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Variation on agro-morphological traits in Nepalese foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L) P Beauv)
RB Amgai, S Pantha, TB Chhetri, SK Budhathoki, SP Khatiwada, A Mudwari
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7528
Abstract: Foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L) P Beauv) falls on the category of underutilized crops in Nepal and mainly cultivated in Karnali region of the country. It is hardy crop and considered as one of the potential crops for future food security with respect to climate change. Five accessions of Nepalese foxtail millet were purposefully selected for evaluation of the agro-morphological characteristics. Foxtail landraces from Dolpa, Mugu, Bajura, Bajhang and Lamjung districts of Nepal were evaluated at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal during 2010. The plot size was 1m 2 and there were five samples. Days to heading and days to maturity varied from 33-56 and 59 to 87 days after germination respectively. Similarly, flag leaf length/breadth ratio, flag leaf sheath length, ligule length, peduncle length, peduncle exertion and plant height varied from 3.84-10.90, 5.47-9.84 cm, 0.1-0.2 mm, 10-22.57 cm, 2.7-13.58 cm and 41.67-120 cm, respectively. Fruit and apiculus color varied from straw to black. All accessions were actively growing with very slight lodging. Similarly, the thousand grain weight varies from 1.064 g to 2.172 g. This variation is useful in foxtail millet breeding program. Similarly, the significant correlation between thousand kernel weight and total basal tiller (r=-0.975) showed that foxtail millet lines with low tillering ability is better for yield enhancement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7528 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.133-138
Some Wild Mushrooms of Rupandehi District, West Nepal
HP Aryal,U Budhathoki
BIBECHANA , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/bibechana.v10i0.9309
Abstract: This mycological investigation carried out at natural as well as community managed forest, of Rupandehi district, western terai and siwaliks region of Nepal. Samples were collected in different area ranging between 90 and 1229 masl in tropical deciduous riverine forest, to subtropical deciduous hill forest. This paper highlights on common wild mushrooms Amanita chepangiana , Geastrum fimbriatum , Macrolepiota procera , Pycnoporus cinnabarinus , Schizophyllum commune , Scleroderma bovista and Sparassis crispa . The collected samples represented seven species of Basidiomycetes belongs to four order and seven families. The specimens were deposited in the Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium, (TUCH), Kathmandu, Nepal. BIBECHANA 10 (2014) 34-43 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/bibechana.v10i0.9309
Unmet needs for family planning in Sunsari, eastern Nepal
IS Paudel,SS Budhathoki
Health Renaissance , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/hren.v9i3.5581
Abstract: Introduction: The unmet need for family planning is a very useful tool in measuring and predicting the contraceptive needs of a population. Seventeen percent of all married women would prefer to avoid pregnancy but are not using any form of family planning. In less developed countries, about one forth of pregnancies is unintended. Objective: To determine the level of unmet need for family planning and evaluate the factors that influences the unmet needs in Married Women of Reproductive Age (MRWA). Methods: A cross-sectional study of 410 women attending the immunization clinic of B.P.Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, a teaching hospital in Dharan was carried out over 3 months. Results: MRWA had 22%, 15% and 8% unmet needs for family planning, spacing and limiting births respectively. Health concerns and side effects (30.5%), husband and family opposition (14%), uncertainty about child bearing (12.2%) and inconvenience (10%) were among the major constraints to the use of contraception. Unmet need has significant association between parity & education. Age and family type had no significant effect on unmet needs. Conclusion: In spite of high level of awareness about family planning method, a significant level of unmet need exists among women of reproductive age. Keywords: unmet needs; family planning; married women of reproductive age; MRWA DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hren.v9i3.5581 ? HR 2011; 9(3): 148-151
Solubility Enhancement of Domperidone Fast Disintegrating Tablet Using Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin by Inclusion Complexation Technique  [PDF]
Prakash Thapa, Ritu Thapa, Uttam Budhathoki, Panna Thapa
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.53031
Abstract:

Domperidone Maleate (DOM), an antiemetic drug, has been used in treatment of adults and children. It has low aqueous solubility and hence low bioavailability. In present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the solubility of DOM by inclusion complexation with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) using kneading technique and formulation of fast disintegrating tablets by using Sodium Starch Glycolate as superdisintegrant. Solubility analysis of DOM in different concentrations of HP-β-CD was carried out. Design of experiment (DOE) is done by using MINITAB 15.1 software to find out the variable for dissolution and disintegration time. HP-β-CD and SSG were identified as the variable for disintegration time and dissolution. For optimization of the concentration of HP-β-CD and SSG, two factors at two levels design through central composite design (CCD)

The Genus Amanita (Pers.) in Lumbini Zone, Nepal
Hari Prasad Aryal,Usha Budhathoki
Scientific World , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/sw.v11i11.8564
Abstract: Scientific World, Vol. 11, No. 11, July 2013, page 113-120 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/sw.v11i11.8564
Mycodiversity at Sankarnagar Community Forest, Rupandehi Distri
Hari Prasad Aryal,Usha Budhathoki
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v14i1.8925
Abstract: This investigation explored the diversity of higher fungi with their identification, documentation and utilization. The study area covered 549 ha, which lies within a narrow limit of altitude between 165 and 200 masl, in tropical deciduous riverine forest. Amanita chepangiana, A. pantherina, Macrolepiota fuliginosa, M. rhacodes, Russula emetica, R. foetens, R. nigricans, Scleroderma citrinum, S, bovista, Termitomyces clypeatus and T. eurhizeus were found to be dominant. The collected samples represented 29 species of Basidiomycetes belonging to 7 orders, 18 families and 25 genera. The dried specimens housed at Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH), Kirtipur, Kathmandu. The mycoelements prevailing in this area need sustainable conservation and utilization. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 14, No. 1 (2013) 75-80 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v14i1.8925
Medium Optimization of Production of Xylanase by Solid State Fermentation from Brevibacillus borstelensis – MTCC 9874 Isolated from Soil Sample of Eastern Nepal
Budhathoki, U.,Thapa, P.,Poluri, E.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: The main aim of this study was to optimize production medium in solid state fermentation for production of xylanase using Brevibacillus borstelensis MTCC 9874. The organism was isolated from Morang district of Nepal and it was grown for 96 h in five different mineral salt solutions (MMS) with rice husk and MSS-1 was selected as a medium for further study based on xylanolytic activity measured using DNS method. Plackett Burman design (Minitab 15.1) was done with six variables viz. dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, rice husk, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium carbonate and calcium chloride. The result showed that dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and rice husk were significant factors for xylanase production (> 95% confidence levels). Full factorial Centre composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the two significant factors. Response surface and contour plot were used to locate the optimal value of the two factors. There was 279.88% increase in xylanolytic activity after optimization of the medium. Study of effect of temperature on xylanolytic activity showed that maximum xylanolytic activity (6.58±1.1 IU/mL) was found at 60 °C. Optimum pH was found to be 7.6 (Xylanolytic activity = 6.81±2.32 IU/mL). Thermal stability study showed that the enzyme has a good stability at 60 °C (95.62%). Lineweaver – Burk plot showed that the enzyme has Vmax and Km values 0.1075 μg/mL .min and 1427.63 μg/mL respectively.
Tetanus
P Poudel,S Budhathoki,S Manandhar
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v7i3.2744
Abstract: Tetanus is now a rare disease in developed world. However it remains an important cause of death worldwide and is associated with a high case fatality, particularly in the developing world. Tetanus is caused by contamination of wound by spores of Clostridium tetani. Neonatal tetanus results from contamination of the umbilical stump at or following delivery of a child born to a mother who did not possess sufficient circulatory antitoxin to protect the infant passively by transplacental transfer. It produces its clinical effects via a powerful exotoxin, tetanospasmin, which leads to uncontrolled disinhibited efferent discharges from motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, causing intense muscular rigidity and spasm. Shorter incubation and onset times are associated with more severe disease and poorer prognosis. Four clinical forms of tetanus are recognised. They are generalised, localised, cephalic and neonatal tetanus. Tetanus is associated with several complications like respiratory failure, cardiovascular instability, renal failure and autonomic dysfunctions. Recovery from tetanus takes a long time. Diagnosis is established clinically. Symptomatic management, early recognition of complications, careful monitoring for dysautonomia and respiratory assistance are the anchors for successful outcome of patients. Tetanus is preventable through vaccination. Vaccination is highly safe and efficacious. Active immunisation should be instituted in all partially immunised, unimmunised persons and those recovering from tetanus. Passive immunisation is given as treatment of a case as well as prevention following high risk injury. Nepal has achieved neonatal tetanus elimination status on 2005 and is running different programs to sustain the status.
Maternal Risk Factors and Morbidity Pattern of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A NICU Based Study at Eastern Nepal
Prakash Poudel,Sunil Budhathoki,Manoj Kumar Shrivastava
Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/jnps.v29i2.2040
Abstract: Background: Preterm deliveries of babies weighing less than 1500 grams (VLBW, very low birth weight) are of major concern because of maximum perinatal morbidity and mortality found in this group. VLBW babies overload the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and their mortality contributes significantly to neonatal and infant mortality. Objectives: To study the common maternal risk factors associated with VLBW births. To study the morbidity and mortality patterns of VLBW babies. Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective study done in NICU of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Data were collected from medical records of VLBW babies admitted in NICU over a period of three years (13 April 2005 to 12 April 2008). Data were analyzed with SPSS 10.0 software. Results: Data of 140 VLBW babies were analyzed. Mean birth weight was 1188.9 (±212.78), 10.7% were home deliveries, 24.3% were twins, 31.4% required active resuscitation at birth and 46.4% were exposed to antenatal steroid. Common maternal risk factors associated with premature deliveries were inadequate antenatal check up (ANC) visits (95.7%), twin pregnancy (24.3%), antepartum hemorrhage (APH, 28.6%), premature rupture of membrane (23.6%), pregnancy induced hypertension (12.9%), bad obstetric history (12.9%) and maternal age less than 20 years (8.6%). Common morbidities among VLBW babies were clinical sepsis (77.1%), non physiological hyperbilirubinemia (73.6%), apnea (48.6%), shock (42.9%), hypoglycemia(39.3%), anemia (29.3%), hyaline membrane disease (HMD, 21.4%), patent ductus arteriosus (15.0%), severe hypothermia (12.1%), culture proven sepsis (15.7%), retinopathy of prematurity (5.7%), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (3.6%). Overall survival was 54.3% and major causes of death were HMD (51.0%) and sepsis (34.7%). Median durations of hospital stay were 17.5 days for survivors and five days for expired cases. Conclusion: Increasing the coverage of ANC visits, early diagnosis and treatment of APH and pregnancy induced hypertension, discouraging the childbirth at too young age, early diagnosis and treatment of acute infections and chronic medical diseases in mothers are important measures to decrease the burden of VLBW births. Common morbidities in VLBW babies are sepsis, HMD, apnea, hyperbilirubinemia, patent ductus arteriosus, shock, anemia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia and hypocalcemia. Common causes death of VLBW babies are HMD and sepsis. Overall survival of VLBW babies in our settings is less. More numbers of well equipped NICUs and services like surfactant therapy are needed to
Formulation of Once a Day Controlled Release Tablet of Indomethacin Based on HPMC-Mannitol
Roshan Pradhan,Uttam Budhathoki,Panna Thapa
Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v4i1.2884
Abstract: p>A hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M, and HPMC K100M) matrix tablet containing Indomethacin along with mannitol was formulated as a function of HPMC viscosity, and was compared with the commercial products. The release characteristics of the matrix tablet were investigated in the intestinal fluid, 6.8 pH phosphate buffer for 12 hours. The formulated products and two marketed products as reference sample were studied for its different physicochemical parameters and in vitro dissolution studies. It was found that the drug release profile decreases with increase in viscosity of polymer and, with increase polymer level in the formulations. Matrix tablets formulated employing Drug:HPMC K15M:mannitol::1:0.25:1 and Drug:HPMC K15M:mannitol::1:0.25:2 gave slow release of indomethacin spread over 12 hours and their dissolution profiles were compared with the Indian marketed product. The dissolution profiles of both the formulations were similar to the dissolution profile of the marketed product, the similarity factor being 74.59 and 68.04 respectively. The dissolution profiles of formulations containing same viscosity grade of HPMC in remarkably different concentrations and different viscosity grade of HPMC in same concentrations were different. Key words: Indomethacin; Controlled release; Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose; Mannitol; Dissolution. DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v4i1.2884 Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.4, No.1, September 2008, pp 55-67
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