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Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil Moisture  [PDF]
Vanita Pandey, Pankaj K. Pandey
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.12012
Abstract: The characterization of temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture is highly relevant for understanding the many hydrological processes, to model the processes better and to apply them to conservation planning. Considerable variability in space and time coupled with inadequate and uneven distribution of irrigation water results in uneven yield in an area Spatial and temporal variability highly affect the heterogeneity of soil water, solute transport and leaching of chemicals to ground water. Spatial variability of soil moisture helps in mapping soil properties across the field and variability in irrigation requirement. While the temporal variability of water content and infiltration helps in irrigation management, the temporal correlation structure helps in forecasting next irrigation. Kriging is a geostatistical technique for interpolation that takes into account the spatial auto-correlation of a variable to produce the best linear unbiased estimate. The same has been used for data interpolation for the C. T. A. E. Udaipur India. These interpolated data were plotted against distance to show variability between the krigged value and observed value. The range of krigged soil moisture values was smaller than the observed one. The goal of this study was to map layer-wise soil moisture up to 60 cm depth which is useful for irrigation planning.
SIMO Transadmittance Mode Active-C Universal Filter  [PDF]
Neeta Pandey, Sajal K. Paul
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2010.12009
Abstract: This paper presents two transadmittance mode universal filters having single voltage input and multiple current outputs. The filter employs three multiple output current controlled conveyors (MOCCCII) and two grounded capacitors. It can realize low pass, high pass, band pass, notch and all pass responses. As desired, the input voltage signal is inserted at high impedance input terminal and the output currents are obtained at high impedance output terminals and hence eases cascadability. The filter enjoys low sensitivity performance and low component spread; and exhibits electronic and orthogonal tunability of filter parameters via bias currents of MOCCCII. SPICE simulation results confirm the workability of the proposed structure.
Modeling crop land soil moisture and impacts of supplimental irrigaiton in a rainfed region of Bangladesh  [PDF]
Pramod K. Pandey, Sagor Biswas
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.31B004
Abstract:

A robust water balance model has been tested for predicting soil moisture levels and supplemental irrigation requirement of a rainfed region of Bangladesh. The predictions were used for improving the understanding of the impacts of rainwater harvesting on rainfed agriculture. The climate data (i.e., rainfall, temperature, evaporation, and evapotranspiration) were used as inputs for predicting the variations in soil moisture. Soil moisture levels under rainfed and supplementary irrigation conditions were compared. Results showed that rainwater harvesting i.e., rain water storage tanks during rainy seasons can be potentially useful for storing rainwater, which can be utilized for enhancing crop land soil moisture during dry seasons for enhancing crop yield. The study presented here will be useful for improving and disseminating rainwater harvesting approaches for enhancing water availability in rainfed regions.

Oxidative Stress Responsive SERK1 Gene Directs the Progression of Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 310)  [PDF]
Dhananjay K. Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51012
Abstract:

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a prominent mode of regeneration in plants. The acquisition of SE is predominantly invoked by the oxidative stress which plays an important role in signal transduction and cellular redox. Since balanced generation of oxidants is important to cellular differentiation, modulation in cell redox could be responsive to genotypic refinement for SE. To study the dynamics of cellular redox during SE, we conducted comparative expression analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), using two independently purified near-isogenic lines for the trait of SE. We interrogated expression changes in cell-signaling factor Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (SERK) and activity of antioxidant Glutathione in different developmental stages including cotyledonary leaf, calli from different stages of regeneration of fully-regenerating (FR) and non-regenerating (NR) lines of Coker310 cultivar. At evolutionary scale, the cotton SERKs showed high sequence similarity in receptor kinase domain with diverse systems. Exclusively, SERK1 responsible for potential signaling processes during SE revealed significant expression up-regulation in the embryogenic calli of FR line. Similarly, activity of antioxidant glutathione was substantially up-regulated in embryogenic calli of FR line in comparison to its counterpart form. In contrast, calli from early-stages of regeneration of both FR and NR lines had no significant influences on the regulation of SERK and glutathione levels prior to the acquisition of embryogenesis. These results highlight that in vitro purification of FR line in cotton for enhanced regeneration potential (through SE) resulted in signaling and metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

A Botanist’s Cognitive View on Plant Growth: Cross-Talk between Developmental and Sensitivity Networks  [PDF]
Dhananjay K. Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.715203
Abstract: An alteration in plant phenotypes assisted by their responses to the environmental stimuli (=tropism) has been fundamental to understand the “plant sensitivity ” that plays a crucial role in plants’ adaptive success. Plants succeed through the deployment of moderators controlling polar auxin-transport determining organ bending. Stimulus-specific effectors can be synthesized by the outer peripheral cells at the bending sites where they target highly conserved cellular processes and potentially persuade the plant sensitivity at large. Remarkably, the peripheral cells require different time-intervals to achieve the threshold expression-levels of stimulus-specific molecular responders. After stimulus perception, tropic curvatures (especially at growing root-apices) are duly coordinated via integrated chemical and electrical signalling which is the key to cellular communications. Thus, the acquired phenotypic alterations are the perplexed outcome of plant’s developmental pace, complemented by the sensitivity. A novel aspect of this study is to advance our understanding of plant developmental-programming and the extent of plant-sensitivity, determining the plant growth and their future applications.
Solution of Electrohydrodynamic Flow Equation Using an Orthogonal Collocation Method Based on Mixed Interpolation  [PDF]
Shruti Tiwari, Ram K. Pandey
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2018.63050
Abstract: In this Paper, we have proposed a new weighted residual method known as orthogonal collocation-based on mixed interpolation (OCMI). Mixed interpolation uses the classical polynomial approximation with two correction terms given in the form of sine and cosine function. By these correction terms, we can control the error in the solution. We have applied this approach to a non-linear boundary value problem (BVP) in ODE which governs the electrohydrodynamic flow in a cylindrical conduit. The solution profiles shown in the figures are in good agreement with the work of Paullet (1999) and Ghasemi et al. (2014). Our solution is monotonic decreasing and satisfies \"\", where, α governs the strength of non-linearity and for large values of α solutions are \"\". The residual errors are given in Table 1 and Table 2 which are significantly small. Comparison of residual errors between our proposed method, Least square method and Homotopy analysis method is also given and shown via the Tabl
Stochastic Modelling of Actual Black Gram Evapotranspiration  [PDF]
Pankaj K. PANDEY, Vanita PANDEY, RajVir SINGH, S. R. BHAKAR
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.16054
Abstract: The study was undertaken to develop and evaluate evapotranspiration model for black gram (Vigna Mungo L.) crop under climatic conditions of Udaipur, India. Pan evaporation data for the duration of twenty three years (1978-2001) and measured black gram evapotranspiration data by electronic lysimeter for duration of kharif season of 2001 were used for analysis. Black gram is an important crop of Udaipur region. No sys-tematic study on modelling of black gram evapotranspiration was conducted in past under above said cli-matic conditions. Therefore, stochastic model was developed for the estimation of daily black gram evapotranspiration using 24 years data. Validation of the developed models was done by the comparison of the estimated values with the measured values. The developed stochastic model for black gram evapotran-spiration was found to predict the daily black gram evapotranspiration very accurately.
CADMIUM MONITORING AMONG SOME PLANT AND VEGETABLE SPECIES IN SINGRAULI REGION OF MADHYA PRADESH
Sunil K. Pandey* and Rajesh Pandey
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Thermal power plants produce enormous quantity of pollutants such as fly ash as a by - product of combustion of coal or any pulverized fuel at higher temperature. Industrial effluents contain several heavy metals including cadmium distrusted the metabolic process of living organism due to easily dispersion and mobilization in environment. The eatables and applicable potential plants and vegetables altered by Cadmium and concern derivatives which directly and indirectly posing severe risks to human health which, extremely toxic even in low concentration, and will bioaccumulate in organisms and ecosystems. Interest has therefore risen in its bio hazardous potential. Present study deals on monitoring or current status of cadmium in certain plant and common vegetable species in singrauli region, resulted indication were observed an alarming situation in Singrauli region of India.
Efficacy of Bacterial Adaptation on Copper Biodissolution from a Low Grade Chalcopyrite Ore by A. ferrooxidans  [PDF]
. Abhilash, K. D. Mehta, Bansi D. Pandey
International Journal of Nonferrous Metallurgy (IJNM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijnm.2012.11001
Abstract: A low-grade ore containing ~0.3% Cu, remains unutilized for want of a viable process at Malanjkhand Copper Project (MCP), India in which copper is present as chalcopyrite associated with pyrite in quartz veins and granitic rocks. In order to extract copper from this material, bioleaching has been attempted on bench scale using Acidithiobacillus fer-rooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) isolated from the native mine water. The enriched culture containing A. ferrooxidans when adapted to the ore and employed for the bioleaching at 5% (w/v) pulp density, pH 2.0 and 25°C with three particle sizes viz.150 -76 μm, 76 - 50 μm and <50 μm, resulted in recovery of 38.31%, 29.68% and 47.5% Cu respectively with a maximum rise in redox potential (ESCE) from 530 to 654 mV in 35 days. Under similar conditions, the unadapted strains gave a recovery of 44.0% for <50 μm size particles with a rise in ESCE from 525 to 650 mV. On using unadapted bacte-rial culture directly in shake flask at pH 2.0 and 35°C temperature and 5% (w/v) pulp density (PD) for <50 μm size par-ticles, 72% Cu bio-dissolution was achieved in 35 days. Copper biorecovery increased to 75.3% under similar condi-tions with a rise in bacterial count from 1 × 107 cells/mL to 1.13 × 109 cells/mL in 35 days. The higher bio-recovery of copper with the adapted bacterial culture may be attributed to the improved iron oxidation (Fe2+ to Fe3+) exhibiting higher ESCE as compared to that of unadapted strains.
Differential inoculation techniques of Colletotrichum acutatum on different part of pepper
K.K. PANDEY*
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to test the differential infectivity of Colletotrichum acutatum by inoculating different plant parts of pepper (Capsicum annum) on six different varieties. The conidial concentration 1x106 per ml from five days old culture was used for artificial inoculation. Inoculation of leaves showed infection as hypersensitive reaction in most of the varieties. The lesion size on twigs varied from 2.0 to 9.6 mm at cent percent infection site. Severity was much more pronounced on vertical inoculated twigs with complete rotting in comparison to horizontal inoculation. On fruits, lesions were more prominent and clear on pinpricked fruits than apical cut fruits. Petal infection started showing symptoms as yellowish brown followed by orange brown with dry rotting. PBC-932-6-6-1 was having maximum resistance against disease in comparison to other varieties. The findings indicate that C. acutatum can infect all above plant parts on challenge inoculation. However, the degree of infectivity depends on differential resistance response of varieties and methods of inoculation. Inoculation on vertical cut end of stem was best technique for creating die-back infection while surface inoculation was best initiating anthracnose infection which can be successfully utilized for quick screening and to study relation between dieback and anthracnose.
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