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Study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in calves and HIV infected humans in the periphery of river basins of Kathmandu valley
S Paudyal,SR Karna,SJ Khatiwada,LR Joshi,A Tiwari,SP Shrestha
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v2i1.8002
Abstract: I ntroduction : Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted primarily through water. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves and humans in relation to the river water in the river basins of Kathmandu. M aterials and Methods : This cross sectional study was conducted from Sept 2012 to Feb 2013. A total of 100 fecal samples (50 calves and 50 HIV/AIDS patients living near the river basins of Kathmandu) were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium by Ziehl-Neelsen Staining technique after Modified Sheather concentration method with centrifugation. R esults : Overall 32% calves and 18% humans were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts, calves having higher chances of being infected than humans (P < 0.05). The prevalence was higher in Manohara River basin than Bagmati River basin (P >0.05). Among calves, the samples from Manohara periphery had higher prevalence than Bagmati periphery (P< 0.05). Likewise, the prevalence was higher in 4-6 months aged calves (P < 0.05) and in males (P < 0.05). Among the human samples, the females were at lower risk (odds ratio, 0.44) and 0-20 years of age group had highest prevalence (P < 0.05). Humans from periphery of Manohara were at higher risk than from Bagmati (Odds ratio, 4.94). C onclusions : Cryptosporidium has been identified in calves and HIV/AIDS patients residing in the periphery of Manohara and Bagmati river basins of Kathmandu valley suggesting the occurrence of zoonotic transmission. Cryptosporidiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for the case of diarrhea in humans and domestic animals. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i1.8002 Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(1):7-11
Variation on agro-morphological traits in Nepalese foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L) P Beauv)
RB Amgai, S Pantha, TB Chhetri, SK Budhathoki, SP Khatiwada, A Mudwari
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7528
Abstract: Foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L) P Beauv) falls on the category of underutilized crops in Nepal and mainly cultivated in Karnali region of the country. It is hardy crop and considered as one of the potential crops for future food security with respect to climate change. Five accessions of Nepalese foxtail millet were purposefully selected for evaluation of the agro-morphological characteristics. Foxtail landraces from Dolpa, Mugu, Bajura, Bajhang and Lamjung districts of Nepal were evaluated at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal during 2010. The plot size was 1m 2 and there were five samples. Days to heading and days to maturity varied from 33-56 and 59 to 87 days after germination respectively. Similarly, flag leaf length/breadth ratio, flag leaf sheath length, ligule length, peduncle length, peduncle exertion and plant height varied from 3.84-10.90, 5.47-9.84 cm, 0.1-0.2 mm, 10-22.57 cm, 2.7-13.58 cm and 41.67-120 cm, respectively. Fruit and apiculus color varied from straw to black. All accessions were actively growing with very slight lodging. Similarly, the thousand grain weight varies from 1.064 g to 2.172 g. This variation is useful in foxtail millet breeding program. Similarly, the significant correlation between thousand kernel weight and total basal tiller (r=-0.975) showed that foxtail millet lines with low tillering ability is better for yield enhancement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7528 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.133-138
Concept of Sadhus in Nepalese Society
Som Prasad Khatiwada
Researcher: A Research Journal of Culture and Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/researcher.v1i2.9888
Abstract: The concept of Sadhus is an old Hindu tradition started long ago from the system of Ashram in Indian Sub-continent. In general, human life is divided into four stages and the last stage is known as Sanyasa. When an old person becomes free from his family responsibilities then he practices peaceful activities. This stage of life is called Sanyasa and it is a form of Sadhu. Sadhus generally live in Asharams or temples in the group. In the past, they were forced to take weapons in their hands for the protection of their life and religion. Therefore, Akhadas were established in the place of ashramas to keep militant Sadhus. They do not have to keep greed, love, exceptions and trishna and their Yajnas should relate on the well-being of the universe. They are the means of study and they should be utilized to attract tourists in modern economic world. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/researcher.v1i2.9888 Researcher 1(2) 2013: 81-103
Emerging Frontier of Prehistory and Burning Issues of its Study in Developing Countries
Som Prasad Khatiwada
Researcher: A Research Journal of Culture and Society , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/researcher.v1i1.8375
Abstract: Many more prehistoric locations and material remains of man’s past are identified from different part of the world from the scholars of developed countries. In the one hand great amount of facilities and resources provided by their governments and related institutions, scholars of developed countries are working continuously in the field of archaeology and prehistory. Besides this the developing countries are struggling for physical development of the country with low amount of resources and they are incapable to allocate national budget for such studies and the scholars and researchers are badly suffered with low income level and high price for livelihood resulting low level of research capabilities. In this context research work on archaeology and prehistory is far away for them and many more prehistoric sites are still hidden under the geological strata of developing countries. There is a great danger of manipulation in data, possibility of forgery like Piltdown forgery and possible damage of megalithic graves for finding antiquities by tomb hunters. Damage of prehistoric sites, tombs and shelters is a great loss for human being not only for related countries, but for the people of the whole world. Therefore, need of collaborative research among the scholars of developed and underdeveloped countries is must for the development of anthropology in global context.
Q-switched Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Nevus of Ota: A Study of 25 Nepalese Patients
SB Shrestha,L Khatiwada
Nepal Journal of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njdvl.v11i1.7934
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njdvl.v11i1.7934
Plant Spacing: A Key Husbandry Practice for Rainy Season Cabbage Production
Purushottam P Khatiwada
Nepal Agriculture Research Journal , 2000, DOI: 10.3126/narj.v4i0.4869
Abstract: A field experiment was accomplished to establish appropriate plant spacing for summer season cabbage production in the rain fed condition of the high hills of eastern Nepal. The experiment was conducted during the summer of 1997, 1998 and 1999. Five different plant spacings (45- 60-cm, 45- 50-cm, 45- 40-cm, 45- 30-cm and 45- 20-cm) and two varieties, Green Stone and Green Coronet were tested. The interactive effect between variety and spacing was nonsignificant. However, among the tested spacings, head yields were statistically higher at 45- 30- cm and 45- 20-cm plant spacings. There was a positive linear correlation between closer plant spacing and cabbage head yield. The number of unmarketable heads and the lowest head compactness was recorded in 45- 20-cm spacing. Spacing of 45- 30-cm was found more economical. Plant population can be maintained as high as 74,074 number ha -1 by decreasing the spacing from 75- 60-cm to 45- 30-cm for the rainy season cabbage cultivation in high hills. By using this spacing, as high as 35 t ha -1 Key words: Cabbage; Hybrid; Plant spacing; Rainy season DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/narj.v4i0.4869 Nepal Agriculture Research Journal Vol. 4&5, 2001/2002 Page: 48-55 Uploaded date : 9 June, 2011
Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica Found in Chitterlings, Raw Milk and Swine Fecal Samples  [PDF]
F. N. Drake, S. Davis, J. Khatiwada, L. Williams
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.810053
Abstract: Foodborne illness is an escalating concern upon public health. The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica was assessed in chitterlings, raw milk and swine fecal from North Carolina. Uncleaned thirty chitterling samples procured from a local grocery store, forty-five swine fecal samples, and forty unpasteurized cow milk samples supplied by the University farm were evaluated for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Isolates identified as presumptive positive were characterized as colonies with a pink or deep-red center on MacConkey and CIN agar, and verified further through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of 16S rRNA gene for the Yersinia genera. Results showed that 4.4% swine fecal samples, 7.5% milk samples and 11.3% chitterling samples were presumptive positive for Y. enterocolitica by the direct plating method on selective agars. Of the thirty-chitterling samples examined by PCR for the 16S rRNA gene, 26% samples contained the identification gene for the bacteria of interest. After conducting virulence tests, the fecal samples were revealed as non-pathogenic. Only one of the milk samples were considered pathogenic and consisted of the following virulent genes: Yersinia heat-stable toxin (yst), invasion (inv), attachment invasion locus (ail), virulence regulon transcriptional activator (virF), Yersinia adehesin A (yadA), and the O:3 antigen gene (rfbC). Seven out of the eight (87.5%) chitterling samples were shown to be pathogenic. Disc diffusion was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Over half (55.5%) of the antimicrobial agents were found effective, with isolates being completely susceptible to ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, trimethoprim, cefotaxime, and gentamycin. Ampicillin was determined to be least effective, where 84.6% of the samples presented resistance to the drug. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and ERIC-PCR techniques were used to evaluate genetic similarity among the Yersinia isolates. There was approximately 85% similarity between two chitterlings and a fecal isolate during RAPD testing. With ERIC-PCR the largest similarity among all samples was at 95%, which was found between isolates from a chitterling and milk sample. Chitterling samples showed the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica compared to the other samples. Cross contamination at the farm level could be the root cause of this pathogen being prevalent in farm animal and food sources, which does pose a risk to public
Selected Plant Extracts Show Antiviral Effects against Murine Norovirus Surrogate  [PDF]
Uchenna Iloghalu, Bryce Holmes, Janak Khatiwada, Leonard L. Williams
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.94022
Abstract: Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis. Annually, 21 million Americans are infected with norovirus. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. However, there is no effective or efficient treatment/control against norovirus infection. Conventional intervention techniques used to inactivate norovirus have shown lack of efficacy against human norovirus. Currently, effective treatment or control measures against human norovirus have not been identified. In this study, murine norovirus acts as a model to human norovirus to evaluate the inhibitory effects of crude extracts of Zanthoxylum armatum and Hibiscus sabdariffa. The study also separated, identified and quantified the selected compounds using the ultra-liquid chromatography (UPLC). To study the antiviral activities of crude extracts and its fractionated portions of Z. armatum and H. sabdariffa against norovirus surrogate, RAW 264.7 cells were infected with Murine norovirus surrogate virus of human norovirus and incubated at 37?C. Phytochemicals were extracted from the seeds and calyces of the plants using methanolic extraction. Fractionated portions of the crude extracts were subsequently used in both chromatographic and microbiological studies. Our data indicated that there was reduction of viruses, when treated with the 60% aqueous methanol extracts. Amongst the four selected phenolic compounds (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin), quercetin showed the most significant logarithmic viral reductions. These compounds were identified, purified and quantified using UPLC. Extracts of Zanthoxylum armatum and Hibiscus sabdariffa showed antiviral effects. Phenolic compounds are virucidal. Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa also exhibits anti-norovirus activities. The results are anticipated to control/prevent the human norovirus infections.
ALUMINUM AND THE EFFECTS OF CHELATING AGENTS IN GILL AND KIDNEY TISSUES OF CIRRHINUS MRIGALA
S. Sivakumar,Khatiwada Chandra Prasad
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The study of biological indicator organism is more important than analyzing water or sediments for monitoring heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment .Non-essential elements enter the animals and accumulate to the different organs so that chelating agents are most versatile and effective antidotes to eliminate the metals toxicities. The aim of our present study is to find out bioaccumulations of aluminum and the effects of chelating agents DFO and DFP in Muscle, gill, kidney, brain and liver tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala by using Inductively Coupled Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). This study finds out the accumulation of aluminum is Gill>Kidney. The present result suggests that DFO and DFP reduce the aluminum concentration in the tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings and both are efficient chelators. Aluminum toxicity is a wide spread problem in all forms of life, including humans, animals, fishes, plants, and cause wide spread degradation of the environment and health.
FT-IR STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ALUMINIUM AND THE INFLUENCE OF DFO AND DFP ON THE BIO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE KIDNEY OF INDIAN CIRRHINUS MRIGALA
S. Sivakumar,Khatiwada Chandra Prasad,J. Sivasubramanian
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Aluminium is naturally occurring, most abundant element in the earth crust and becomes toxic elevated concentrations are introduced into the environment. Kidney is involved in detoxification and high affinity to removal and excretion of toxic substances circulating in the blood stream. The aim of the present work is to find out the effect of aluminium and the influence of DFO and DFP on the bio-chemical changes in the kidney of Indian Cirrhinus Mrigala using Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy. Various important features have been observed in FTIR spectra of aluminium intoxicated kidney of Indian Cirrhinus Mrigala, altered lipid and protein profile and increased amide II content, indicating an alteration in the lipid and protein profile leading to modification in membrane composition. Further it is observed that acute exposure to aluminium causes some alteration in protein and amide II and increased in coil structure of alpha helix. Chelating agent DFO and DFP reduces the bio-chemical content in the kidney of Indian Cirrhinus Mrigala. Both the chelating agents are based antidote for aluminium toxicity.
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