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SEPARATION OF FRACTIONS FROM VACUUM RESIDUE BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACION
Parra,Martha-Josefina; León,Adan-Yovani; Hoyos,Luis-Javier;
CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro , 2010,
Abstract: the instituto colombiano del petróleo (icp), has implemented a methodology for separating vacuum residue fractions using the technique of supercritical fluid extraction at the pilot scale. the present study evaluates the efficiency of extraction of fractions of a typical vacuum residue in the barrancabermeja refinery. the extraction test was carried out with n-hexane under supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure of the 265°c in the range from 450 to 1250 psi, respectively. finally, each of the fractions were analyzed for their density, viscosity, sulfur content, conradson carbon residue (ccr) content, sara compositional analysis, and metals.
Maxwell Equations with Accounting of Tensor Properties of Time
Vlokh R.,Kvasnyuk O.
Ukrainian Journal of Physical Optics , 2007,
Abstract: The Maxwell equations with accounting for tensors properties of time have been considered. The effects that follow from such consideration are described. These are the appearance of vacuum polarization, anisotropy of electromagnetic wave velocity in vacuum, anisotropy of the vacuum dielectric permittivity, rotation of light polarization plane, as well as the existence of longitudinal components of electromagnetic wave and the rotational (non-potential) component of electric field caused by electric charges.
Does CDW Physics Allow Ultra Fast Transitions, and Current vs. Applied Electric Field Values as Seen in Alaboratory Setting?  [PDF]
Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2014.42003
Abstract: We reference the tunneling Hamiltonian to have particle tunneling among different states represented as wave-functions. Our problem applies wave-functionals to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems where we consider tunneling among states that are wave-functionals of a scalar quantum field, i.e. derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wave-functionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both wave-functionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine-Gordon physical system are picked by topological charge arguments that appear to assign values consistent with the false vacuum hypothesis. Crucial results by Fred Cooper et al. allow a mature quantum foam interpretation of false vacuum nucleation for further refinement of our wave-functional results. In doing so, we give credence to topological arguments as a first order phase transition in CDW I-E curves.
A Method of Luminiferous Ether Registration  [PDF]
Alexander I. Korolev
Open Access Library PrePrints (OALib PrePrints) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.preprints.1200125
Abstract: The paper draws attention to the importance of the notion “luminiferous ether” in physics. There is a proposed method to register its flows generated by natural cosmic movements or created artificially. The work presents the results of ether wind searching with a prototype of the proposed installation located at the altitude of <30 m above sea level. Ether flows with speeds > 20 km/s are not found, which is consistent with the results of previous experiments.
Structure Mechanism of Ordinary Matter Mass Formation  [PDF]
Sergey N. Golubev
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.79079
Abstract: The famous paradoxes of quantum mechanics are created by the fact that elementary particles exist as the alternation between two structural states with different properties. This leads to probabilistic behavior, uncertainty principle, quantum tunneling, etc. The alternation of states plays the role of the frequency generator or clock. But for the objective character of quantum interactions the length standard also should exist in nature. Such analog of the rule must be physically real and in direct sense have to participate in the of particles interactions. Just this is the main role of physical vacuum. For such role vacuum should have quasi-crystalline geometry structure. Its symmetry requires in standard views only one fundamental change. In the quasicrystalline structure of the vacuum, the virtual shells of the real particles and atomic nuclei are not diffuse “clouds”, as is assumed today. Virtual environments are clearly structured and rigidly quantised shells with the geometric structure similar to fullerenes. Such shells are forming for greater than 99% of the known substance mass. Virtual particles forming such shells belong to the group of bosons and probably are just Higgs bosons existing in the ordinary matter. Chemical fullerenes form a series of discrete geometric structures. In a similar manner virtual analogues of fullerenes form a series of discrete masses, which really exist in the nature as a set of elementary particles and atomic nuclei masses.
The Natural Law of Transition of a Charged Particle into a Compound State under the Action of an Electroscalar Field  [PDF]
Oleg Antonovich Zaimidoroga
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.715190
Abstract: This article is the continuation of article [1] where the experimental facts of observation of the electroscalar radiation in the spectrum of the Sun have been presented [2]. This radiation comes into the world having a long wavelength, being longitudinal and extraordinarily penetrating. In accordance with the principle of least action, the Lagrangian of the electroscalar field and the tensor of energy-moment are determined using the variation the potential and coordinates. The equation of motion the charged particle in electroscalar field is determined and the energy of particle has the negative sign with respect to the mechanical energy of particle and the energy of electromagnetic field. So, this is decreasing the electrical potential of particle during the propagation. The electroscalar energy of charged particle and field’s force acting on the particle during their motion change the particle’s electrical status which, in its turn, may trigger the transition of the particle into a compound state during interaction with any object. Due to the continuity this process can lead the particle to the state which enters into a compound state with a negative energy for a different particle’s velocity. This state is the physical vacuum’s state. Analysis of the solar spectrum demonstrates that scattering and absorption of electroscalar wave go on the cavities of solids. The spreading out of electroscalar field obeys to the law of plane wave and the transfer the energy and information can occur in vacuum and any medium.
Derivation of Maxwell's Equations Based on a Continuum Mechanical Model of Vacuum and a Singularity Model of Electric Charges
Xiao-Song Wang
Progress in Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to seek a mechanical interpretation of electromagnetic phenomena. We suppose that vacuumis filled with a kind of continuously distributed material which may be called $Omega (1)$ substratum. Further, we speculate that the $Omega (1)$ substratum might behave like a fluid with respect to translational motion of large bodies through it, but would still posses elasticity to produce small transverse vibrations. Thus, we propose a visco-elastic constitutive relation of the $Omega (1)$ substratum. Furthermore, we speculate that electric charges are emitting or absorbing the $Omega (1)$ substratum continuously and establish a fluidic source and sink model of electric charges. Thus,Maxwell's equations in vacuum are derived by methods of continuum mechanics based on this mechanical model of vacuum and the singularity model of electric charges.
On the Independent Determination of the Ultimate Density of Physical Vacuum
Belyakov A. V.
Progress in Physics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we attempt to present physical vacuum as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface. This representation follows with J. A. Wheeler's idea about fluctuating topology, and provides a possibility to express some parameters of the unit space element through the fundamental constants. As a result, we determined the ultimate density of physical vacuum without use of Hubble's constant.
Protection Effect of Gold Nanoparticles Coated on Fruit and Vegetables Using PVD Method
Haleh Kangarlou,Sakine Shirvaliloo
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Gold particles can be real jewels, specially at the nano size they are in great demand by scientists. A field that has showed fast growth over the past decades is the use of gold nanoparticles in biology, or life sciences. The aim of this work was to use, physical method to deposit gold nanoparticles as a protection layer on the fruits and vegetables. There is no any report about direct and physical vapor deposition on fruits and vegetables yet. Gold nanolayers of 40 nano meter thickness were coated on one side of apple, cucumber, lettuce and tomato, by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method, in high vacuum condition at room temperature. Deposition angle of gold nanoparticles were vertical to all species. After coating we kept them in normal room temperature. Protection of gold nanolayers and time of these protections were investigated. Time length protection of gold nanoparticles has an increasing trend for apple, tomato, lettuce and cucumber.
System for High Throughput Water Extraction from Soil Material for Stable Isotope Analysis of Water  [PDF]
Timothy S. Goebel, Robert J. Lascano
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2012.24031
Abstract:

A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process multiple samples simultaneously is advantageous and necessary for ecological or hydrological investigations. Presented here is a vacuum distillation apparatus, having six ports, that can process up to 30 samples per day. The distillation system coupled with the Los Gatos Research DLT-100 Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer is capable of analyzing all of the samples that are generated by vacuum distillation. These two systems allow larger sampling rates making investigations into water movement through an ecological system possible at higher temporal and spatial resolution.

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