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Intercropping of chick pea and mustard on control of botrytis grey mold in western Terai, Nepal
R Khadka, S Joshi, RB Chaudhary
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9010
Abstract: Integrated management strategies are required to minimize botrytis grey mold disease of chickpea (CICER ARIETINUM L.) caused by Botrytis cineria. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of cultivars and seed ratio in chickpea-mustard intercropping system on the severity of botrytis grey mold. Three chickpea varieties Abarodhi, KGP59 and ICCCV 97207 were intercropped with Bikash variety of mustard in different combinations. These two crops were grown at RARS, Khajura in three replications in 2012 at the ratio of sole chickpea, 3.1 ICCV97207.Bikash, 3.1 KPG-59.Bikash, 2.1 KPG59.Bikash, 2.1 ICCV-97207.Bikash,2.2 ICCV97207.Bikash, 2.2 KPG- 59.Bikash,1.2 ICCV97207.Bikash, and 1.2 KPG 59.Bikash. Among the three tested varieties, highest disease score and AUDPC was recorded in Abarodhi (7.00, 0.83), followed by KPG59 (6.444, 0.79), and lowest in ICCV97207 (4.77, 0.58). Similarly in sole cropping, highest yield per plant was found in KPG59 (5.47g), followed by ICCCV9720 (4.46 g) and Abarodhi (3.46 g). Among the tested intercropping system, lowest disease incidence was recorded in 1.2 ICCV97207. Bikas followed by 1.2 KPG59. Bikash. From this research, it can be suggested that intercropping chickpea with mustard can significantly reduce BG of chickpea and thus it could be developed into an environment-friendly cropping system for BG control in chickpea fields. The combination, in which disease incidence was lowest, can be replicated in the areas where BG is a major constraint in chickpea production.
Health related quality of life of women suffering from Uterine Prolapse before and after six months of surgery  [PDF]
Anchala Chaudhary
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65051
Abstract:

One of the goals of health for everybody in 21st century is the improvement of quality of life. Thus, to find the best treatment for medical problems, it is not only enough to evaluate the results of interventions on morbidity and mortality in clinical studies, but also that the outcome of interventions in terms of socio-cultural aspect should be evaluated. Uterine Prolapse strikes at the heart of a woman’s sense of her own women nature and therefore her security along with her marital relationship should be guaranteed after the surgery process. After the removal of uterus women can’t find herself fulfilled though it is sick one as changes appear in women’s life both in understanding of her health as well as socio-cultural position that they gained after being as women. Many of the women who underwent surgery process are still suffering from both physical and psychological impairments. Some of them are experiencing psychological problem as they feel no longer a whole or real woman because of the removal of their reproductive organs, while others still had an orgasm from intercourse not just feeling dead. The changes to their sex life have created problem to them as they still struggle to cope with the loss they feel in their life as husbands always fed up as they argue with him. Such types of suffering and pain happen due to the socio-cultural circumstances in which a woman is brought up. They are seen as productive machine which had never been stopped though they are passing from pain and suffering. Thus, the overall issue of surgery process is to assure the quality of life of women to be them as a good wife and mother as well as good employer outside the home but before all this feeling of a whole womanhood in their life.

Impacts of Transnational Labor Migration on Learning Process: A Case Study of Nepalese Children and Women Staying Behind  [PDF]
Anchala Chaudhary
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.411007
Abstract:
Transnational migration has become an essential feature of family life in Nepal due to process of urbanization and globalization in every part of life. During this process, a network of social relationships takes place through which ideas, practices, and resources are exchanged and transformed between migrants and non-migrants. Migrants remit and support their sending households by remitting not only money but also new culture that he/she encounter in new place. This assist non migrants especially, the children and wife to demand high wages, access new opportunities such as education and better health care and reject the status quo. A wives staying behind has to be more responsible for not only to raise and educate their children but also manage their household’s chores and outside activities. In Nepal, the provision of education is embedded in the social structures and infused by cultural meanings which generally restrict women to participate more or less in formal education and move outside of home. Migration has provides ground for nurturing the women’s autonomy, self-esteem and role expansion as they started to participate in community based organizations (CBO’s), non-government organization (NGO) to learn some informal skill and knowledge such as stitching, embroidery, handicraft, and so on. Furthermore, these women are more responsible to provide better education to the children and managing the remittance. Thus, women’s staying behind has learned to manage not only economic and emotional limitations but also to organize and create new identities, alliances, space of self and communal empowerment.
Thermal Radiation Effects on MHD Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching Surface  [PDF]
Santosh Chaudhary, Sawai Singh, Susheela Chaudhary
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.62027
Abstract: The steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over an exponentially stretching surface in the presence of a uniform magnetic field with thermal radiation are investigated. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations by taking suitable similarity transformation and solved numerically by shooting method. The effects of various parameters such as magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, Prandtl number and Eckert number on local skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature distributions are computed and represented graphically.
On-demand sedation with propofol for colonoscopy—A prospective pilot study of the influence on short-term memory, psychomotor function and postural stability*  [PDF]
Mogens R?rb?k Madsen
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.33023
Abstract: Background: After sedated colonoscopy, patients are discharged on the basis of their subjective judgment that they have recovered, corroborated by the nursing staff. The aim of this study was to assess objectively whether patients were in fact fully recovered at the time of discharge, and to demonstrate whether the methods of testing applied could detect any influence of sedation on short-term memory, psychomotor function and postural stability. Methods: Twenty-two patients were investigated. At the beginning of the procedure, a defined bolus of propofol/alfentanil was given intravenously. During the procedure, an additional bolus was injected one or more times as requested by the patient. After colonoscopy, the patients stayed in the recovery room until the patients judged that they had recovered completely, which was also the judgement of the nursing staff at that time. Before colonoscopy and again before discharge, tests were performed of short-term memory, psychomotor function and postural stability (balance). Results: A positive correlation was found between the duration of colonoscopy and the amount of sedative given (p < 0.03). No differences in short-term memory or postural control were found when measurements obtained before and after colonoscopy were compared. Reaction time was prolonged significantly after colonoscopy (p < 0.01), which was mainly due to prolongation of perception time (p < 0.003). No correlation was found between the observed reduction in psychomotor function and the amount of sedative given. Conclusions: The introduction of ultrashort-acting sedative and hypnotic agents has facilitated out-patient colonoscopy. However, although they feel that they have recovered fully, some patients are still affected by the sedative at the time of discharge, as demonstrated by tests of short-term memory, reaction time and postural stability.
Titanium Elastic Nails for Pediatric Femur Fractures: Clinical and Radiological Study  [PDF]
Nishikant Kumar*, Laljee Chaudhary
Surgical Science (SS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2010.11003
Abstract: Background: Management of femoral diaphyseal fractures in the age group 616 years is controversial. There has been a resurgence worldwide for operative fixation. Material and methods: Twenty children (15 boys, 5 girls) aged 616 years with femoral diaphyseal fractures (20 fractures, one in each) were stabilized with Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN). Patients underwent surgery within ten days of their injury. The results were evaluated using Flynn’s Scoring Criteria.Two nails were used in each fracture. Results: All 20 patients were available for evaluation and follow up for a mean duration of 24 months (1532 months). Radiological union in all cases was achieved in a mean time of 8 weeks. Full weight bearing was possible in a mean time of 10 weeks (812 weeks). The results were excellent in 14 patients (70%) and successful in 6 patients (30%). Few complications that occurred were infection (in 2 cases), knee joint stiffness(in 4 cases), angulation less than 10 degrees( in 4 cases), shortening less than 10 mm(in 4 cases). Conclusion: Intramedullary fixation by TEN is an effective treatment of fracture of femur in properly selected patients of the 616 years age group.
Lead Iodide Crystals as Input Material for Radiation Detectors  [PDF]
Sunil Kumar Chaudhary
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2012.13004
Abstract: Lead iodide is an important inorganic solid for fundamental research and possible technological applications and is considered to be a potential room temperature nuclear radiation detector. In lead iodide the phenomenon of polytypism is posing an interesting problem of phase transformations amongst its various polytypic modifications. The transformations have also been observed even when the crystals are stored for few months. It causes deterioration in functioning of PbI2 devices. Taking into account the known structures of PbI2 and the data available on the mode of growth and storage of crystals, it has been concluded that purified melt grown crystals of PbI2 are the best suited for nuclear radiation detectors.
MHD Stagnation Point Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Surface  [PDF]
Santosh Chaudhary, Pradeep Kumar
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51008
Abstract:

The steady two-dimensional, laminar flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid near a stagnation point with heat transfer over a permeable surface in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is considered. Taking suitable similarity variables, the governing boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations and solved numerically by Shooting method. The effects of the suction parameter, the magnetic parameter, the Prandtl number and the Eckert number are studied on the velocity and temperature distributions.

MHD Slip Flow past a Shrinking Sheet  [PDF]
Santosh Chaudhary, Pradeep Kumar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.43081
Abstract:

An analysis is made for the steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid near a stagnation point past a shrinking sheet with slip in the presence of a magnetic field. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations by taking suitable similarity variables and solved numerically by Shooting method. The effects of the various parameters such as velocity ratio parameter, slip parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter for velocity and temperature distributions have been discussed in detail through graphical representation.

Silicotungstic Acid Modified Bentonite: An Efficient Catalyst for Synthesis of Acetal Derivatives of Aldehydes and Ketones  [PDF]
Reshu Chaudhary, Monika Datta
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2013.34025
Abstract:

Acetals and ketals are among the important materials of organic synthesis and as protecting agent of carbonyl functionality. A milder, efficient and green synthesis of acetals and ketals has been developed using Silicotungstic acid modified Bentonite (STA-Ben) as a catalyst. STA-Ben has been synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. It has been found to be an efficient and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of acetyl derivatives in excellent yields. In order to elucidate the efficiency of the STA-Ben as catalyst, reaction has also been performed using various catalysts. The reaction conditions (time and amount of catalyst) have been optimized using various catalysts. The products of the various reactions have been characterized by FT-IR, NMR.

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