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Ectopic pancreatic islets in Splenic hilum and peripancreatic fat
Kirti Gupta, RK Vasishta
Diagnostic Pathology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-3-3
Abstract: Ectopic pancreatic tissue may occur from displacement of small amounts of pancreas during embryonic development, resulting in formation of a nodule which is independent of the pancreas. It often has a proper ductal system and circulation [1,2]. In majority of the cases it is an incidental finding, less often it may be present with obstruction and ulceration. The common sites of ectopic rests are stomach, duodenum and jejunum. Rarely it may be seen in Meckel's diverticulum, umbilicus and mediastinum [3,4]. Grossly, it may be evident as firm, pale, nodular mass. Microscopically, the usual lobular architecture is maintained with variable admixture of acini, islets and ductal structures. The presence of ectopic islets without any accompanying acini or ducts is quite uncommon. Herein, we report a case of 21-year-old female with nodular mass in the tail of the pancreas. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed a papillary lesion with features consistent with papillary-solid-epithelial neoplasm (PSEN). Subsequently excision of the mass in distal pancreas with splenectomy was done. Grossly, the mass measured 8.5 × 8 × 6 cm with circumscribed margins well distinct from the surrounding pancreatic tissue. Spleen on gross examination was within normal limits. The cut surface of the nodular mass showed variable admixture of solid and cystic areas with fine papillary excrescences. Microscopically, it revealed features of papillary solid epithelial neoplasm (Fig 1a) with presence of pseudopapillae (Fig 1a, inset) and collections of foam cells and cholesterol clefts. Random sections taken from the splenic hilum and peripancreatic fat revealed presence of ectopic islets without any accompanying acini and ducts (Fig 1b). These islets were round to ovoid with regular contours (Fig 1c). Insulin immunohistochemistry highlighted the presence of insulin-secreting beta cells within it (Fig 1d).Rare case reports of pancreatitis occurring in the ectopic pancreatic tissue in the mesentry of t
Health Status of Inmates of a Prison
Gupta RK,Singh GPI,R ()
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2001,
Abstract:
To Study The Relationship Between The Axial Length of The Eye Ball and the Retinal Vein Occlusion
Rashmi Chander Gupta, RK Mengi
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2010,
Abstract: The study was conducted on 50 patients attending the Eye OPDs of Ophthalmology Department ofGovernment Medical College Jammu during the year. 25 patients were clinically diagnosed to have RetinalVein Occlusion and were compared with 25 age and sex matched controls. The axial lengths of both eyesof all 50 patients were measured using A-Scan Biometry, the data was analyzed by student t-test and chisquaretest.It was concluded that the axial lengths in retinal vein occlusion were significantly shorter thanthe controls. This significant difference can be a risk factor in the development of retinal vein occlusion.
Silica nanoparticles coencapsulating gadolinium oxide and horseradish peroxidase for imaging and therapeutic applications
Gupta N, Shrivastava A, Sharma RK
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S33295
Abstract: a nanoparticles coencapsulating gadolinium oxide and horseradish peroxidase for imaging and therapeutic applications Original Research (992) Total Article Views Authors: Gupta N, Shrivastava A, Sharma RK Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 5491 - 5500 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S33295 Received: 25 April 2012 Accepted: 15 June 2012 Published: 03 December 2012 Nikesh Gupta,1 Anju Shrivastava,2 Rakesh K Sharma1 1Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, 2Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India Abstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles coencapsulating gadolinium oxide and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) have been synthesized in the aqueous core of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)–hexane–water reverse micelle. The average diameter of these silica particles is around 25 nm and the particles are spherical and highly monodispersed as depicted using transmission electron microscopy. The entrapment efficiency of HRP was found to be as high as 95%. Practically, the entrapped enzyme shows zero leachability up to 90 days. The enzyme entrapped in these silica nanoparticles follows Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Peroxidase entrapped in silica nanoparticles shows higher stability towards temperature and pH change as compared to free enzymes. The gadolinium oxide-doped silica nanoparticles are paramagnetic as observed from the nuclear magnetic resonance line-broadening effect on the proton spectrum of the surrounding water molecule. The entrapped enzyme, HRP, has been used to convert a benign prodrug, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), to a toxic oxidized product and its toxic effect has been tested on cancerous cell lines through thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue (MTT) assay. In vitro studies on different cancerous cell lines show that the enzyme has been entrapped and retains its activity inside the silica nanoparticles. IAA alone has no cytotoxic effect and it becomes active only after oxidative decarboxylation by HRP.
Retro-aortic left renal vein with left suprarenal vein draining into inferior vena cava
Singla RK,Sharma T,Gupta R
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2010,
Abstract: During a routine undergraduate dissection of abdomen of a 50-year-old male cadaver, a variant pattern of left renal and suprarenal veins was encountered. The left renal vein coursed behind the aorta to drain into inferior vena cava at the level of lower pole of left kidney. The left suprarenal vein coursed in front of aorta to drain directly into inferior vena cava instead of left renal vein. A knowledge of such patterns is important for renal surgeons operating for renal transplantation, renal trauma and nephrectomy. Further the ontogenic basis and clinical implications of the anomalies are discussed in the detail.
Effect of Feronia elephantum (Corr) Fruit Pulp Extract on Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Rats
A Mishra, S Arora, R Gupta, RK Punia, AK Sharma
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the activity of Feronia elephantum fruit pulp extract (which is used in folk medicine) against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Methods: The fruit pulp was extracted with ethanol and the anti-ulcer activity of the extract in indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Swiss albino rats was evaluated. The parameters assessed were pH and acid concentration of gastric contents, and gastric ulcer index. Ranitidine was used as the reference anti-ulcer drug. Acute toxicity studies were also carried out. Results: The extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration by decreasing acid concentration of gastric fluid while elevating its pH (p < 0.01), and compared well with the standard drug, ranitidine (p < 0.001). However, its anti-ulcer activity was not as potent as that of ranitidine. Acute toxicity studies showed that there was no mortality following the administration of the extract in a dose range of 250 - 5000 mg/kg, p.o. Conclusion: Feronia elephantum fruit pulp extract has potent antiulcer activity with low toxicity. Its anti-ulcer property probably acts via a reduction in gastric acid secretion. The results obtained support the use of this herbal material in folk medicine.
Community perceptions on malaria and care-seeking practices in endemic Indian settings: policy implications for the malaria control programme
Das Ashis,Gupta RK Das,Friedman Jed,Pradhan Madan M
Malaria Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-39
Abstract: Background The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services. Methods A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed. Results The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services. Conclusion Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural factors, the availability of acceptable care can modulate the community perceptions and practices on malaria management. The current community awareness on symptoms of malaria and prevention is fair, yet the prevention and treatment practices are not optimal. Promoting active community involvement and ownership in malaria control and management through strengthening community based organizations would be relevant. Further, timely availability of drugs and commodities at the community level can improve their confidence in the public health system.
Synostosis of first and second thoracic ribs: Anatomical and radiological assessment
Gupta V,Suri RK,Rath G,Loh H
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2009,
Abstract: An unusual specimen showing synostosis of left sided first and second ribs was encountered during scanning of bones in anatomy department. The ribs were partially fused in the region of their neck and tubercles, and displayed an osseous tunnel. The tunnel measured 1.2 cm in length and was directed anterolaterally. The shaft of first rib imperceptibly blended with that of the second and resulted in obliteration of first intercostal space. The maximum width of this conjoint shaft was 3.6 cm. Superior surface of the rib specimen was marked by a large muscular impression for scalenus medius muscle. The groove for subclavian artery on the superior surface of first rib was prominent. The anterior end of the second rib and a portion of its shaft were separated from the anterior end of first rib by a V-shaped notch. The radiograph of the specimen confirmed the presence of a tunnel between the fused portions of neck and tubercle. Such skeletal abnormalities may be associated with segmentation defects of bony tissues and variations in the disposition of neurovascular structures, thus rendering them vulnerable to compression at the thoracic outlet. The fused ribs affect the chest wall expansion and may result in respiratory complications. Precise knowledge and awareness of such anomalies is important for clinicians, especially for thoracic surgeons and radiologists.
IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN ON GENTAMICIN-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS
Sharma RK,Rajani GP,Mandal S,Gupta N
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The present study was aimed at evaluating the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of root of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for antioxidant and nephroprotective effect in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of root of Bauhinia variegata Linn. was carried out by in-vitro models such as scavenging of free radicals using 1,2-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and superoxide. Nephrotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin 100 mg/kg/d for eight days. Effect of concurrent administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of root of Bauhinia variegata Linn. at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. respectively was given by oral route. Serum creatinine, serum urea, urine creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined on day 9. Histopathological study of kidney was also done. Both ethanolic and aqueous root extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn produced significant free radical scavenging activity. Both the extracts produced significant nephroprotective activity in Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity models as evident by decrease in serum creatinine, serum urea, urine creatinine and BUN levels in extract treated groups which was elevated by gentamicin, which was further confirmed by histopathological study. Gentamicin induced glomerular congestion, blood vessel congestion, and epithelial desquamation, accumulation of inflammatory cells and necrosis of the kidney cells were found to be reduced in the groups receiving the root extract of Bauhinia variegata Linn. along with gentamicin.
A COMPARATIVE ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF THE PLANT LEUCAS ASPERA AND SEEDS OF PITHECELLOBIUM BIGEMINUM IN RATS
Gupta N,Agarwal M,Bhatia V,Sharma RK
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: This study indicates that Leucas aspera and Pithecellobium bigeminum alcoholic extracts have good antidiabetic activity. Ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and Pithecellobium bigeminum at a dose level of 200 mg/kg/p.o exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities in alloxan induced as well as streptazotocin induced hyperglycemic rats. They can also improve the condition of diabetes as indicated by parameters like body weight along with serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The extracts of the plant Leucas aspera and Pithecellobium bigeminum were tested for oral hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic activity, by glucose oral tolerance test, alloxan induced and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively. The extracts of Leucas aspera and Pithecellobium bigeminum have shown significant (P<0.001) increase in glucose tolerance, the maximum effect was given by Leucas aspera extract. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats also the maximum percentage reduction in blood glucose levels was found to be in Leucas aspera ethanolic extract. Animals, which received STZ, also showed a significant reduction in body weight, and increase in water and food intake as compared to vehicle control, which is significantly reversed by ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and Pithecellobium bigeminum after 21 days of treatment. These results indicate that the plant Leucas aspera and Pithecellobium bigeminum possess significant anti – diabetic activity, but extract of Leucas aspera showed more activity then the extract of Pithecellobium bigeminum.
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