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Economics of potato (Solanum tuberosum L) production in Taplejung district of Nepal
KP Timsina, K Kafle, S Sapkota
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7533
Abstract: Potato is staple crop of high hills in Nepal. It is one of the important crops to address food insecurity in the country. A study on economics of potato production was conducted in Fungling, Dokhu, Nangkholang and Hangdewa VDCs of Taplejung district in September 2010. Altogether 180 potato producers from 13 farmers’ group, which received the membership of Commercial Agriculture Alliance (CAA), were taken as sample of the study by using purposive sampling technique. The regression analysis showed that income from potato has significant contribution (P<0.01) to total income from High Value crops (HVCs). Around 90 percent farmers in the study area were using improved varieties of potato seed such as Desiree, Kufrijoti and Cardinal. The correlation between lowland and upland growers was weakly related (r= 0.18). Average area per household for potato production and its productivity was found 0.75 Ropani and 844 Kg/Ropani, respectively. The cost of production per Kg potato was NRs. 7.3. Means of transportation to district headquarter was by human labor and its cost ranged from NRs. 2-5 per Kg. The transportation cost from Taplejung to Birtamod market was found in between NRs 4-6 depending upon season. Gross margin of potato per Ropani was NRs.15504 and the benefit cost ratio was 2.9.The highest average price of potato (NRs. 32.5 per Kg) at Birtamod wholesale market at nearby terai was found in September to October, whereas the highest average price of potato (NRs. 38.7 per Kg) at Taplejung market was found in May to June. Findings revealed that access to collection centre, credit facilities, storage facilities and weak backward and forward linkage were the major problems in the study area, whereas suitability of climate, availability of improved technology, improving access to road, and communication were the major strengths for potato production in the district. Findings indicated that there was a high potentiality of commercial potato production and ensuring food security in Taplejung district, however, it will be necessary to suitably adjust by creating time and place utility in future. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7533 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.173-181
Neural Decompression by Laminectomy with Spinoplasty for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
RK Pokharel,K Kafle,RL Pradhan,LL Shah
Nepal Orthopaedic Association Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/noaj.v1i1.8127
Abstract: BACKGROUND Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the common morbid conditions of adult population. Surgical intervention is recommended if conservative treatment is not effective. Aim of the surgery is to decompress neural tissues and it may vary from simple unilateral foraminotomy or laminotomy to multilevel bilateral laminectomy. Conventional laminectomy violates posterior stability and foraminotomy limits access to the neural tissues. Different techniques have been developed for adequate decompression with preservation of posterior stabilizing structures. METHODS Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis in 22 cases was treated by laminectomy with spinous process osteotomy and re-positioning during October 2007 to August 2009. All cases had back pain with radicular pain and intermittent neurogenic claudication. Average age of the cases was 49.5 years and the average duration of symptom was 7 months. Conservative treatment was tried for 4 months. Average follow up period was 2.5 months. RESULTS Post operatively 82% of the cases were satisfied. There was no radicular pain and intermittent claudication in all cases. Persistence of back pain and numbness in lower limbs was common complaints of majority of the cases. CONCLUSION “Laminectomy with spinous process osteotomy and re-positioning” technique easily decompresses lumbar spinal stenosis with preservation of posterior osteo-ligamentous structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/noaj.v1i1.8127 Nepal Orthopaedic Association Journal Vol.1(1) 2010
Phytochemical studies and in vitro activity of Asparagus racemosus
Arjun Kafle,Surya K Kalauni,Mangala Devi Manandhar
Journal of Nepal Pharmaceutical Association , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jnpa.v26i1.6632
Abstract: Phytochemical and biological screening of root of Asparagus racemosus was studied. The brine shrimp bioassay of its various extracts showed that the methanol (MeOH) extract was biologically active. The column chromatography of hexane, acetone and methanol extracts resulted in the isolation of 9- hexadecanoic acid-9-octadecenylester (Z,Z), ?-Sitosterol, stigmasterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and diosgenin. The estimation of saponin in the root of Asparagus racemosus has also been carried out.
Review on Research and Conservation of Otters in Nepal
Gandhiv Kafle
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 2009,
Abstract: Three species of otters, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), the Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) and the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) have been recorded in Nepal. Baseline information on otters is not available for the majority of wetland sites within the country. Freshwater ecosystems, the preferred habitat for otters, are adversely affected by both human and natural causes. This paper provides an overview of research on otters in Nepal to date, the key findings and the ways forward.
Otters in Nepal: Urgent Need for Action!
Gandhiv Kafle
Journal of Wetlands Ecology , 2008, DOI: 10.3126/jowe.v1i1.1564
Abstract: No abstract. DOI: 10.3126/jowe.v1i1.1564 Journal of Wetlands Ecology Vol.1(1/2) 2008, p.1
Book Review: Diseases of Ear, Nose and Throat by Mohan Bansal
P Kafle
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jkmc.v2i1.10557
Abstract: Not available.? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jkmc.v2i1.10557 Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, Vol. 2, No. 1, Issue 3, Jan.-Mar., 2013 Page: 41
Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear solver
Bishoksan Kafle
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Developing an efficient non-linear Horn clause solver is a challenging task since the solver has to reason about the tree structures rather than the linear ones as in a linear solver. In this paper we propose an incremental approach to solving a set of non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation and a linear solver. The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to trees corresponding to Horn clause derivations. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity -- for example a linear tree (whose nodes have at most one child) has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. A given set of Horn clauses $P$ can be transformed into a new set of clauses $P^k$ (whose derivation trees are the subset of $P$'s derivation trees with dimension at most $k$). We start by generating $P^k$ with $k=0$, which is linear by definition, then pass it to a linear solver. If $P^k$ has a solution $M$, and is a solution to $P$ then $P$ has a solution $M$. If $M$ is not a solution of $P$, we plugged $M$ to $P^{(k+1)}$ which again becomes linear and pass it to the solver and continue successively for increasing value of $k$ until we find a solution to $P$ or resources are exhausted. Experiment on some Horn clause verification benchmarks indicates that this is a promising approach for solving a set of non-linear Horn clauses using a linear solver. It indicates that many times a solution obtained for some under-approximation $P^k$ of $P$ becomes a solution for $P$ for a fairly small value of $k$.
Competing Risks Analysis of African American Breast Cancer Patients  [PDF]
Minh H. Pham, Ram C. Kafle
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2017.61003
Abstract: Purpose: Recent studies showed that African Americans (AA) breast cancer patients experience lower survival than any other race. The knowledge of cause-specific survival of such patients is necessary to investigate the different factors associated with the disease and support the clinical practice. Methods: The parametric competing risk method is applied to build up the survival models and the parametric mixture model is used to study the overall survival of these patients. The Kaplan-Meier survival estimation is also computed to compare the results. Results: The overall death rate decreases sharply immediately after the diagnosis and increases thereafter. The risk of death from breast cancer itself is the highest at the first five years; other causes, however, pose more threats to patients after this period. The patients who received only surgery have higher survival rate in long run. The use of radiation only does not have the significant effect on patients’ survival. Conclusion: Our study shows that the parametric competing risk models are promising in estimating the cause-specific survival of AA breast cancer patients and can be used for clinical practice. We also observed that heart and other diseases pose more threat to breast cancer patients in the long run.
Cellular Localization of Gold and Mechanisms of Gold Resistance in Rhodobacter sphaeroides  [PDF]
Hannah Johnson, Ram C. Kafle, Madhusudan Choudhary
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.78047
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem with many associated health risks, including bone loss, kidney damage, and several forms of cancer. There is a great need of bioremediation of these toxic metals from the environment, as well as implementing a monitoring system to control the spreading pollution. This study focuses on the bioremediation potential of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in the presence of the toxic gold chloride (AuCl3). Growth characteristics of the bacterial cells exposed to a range of toxic gold concentrations were analyzed through the growth kinetics and the colony forming units under aerobic, photosynthetic, and anaerobic growth conditions. The localization of the gold particles within two cellular fractions, cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, are analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results of this study demonstrated the photosynthetic growth condition as best suited for the metal tolerance, compared to the aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Results also revealed the overall accumulation and localization of gold particles, while not different between the membrane and the cytoplasmic fractions increased at different concentrations of the gold contamination. The results of the localization under photosynthetic growth condition revealed the accumulation reached the highest very quickly, and an overall shift in localization of the gold particles from an equal distribution to an increase within the membrane fraction at the highest concentrations of gold contamination. The localization of the gold particles was validated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) where the results confirmed the increase in accumulation within the membrane, and photosynthetic membranes, of R. sphaeroides.
Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach for Flood Risk and Sediment Management in Koshi Alluvial Fan, Nepal  [PDF]
Mukesh Raj Kafle, Narendra Man Shakya
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.106034
Abstract: This paper presents the results of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for flood risk and sediment management in dynamic alluvial fan. The study is based on real problems of Koshi River, Nepal. Criteria weighting for each measure were estimated using Entropy, AHP and AHP-Entropy techniques. Preference ranking of alternatives was prioritized using MCDM methods—ELECTRE, TOPSIS and SAW. Five alternate measures for flood risk management and eight alternate measures for sediment control with seven evaluation criteria comprising economic, social, environmental and political aspects were taken into account. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the criteria weighting techniques AHP and AHP-Entropy, Entropy and AHP-Entropy and AHP with Entropy were 0.964, 0.429 and 0.321 respectively. Preference ranks were determined using nine combinations of criteria weighting techniques and preference ranking methods. In the case of flood risk management, using of old Koshi channel was recommended as the highest prioritized solution. Similarly, for sediment control, reduction of upstream sediment supply was recommended as the top prioritized measures. The Euclidean distance test for each pairs of criteria weighting and prioritization methods showed all three MCDM methods of preference ranking were sensitive to weighting. On implementation of the recommended measures, local people of Sunsari, Saptari and Morang districts of Nepal will be highly benefited.
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