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Rice Whitefly (Aleurocybotus occiduus Maria), a new emerging threat of rice production and its natural control in Chitwan, Nepal
S Pokhrel, RB Thapa
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7521
Abstract: An intensive field study was carried out to identify the problem causing reddish yellowing of the rice plants, access potential natural control of the suspected pests, estimate yield losses and to suggest an immediate, environmentally safe, possible control measures. Whitefly ( Aleurocybotus occiduus Maria) was outbreak on main season rice in Chitwan valley, which affected a total of 20561 ha (Severly 177.3 ha, medium 2787.6 ha, low 6945.4 ha and mild 10691.7 ha) land, losing 9448 mt rice yield in 2003. Use of monoculture, susceptible varieties (Sabitri) and improper cultural operations, excess use of agrochemicals and unconsciousness on the population build up of pest and natural enemies were the causes of outbreak. A maximum of 1000 Whitefly nymphs /tiller were counted. Parasitoid, Encarsia sp was fond most functional natural enemy in the field. However, the population build up of the parasitoid was observed quite late. Rice plants recovered in some extent after heading when the Whiteflies were found naturally controlled. Higher the population of Whitefly proportionally decreased the tillers number/hill, fertile tillers/hill, grain weight/panicle and the grain yield/ha. Rice plants infested with high population of Whitefly (898/tiller) failed to gave rice yield, where medium population (335 / tiller) gave 1287 kg and low population (103 Whitefly/tiller) gave 3456.0 kg (30.8% less than of last year) /ha. Kanchhi Mansuli (4200 kg/ha) and Mansuli (3960 kgs/ha) were comparative tolerant varieties than the Sabitri. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7521 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.56-74
Response of Pole Type French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Sowing Dates in the Mid Hills of Western Nepal
YR Pandey,DM Gautam,RB Thapa,MD Sharma,KP Paudyal
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v13i2.7708
Abstract: Three pole-type French bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes (Four season, Trishuli & Makwanpur) were sown in different three dates, i.e., August 16, 31 and September 15 during autumn seasons of 2010 and 2011 at the Agriculture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara (848 msl) to assess the fresh pod yield and yield attributes of the genotypes in different dates of sowing. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. The temperature ranged from 14° to 32°C during the growth period. The results showed significant variations in fresh pod yield and yield attributes. Flowering was earlier in Makwanpur genotype. About 50% plants flowered within 39 days in Makwanpur while it took more than 48 days for Trishuli. Tallest plants were produced by Makwanpur (271.7 cm) and shortest by Trishuli (256.2 cm). The pod length was highest (18.34 cm) in Four season and lowest in Makwanpur (15.07 cm). Pod width was highest in Trishuli (9.04 mm) and lowest in Makwanpur (7.10 mm). Highest fresh pod yield was produced by Four season (25.08 t/ha) followed by Makwanpur (23.11t/ha) and the lowest by Trishuli (19.97 t/ha). Sowing date also showed significant effect on yield and yield attributes. Earliest sowing (16 August) showed better results in early flowering (42.63 days), tallest plants (280.4 cm), longest pods (18.51 cm), widest pods (9.21 mm) and the highest fresh pod yield (31.13 t/ha) than 31 August and 15 September sown conditions. Fresh pod yield was highest in 16 August sown (31.13 t/ha) followed by 31 August (21.74 t/ha) and lowest in 15 September (15.29 t/ha). Four season sown on 16 August produced the highest fresh pod yield with an average of 35.35 t/ha. The result revealed that Four season is the best genotype and mid August is the appropriate sowing time for higher fresh pod yield of French bean in the mid hills of western Nepal. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 13, No. 2 (2012) 15-20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v13i2.7708
Effect of Grafting Dates, Methods on Success and Growth of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Sapling
B Chalise,DR Baral,DM Gautam,RB Thapa
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v14i1.8873
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at National Citrus Research Program (NCRP), Paripatle, Dhankuta to standardize the time and method of grafting and to assess the success and growth of mandarin saplings. Scions taken from ‘Khoku Local’ mandarin were grafted onto one-year-old trifoliate orange seedling rootstocks by shoot tip and veneer methods in eight different dates starting from 29 th October, 2009 to 12 th February, 2010 at 15 days interval. The grafts were planted inside closed tunnel of jute and plastic sheet at 10×10 cm spacing in 50×60 cm 2 experimental plots in two factorial split-plot design with three replications per treatment, containing 30 grafts per plot. The grafting methods were allotted on main-plots and the dates on sub-plots randomly. The success and growth of sapling was significantly affected by the dates while the methods had no effect. Study results showed that the highest success (96.11 %) was found on 13 th January, followed by 28 th January (91.11%) and the least (51.67%) on 29 th October grafting. The mortality of sprouted grafts was the lowest (0.17%) in 29 th December grafting, while it was observed higher in earlier and late season grafting. Observation on growth taken at 180 days after grafting in successful grafts showed that 29 th October had the highest number of primary branches (2.2); 14 th November had the highest number of leaves (48.47) and secondary branches (2.505); 29 th December gave the maximum sapling height (32.86 cm); 13 th January produced the lowest number of leaves (21.93) per sapling and 28 th January produced the lowest number of primary (1.533) and secondary branches (1.172) per sapling. From the study it was revealed that in Dhankuta, the most appropriate time of grafting was 2 nd to 4 th week of January. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 14, No. 1 (2013) 23-30 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v14i1.8873
Performance Of Coriander Cultivars For Green Leaf Production Under Late Sowing Condition
R Chaulagain,SS Pant,RB Thapa,MD Sharma
Journal of Agriculture and Environment , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/aej.v12i0.7565
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, , Chitwan, Nepal from December 2009 to March 2010 to study the green leaf production potential of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) cultivars. Ten cultivars of coriander were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Coriander Local, Marpha Local, Mallika, Surabhi and Kalmi Chhattedar showed better performance as compared to others on growth, yield and quality parameters. The highest green leaf yield (10.09 mt/ha) was recorded in Coriander Local followed by Mallika (9.54 mt/ha), Surabhi (9.40 mt/ha) and Kalmi Chhattedar (9.24 mt/ha). Surabhi was found promising cultivar under late sowing condition because if its highest rosette diameter, number of basal leaves and length of basal leaf Hence, there is good scope of coriander cultivation for green leaf production, however, it is more suitable to sow the seeds in usual tome of sowing for the better performance of all the cultivars.
Influence of Integrated Weed Management Practices on Dynamics and Weed Control Efficiency in Dry Direct Seeded Rice
KP Bhurer,DN Yadav,JK Ladha,RB Thapa,KR Pandey
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v14i2.10413
Abstract: Field experiment under dry direct seeded rice(O ryza sativa L.) was conducted during rainy season of 2010 and 2011 at Regional Agriculture Research Station (RARS), Parwanipur, Bara to develop appropriate weed management practices for dry direct- seeded rice. The trial was laid-out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated thrice. Observations were taken on weed, plant growth and yield attributing, yield, and socio-economic parameters. The weed density, dry weed weight and weed control efficiency resulted significantly different as influenced by integrated weed management practices. Low weed population density, low weed index and highest weed control efficiency resulted by pendimethalin followed by 2, 4- D followed by one hand weeding were at par with weed free check. Highest yield resulted from weed free plot followed by pendimethalin followed by two hand weeding and pendimethalin followed by 2, 4- D followed by one hand weeding. However, the net return per unit investment resulted highest in pendimethalin followed by 2, 4- D followed by one hand weeding. This proved that amid increasing wage rate and labour scarcity integrated weed management through pendimethalin 30 EC (Stomp) @1 kg a. i. /ha as pre- emergence herbicide application followed by 2, 4- D sodium salt 80 WP @ 0.5 kg a. i. /ha followed by one hand weeding or stale seed bed followed by pendimethalin 30 EC (Stomp) @1 kg a. i. /ha followed by bispyribac (Nominee gold) @25 g a. i. /ha 10% @200 ml/ha at 20 days of seeding resulted best alternative for manual hand weeding practices giving higher net return per unit investment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v14i2.10413 ? Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 14, No. 2 (2013) 33-42
Effect of integrated weed management practices on performance of dry direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)
KP Bhurer, DN Yadav, JK Ladha, RB Thapa, K Pandey
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9006
Abstract: Weeds are serious problem in dry direct seeded rice (DDSR). A field experiment was conducted during rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 at research farm of the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS) Parwanipur, to study the effect of integrated weed management practices on the performance of dry direct seeded rice. Ten treatment combinations viz; weedy, weed free (weekly), Pendimethalin fb (followed by) Bispyribac, Pendimethalin fb two hand weeding, Stale seedbed fb Bispyribac, Stale seedbed fb Pendimethalin fb Bispyribac, Mulch 4 t/ha fb Bispyribac fb one hand weeding, Stale seedbed fb mulch 4 t/ha fb Bispyribac, Pendimethalin and Sesbania co-culture fb 2,4-D Na salt fb one hand weeding and Pendimethalin fb 2,4-D fb one hand weeding were tested in a randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. Observations were taken on weed, plant growth and yield attributes, yield, and socio-economic parameters. All weed control treatments significantly reduced the weed density and dry weight of weed resulting significant increase in yield of DSR over weedy check in both years. Weed free treatment resulted the highest yield, however, it was not economical due to high cost of cultivation. The use of Pendimethalin fb 2,4-D fb one hand weeding produced yield (5161 in 2010 and 6160 kg/ha in 2011) which were statistically at par with yield (5305 in 2010 and 6319 kg/ha in 2011) obtained under the weed free treatment. Further, the highest benefit cost ratio (CBR) 1.77 and 2.22 and net return Rs 47700 and 75084/ha during 2010 and 2011, respectively, were obtained under this treatment indicating its superiority over other treatments. The grain yield, yield attributing characters viz. panicles per m2, panicle weight, filled grain per panicle, thousand grain weight as influenced by different weed management practices revealed that higher yield resulted from weed free plot followed by Pendimethalin followed by two hand weeding and Pendimethalin followed by 2,4-D followed by one hand weeding. However, the net return per unit investment resulted highest in Pendimethalin followed by 2,4-D followed by one hand weeding. This proved that amid increasing wage rate and labor scarcity integrated weed management through Pendimethalin 30 EC (stomp) @ 1 kg a. i./ha as pre- emergence herbicide application followed by 2,4-D sodium salt 80 WP @ 0.5 kg a.i./ha followed by one hand weeding or stale seed bed followed by Pendimethalin 30 EC (stomp) @ 1 kg a. i./ha followed by Bispyribac (nominee gold) @ 25 g a. i./ha 10 % @ 200 ml/ha at 20 days of seeding resulted best alternative for
A descriptive study of associated factors with HIV/AIDS among antiretroviral users of Eastern Nepal
VK Khanal,RB Rayamajhi,B Neupane,SU Kafle,B Thapa,P Karki,IS Paudel,N Jha
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8667
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Nepal, the firstcase of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was reported in 1988, since then the epidemic is driven by sexual transmission and intravenous drug use. The aim of this research is to study various associated factors with HIV/AIDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from May 2009 – April 2010 at three Anti-retroviral treatment centers (B.P.K.I.H.S, Dharan, Koshi Zonal Hospital, Biratnagar and Mechi Zonal Hospital, Bhadrapur). A purposive sampling technique was applied to include all 234 seropositive patients who were under medication from these centers. RESULTS: Males represented 71% of the patients. More than 75%of the patients fell in the age group of 20-39 years. 35.9% of them had visited commercial sexual workers and similar proportion of them had shared needles during intravenous drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Unsafe high risk behavior with commercial sexual worker and needle sharing habit were found to be the associated with HIV/AIDS patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8667 Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(3):95-98
Productivity and soil attributes as influenced by resource conservation technologies under rice- wheat system in Nepal
G Sah, SC Shah, SK Sah, RB Thapa, A McDonald, HS Sidhu, RK Gupta, P Wall
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9007
Abstract: Rice-wheat system provides food, income, and employment to over 83 % of the people and contributes to national food security in Nepal. Sustainability of the system is under threat because of increasing cultivation cost and declining soil fertility. On-farm experiments were carried out to determine the effects of tillage and crop establishment methods, crop residue management, and nitrogen levels that affect soil attributes and productivity of the rice-wheat system during 2010- 2011at Bara, Nepal. The treatment consisted of three tillage and crop establishment methods viz. Conventional tillage (CT), Permanent bed planting (PB), and Zero-tillage (ZT); two residue management levels viz. Residue retention and Residue removal; and three nitrogen levels viz. Zero nitrogen, farmer’s dose (80 and 100 kgha-1 N for rice and wheat, respectively), and abundant nitrogen (120 kgha-1 N for both rice and wheat crop). The experiments were laid out in strip-split plot design with three replications. The research results revealed that rice grain yield was significantly higher in the plots receiving N level as applied by farmers that was similar to abundant nitrogen dose. Wheat grain yield was significantly higher with zero tillage compared to permanent bed planting and conventional tillage. Significantly higher wheat grain yield was also obtained due to abundant nitrogen dose than zero dose nitrogen which was similar to farmers’ dose of N as well. There was no significant difference in grain yield of rice and wheat due to residue retention, although, it improved soil moisture. In wheat crop, zero-till planting and increased nitrogen application conserved soil moisture, enhanced soil electrical conductivity and lowered soil temperature. It can be concluded that rice and wheat can be grown successfully with zero tillage and farmer’s nitrogen dose without any yield penalty.
Evaluation of image quality in chest radiographs
RB Chand,N Thapa,S Paudel,GB Pokharel,BR Joshi,DK Pant
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.2126/joim.v35i1.8899
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2126/joim.v35i1.8899 Journal of Institute of Medicine, April, 2013; 35:50-52
Solubility Enhancement of Domperidone Fast Disintegrating Tablet Using Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin by Inclusion Complexation Technique  [PDF]
Prakash Thapa, Ritu Thapa, Uttam Budhathoki, Panna Thapa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.53031
Abstract:

Domperidone Maleate (DOM), an antiemetic drug, has been used in treatment of adults and children. It has low aqueous solubility and hence low bioavailability. In present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the solubility of DOM by inclusion complexation with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) using kneading technique and formulation of fast disintegrating tablets by using Sodium Starch Glycolate as superdisintegrant. Solubility analysis of DOM in different concentrations of HP-β-CD was carried out. Design of experiment (DOE) is done by using MINITAB 15.1 software to find out the variable for dissolution and disintegration time. HP-β-CD and SSG were identified as the variable for disintegration time and dissolution. For optimization of the concentration of HP-β-CD and SSG, two factors at two levels design through central composite design (CCD)

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