nepal
DB Gurung, BR Pandey, SR Upadhyay, B Pokhrel, JB Kshetri
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7544
Abstract: Heterosis has made a dramatic impact on the developing of breeding methods and high yields in many field crops during the 20th century. In general, heterosis is greatest in cross pollinated compared to self pollinated crops and thus widely exploited for hybrid cultivar development. Standard heterosis is one of the most important parameters in commercialization of maize hybrids. A new hybrid must be superior to the standard hybrids in terms of grain yield and other economic traits. We have analyzed four coordinated varietal trials of hybrids, 3 of which were conducted at NMRP, Rampur and another was tested at NMRP, Rampur and at ARS, Belachapi, Janakpur from 2006 to 2008 in order to determine the standard heterosis of the promising hybrids. The objective of this study was to evaluate hybrids under different production domains and to select superior hybrids for commercialization. Standard heterosis was calculated based on the best check hybrids and Indian commercial hybrids. The hybrids showed significant differences for grain yields and days to silking in all the trials. Standard heterosis of the tested hybrids ranged from - 39.4 to 47.8%. Most of the hybrids showed positive standard heterosis for grain yield. Hybrids namely; RML- 4/NML-2, RML-6/RML-8, NML-1/RML-8 in 2006 and RML-57/RL-174, NML-1/RML-6 and RL-197/NML-2 in 2008 had more than15% standard heterosis for grain yield evaluated at NMRP, Rampur. Hybrid between RML- 4/NML-2 had only shown positive standard heterosis in 2007 at NMRP, Rampur. RML-4/NML-2, NML-1/RL-17 and RL-111/RL-189 were superior hybrids, which had >15% standard heterosis across NMRP, Rampur and at ARS, Belachapi, Janakpur in 2008. Seed production aspect of these selected hybrids should be studied to develop a complete package of practices for F1 hybrid seed production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7544 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.67-73
Reliability, Validity, Comparability and Practical Utility of Cybercrime-Related Data, Metrics, and Information
Nir Kshetri
Information , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/info4010117
Abstract: With an increasing pervasiveness, prevalence and severity of cybercrimes, various metrics, measures and statistics have been developed and used to measure various aspects of this phenomenon. Cybercrime-related data, metrics, and information, however, pose important and difficult dilemmas regarding the issues of reliability, validity, comparability and practical utility. While many of the issues of the cybercrime economy are similar to other underground and underworld industries, this economy also has various unique aspects. For one thing, this industry also suffers from a problem partly rooted in the incredibly broad definition of the term “cybercrime”. This article seeks to provide insights and analysis into this phenomenon, which is expected to advance our understanding into cybercrime-related information.
Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors
Ritesh Kshetri
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/04/P04008
Abstract: A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of gamma-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.
From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high gamma-energies
Ritesh Kshetri
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/12/P12007
Abstract: In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for gamma-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate method of calculating the peak-to-total ratio of other composite detectors, is shown. Experimental validation of our approach (for energies up to 8 MeV) has been confirmed considering the data of the SPI spectrometer. We have discussed about comparisons between various modes of operation and suppression cases. The present paper is the fifth in the series of papers on composite germanium detectors and for the first time discusses about the change in fold distribution and peak-to-total ratio for sophisticated detectors consisting of several modules of miniball, cluster and SPI detectors. Our work could provide a guidance in designing new composite detectors and in performing experimental studies with the existing detectors for high energy gamma-rays.
Online News Portals in Nepal: An Overview
Indra Dhoj Kshetri
Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.3126/bodhi.v2i1.2876
Abstract: DOI: 10.3126/bodhi.v2i1.2876
On-farm management and quality assessment of farmers’ saved wheat seed in the western Terai, Nepal
B Thapa Kshetri
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7542
Abstract: A study was conducted at Pakadi Village of Kapilbastu district, western Terai, Nepal in 2005 to find out the effect of on-farm seed management on the quality status of farmers’ saved wheat seed. A survey was conducted to collect required information about on-farm seed management by using pre-tested questionnaires as well as to collect wheat seed samples, which were produced under general, additional and standard management practices. Survey showed that most of the farmers fulfilled their seed demand through informal sources. Roguing was not common practices in the study site and majority of the farmers saved seed from the harvest which was used for consumption purpose as well. Also, majority of farmers used to store unknown quality of seed in local containers by adopting simple storage techniques, which were one of the major causes of seed deterioration in their condition. Except physical purity, other seed quality attributes such as germination, 1000 seed weight and genetic purity percentage were found highest in certified seed. However, vital seed quality attribute viz. germination percentage of certified seed produced under standard management practice was statistically at par with seed produced under additional management practice. Likewise, other crop mixed seed, varietal mixing; and percentage infection of diseases such as Bipolaris sorokiniana and Alternaria spp . were found minimum in certified seed produced under standard management, while those attributes were recorded in high amount for seed produced under general and additional management followed by farmers. It showed that on-farm seed management played a significant role for maintaining seed quality parameters except physical purity and weed mixture in the seed. It was concluded that high quality wheat seed could be produced under farmers' condition by adopting additional management system with treatment and processing of seed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7542 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.50-60
Use of Agency materials in broadsheet dailies of Nepal
Indra Dhoj Kshetri
Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/bodhi.v3i1.2811
Abstract: The increase in broadsheet dailies in Nepal after the liberalization of media market in 1990s marked the change in the media content - a shift from earlier mission journalism to professionalism. Consequently, international news became the important feature of the dailies. Now, each Nepalese broadsheet daily has at least one page for the coverage of the international news obtained mainly through the news agencies: AP and AFP. In addition, large portion of sports, entertainment and biz stories come from these agencies. The corpus is enough to hint the importance of agency news. However, the subject matter has attracted very few researchers in Nepal. Only two studies are found on foreign news coverage in Nepali media (Adhikary, 2002, December 11; Kshetri, 2006). Acknowledging Nepali media's effort to localize and present separate but related news stories on few instances, Adhikary observes, "the general trend in presenting international news in Nepali media is just copying news stories from international agencies." The latter study, based on one week's frequency and breadth of international news in Nepali broadsheet dailies (in a particular week after US invasion in Iraq), found that the news from there made almost 70% of the total coverage of the international news. In this study, I incorporate larger corpus and analyze the finding using the concept advanced by Franklin (2005), and discuss if the result, in anyway, can be taken as a prospect for McJournalism. DOI: 10.3126/bodhi.v3i1.2811 Bodhi Vol.3(1) 2009 p.44-52
National seed legislation: Harmonization with international treaties and conventions
B Thapa Kshetri
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9016
Abstract: Government of Nepal (GoN) started seed legislation by framing different acts such as Seed Act, 1988 (2045), Seed Regulation 1997(2054) and Seed Policy, 1999 (2056) to regulate seed and seed related issues. Some of these acts have been amended and redrafted according to needs. During this period, GoN, became a contracting party to Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), 1992 and International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), 2001. It also signed the Cartagena Protocol, 2000 and received the member of WTO in 2004. In these treaties and convention, Nepal has made commitments in international forum to provide plant variety protection with protecting the rights of farmers and related stakeholders on seed to establish sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures for bio-safety. In this context, it is necessary to reframe the national seed legislations in order to remove its present legal complications and to harmonize it with international treaties and conventions.
The use of oxygen consumption as an indicator of energy assimilation in full sib groups of rainbow trout
JB Kinghorn
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1980, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-12-4-422c
Abstract:
The effect of ACTH on parturition as defence mechanism stimulator in sows
JB Ludvigsen
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1982, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-14-1-99a
Abstract:
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