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Biophysical and socio-economic tools for assessing soil fertility: A case of western hills, Nepal
BP Tripathi, JE Jones
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7536
Abstract: The middle mountain region of Nepal, which occupies some 30% of the total land, is the homeland of 45% of the total population, with agriculture being the main source of their livelihoods. Hill farming is primarily based on organic manure with livestock, forest and crops being major components of an integrated system. The aim of this study is to develop and promote improved methods for research and development organizations to identify cost-effective and appropriate soil fertility management strategies through; providing an improved understanding of the biophysical and socio-economic factors affecting the adaptability of sustainable soil management strategies in hillside systems, developing methodologies for evaluating soil fertility technologies and management systems for differently resource farmers in different farming systems, and strengthening the capability of local professionals in collaborating institutions to provide useful information to farmers. The work is placing emphasis on promoting cost-effective methods of soil fertility management, building on farmers' own knowledge and systems. Participatory techniques have been used for gaining a better understanding of fertility indicators, trends and existing soil management practices during 2000/01 in the western hills of Nepal. Farmers are now concerned that increasing amounts of chemical fertilizer at increasingly higher cost have to be applied, soils are becoming “harder” and production is declining. As a result farmers in four agro-ecological zones opted to either test methods for “improving” the quality of farm yard manure (FYM), or “improve” crop residue management. Early results show that through covering the FYM with black plastic sheets, yield increases of over 30% can be achieved. The use of participatory farm management techniques is providing a basis for local NGOs and farmers to evaluate their own experiments and develop soil fertility technologies and systems for their environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7536 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.1-9
A worldwide correlation of lactase persistence phenotype and genotypes
Yuval Itan, Bryony L Jones, Catherine JE Ingram, Dallas M Swallow, Mark G Thomas
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-36
Abstract: We used surface interpolation of Old World lactase persistence genotype and phenotype frequency estimates obtained from all available literature and perform a comparison between predicted and observed trait frequencies in continuous space. By accommodating additional data on sample numbers and known false negative and false positive rates for the various lactase persistence phenotype tests (blood glucose and breath hydrogen), we also apply a Monte Carlo method to estimate the probability that known lactase persistence-associated allele frequencies can explain observed trait frequencies in different regions.Lactase persistence genotype data is currently insufficient to explain lactase persistence phenotype frequency in much of western and southern Africa, southeastern Europe, the Middle East and parts of central and southern Asia. We suggest that further studies of genetic variation in these regions should reveal additional nucleotide variants that are associated with lactase persistence.An estimated 65% of human adults (and most adult mammals) downregulate the production of intestinal lactase after weaning. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose, the main carbohydrate in milk [1], and without it, milk consumption can lead to bloating, flatulence, cramps and nausea [2]. Continued production of lactase throughout adult life (lactase persistence, LP) is a genetically determined trait and is found at moderate to high frequencies in Europeans and some African, Middle Eastern and Southern Asian populations (see Additional File 1 and Figure 1).The most frequently used non-invasive methods for identifying the presence of intestinal lactase are based upon detecting digestion products of lactose produced by the subject (Blood Glucose, BG) or gut bacteria (Breath Hydrogen, BH). For both methods a lactose load is administered to the subject following an overnight fast. In individuals producing lactase this leads to a detectable increase in blood glucose. In individua
Genetic islands of Streptococcus agalactiae strains NEM316 and 2603VR and their presence in other Group B Streptococcal strains
Mark A Herbert, Catriona JE Beveridge, David McCormick, Emmelien Aten, Nicola Jones, Lori AS Snyder, Nigel J Saunders
BMC Microbiology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-5-31
Abstract: Side-by-side comparison of the strain NEM316 and strain 2603VR genomes revealed that they are extremely similar, with the only major difference being the capsulation loci and mobile genetic elements. PCR and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH) were used to define the presence of each island in 39 GBS isolates. Only islands I, VI, XII, and possibly X, met criteria of a true pathogenicity island, but no significant correlation was found between the presence of any of the fourteen islands and whether the strains were invasive or colonizing. Possible associations were seen between the presence of island VI and late-onset sepsis, and island X and early-onset sepsis, which warrant further investigation.The NEM316 and 2603VR strains are remarkable in that their whole genome sequences are so similar, suggesting that the capsulation loci or other genetic differences, such as pathogenicity islands, are the main determinants of the propensity of serotype III strains to cause late-onset disease. This study supports the notion that GBS strain NEM316 has four putative pathogenicity islands, but none is absolutely necessary for disease causation, whether early- or late-onset sepsis. Mobile genetic elements are a common feature of GBS isolates, with each strain having its own peculiar burden of transposons, phages, integrases and integrated plasmids. The majority of these are unlikely to influence the disease capacity of an isolate. Serotype associated disease phenotypes may thus be solely related to differences in the capsulation loci.Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram positive, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is the most common cause of neonatal and obstetric sepsis, and is an increasingly important cause of septicaemia in elderly and immunocompromised patients [1]. Serotype III GBS causes approximately 37% of early-onset and 67% of late-onset neonatal GBS sepsis (compared with 13% and 5%, respectively, caused by serotype V), and is the predom
Mouse models of human breast cancer: evolution or convolution?
JE Green
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr660
Abstract:
Identifying and assessing women at high risk for breast cancer
JE Garber
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2262
Abstract: Testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast ovarian cancer susceptibility genes has become part of the established care of breast cancer patients. Genetic information from BRCA1/2 testing is used to help healthy at-risk women to avoid breast and/or ovarian cancer, and ultimately to avoid death from those cancers. Data accumulated over the past decade have provided evidence that breast cancer surveillance can be improved with the addition of breast MRI, that prophylactic oophorectomy substantially reduces the risk of ovarian cancer and, when performed before menopause, can reduce the risk of breast cancer as well, and that prophylactic mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by more than 90%.It has been observed that approximately 80% of BRCA1-associated breast cancers are negative for ER, PR and HER2 (so-called triple negative) and cluster with basal-like breast cancers by DNA microarray, while 80% of BRCA2-associated breast cancers are ER+ and PR+, but HER2 negative, and luminal. These data are surprising given the close relationships between these genes in their DNA repair activities, and raise some concern that hormonal interventions will not successfully reduce the risk of BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Other strategies may be necessary to reduce breast cancer risk for this group.Genetic information has been shown to have important implications for women with breast cancer as well. Women with strong family histories of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and women diagnosed before age 40 may consider testing at the time of breast cancer diagnosis if they would use the information to make treatment decisions. Some women choose bilateral mastectomies over breast-conserving treatment if they learn that their risk of second primary breast cancer exceeds 50%, and if their prognosis from the original breast cancer is good. Some women opt for oophorectomy as part of the management of their ER+ breast cancer if they are premenopausal mutation carriers (and coul
Diagnóstico del carcinoma escamoso de la mucosa bucal: reporte de 5 casos
Baudo,JE;
Avances en Odontoestomatología , 2005, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-12852005000400005
Abstract: it is certain that the cancer buccal cause an important number of deaths at world level. the cancer invasivo can remain long time low changes macroscopic unspecific, the biopsy only allows its diagnosis. the more used technique is the routine with hematoxylin - eosin, at the moment is added to the same others that contribute to clarify the diagnosis, for example the inmunohistoquímica that will determine the stock of a neoplasia in many cases.
Cafeiculture et projet theicole: Complementarite ou conflict?
JE Nodem
African Anthropologist , 2003,
Abstract:
Choice and Application of Marketing Strategies of Selected Book Publishers in Nigeria
JE Akpane
Information Manager (The) , 2008,
Abstract: The study was designed to identity the type of marketing strategies employed by book publishers in Nigeria, the criteria for the choice and application of marketing strategies, being used to reach each segment of the market. The survey research method was adopted for the study. Forty market managers and 60 sales representatives drawn from selected publishing houses in Nigeria were sampled. The instruments used for gathering data were questionnaire, interviews and documentary sources. Data gathered were analysed descriptively using tables and percentages. The study results indicated that book publishers in Nigeria employ various marketing strategies which contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives. However, in order to boost book trade, the opening of book depots in the rural areas, publishers to pool their resources together to stimulate mass production, the granting of credit facilities and the reduction of import duties on printing materials by government, were recommended in the study.
New Testament Textual Criticism is dead! Long live New Testament Textual Criticism!
JE Botha
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2007,
Abstract: This article explores the notion that some of the basic assumptions upon which textual criticism is built, like the quest for an “original text”, have serious flaws and that much of what has been attempted the last 300 years is actually an exercise in futility. In this sense New Testament textual criticism can be declared dead. However, textual criticism, if viewed from a different perspective, can indeed be reimagined to make a fresh and important contribution to New Testament scholarship. HTS Theological Studies Vol. 63 (2) 2007: pp. 560-573
Exploring issues around Biblical, Western and African social values
JE Botha
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2007,
Abstract: This article explores the differences and similarities between the social value systems of the New Testament, the West and Africa. While it is acknowledged that the categories “The New Testament”, the “West” and “Africa”, are very broad general categories, it is possible to distinguish between them at a certain level of abstraction. It is shown that Biblical social values and traditional African social values are much closer to each other than they are to Western social values. This has enormous implications for the practising of theology and for the interpreting and use of Biblical texts. HTS Theological Studies Vol. 63 (1) 2007: pp. 147-169
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