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Computation of a Tree 3-Spanner on Trapezoid Graphs
Sambhu Charan Barman,Sukumar Mondal,Madhumangal Pal
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In a graph, a spanning tree is said to be a tree t-spanner of the graph if the distance between any two vertices in is at most times their distance in . The tree t-spanner has many applications in networks and distributed environments. In this paper, an algorithm is presented to find a tree -spanner on trapezoid graphs in time, where is the number of vertices of the graph.
Genetic and Gestational Surrogacy: an Overview
Sambhu Charan MONDAL,Anuradha VERMA,Shiv Kumar GUPTA,Babita KUMAR
Walailak Journal of Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.2004/vol10iss1pp
Abstract: Surrogacy is a method in which a woman bears a child for another woman. The indications for treatment include absent uterus, recurrent miscarriage, and repeated failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and certain medical conditions. It also defines the process in which a woman gestates a fetus, gives birth to a child, and then relinquishes her parental rights to another couple. This third party relationship to the intimate process of producing children is not a contemporary concept and has been recorded in our history in several forms. In colonial America, children were sent to other childless families to learn trades or provide extra help to the family. More recent forms of surrogacy in the U.S. are adoption, fostering, and step-parenting. In this review, various techniques, law issues, and drawbacks of surrogacy are synchronically described and postulated.
Immunomodulatory properties and biomarkers characterization of novel Withania somnifera based formulation supplemented with minerals in Sprague Dawley rats
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine , 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s13596-016-0255-5
Abstract: Herbomineral formulations have been accepted world-wide due to its significant therapeutic outcomes. The study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of novel herbomineral formulation (TEBEH) on Sprague Dawley rats using cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Major immune related parameters were monitored such haemagglutination assay, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, cellular immune response (CD4+ and CD8+), IgG and IgM, hematological analysis, antioxidant profile, and estimation of major lipid biomarkers. The study results suggest herbomineral formulation significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the concentration of primary and secondary titre by 41.18 and 68%. However, the rat paw edema at 24 h showed increased edema by 77.78% (p ≤ 0.01). Herbomineral formulation exhibited increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ counts in animals by 28.03 and 60.70%, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of IgM and IgG were improved by 14.29 and 8.26% respectively. Besides, other supportive parameter such as hematology and antioxidant profile was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) improved, while free radical, lipid peroxidation was decreased. Moreover, the major lipid biomarkers were improved such as decreased triglycerides, LDL and VLDL by 15.88, 3.65, and 16.01%, respectively. Overall, the promising results of this study indicated that the herbomineral formulation, TEBEH can be employed to improve the cellular and humoral immunity along with improved hematological, antioxidant, and lipid profile.
Immunomodulatory potential of nanocurcumin-based formulation
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Inflammopharmacology , 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s10787-017-0395-3
Abstract: Vitamins, minerals, and nanocurcumin play a substantial role in various nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that are widely used in therapeutics, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. The current study aimed to investigate the comparative in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a novel nanocurcumin-based formulation with curcumin in LPS-induced cytokine expression, NK cells’ activity, and phagocytosis. The proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α) and NK cells’ activity were measured in cell supernatants using ELISA assay; however, phagocytosis activity was performed using colorimetric analysis. The chemical characterization of novel nanocurcumin-based formulation using LC–MS (R t 19.02 min) and mass spectra analysis (m/z 369.04) confirmed the presence of the curcumin in highest peak concentration. MTT assay in three tested cell-lines showed that the formulation was found non-toxic at all the tested concentrations. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α in splenocytes was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) inhibited. Besides, the NK cells’ activity and phagocytosis (macrophage) were increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Overall, the promising results of this study indicated the significant immunomodulatory effect of nanocurcumin-based formulation compared to the curcumin, which could be used against various inflammatory disorders such as allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, etc.
Review: A REVIEW ON ROLE OF AUTOANTIBODIES (GAD-65 IA-2) IN TYPE 1 DIABETES
Khushbu pandey*,Pramod Kumar Sharma,Vipin Kumar Garg,Sambhu Charan Mondal
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes recognizing pancreatic islet cell antigens. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-65) appears to be an important auto antigen in this type of disease. However, T cells from both patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy subjects vigorously proliferate in response to GAD-65 stimulation ex-vivo, leading us to postulate that the critical event in the onset of human diabetes is the activation of auto reactive T cells. Thus, it was investigated, whether GAD-65 reactive T cells in patients with diabetes functioned as previously activated memory T cells, no longer requiring a second, co-stimulatory signal for clone expansion. We found that in patients with new-onset type 1diabetes, GAD-65-reactive T cells were strikingly less dependent on CD-28 and B7-1 co-stimulation to enter into cell cycle and proliferate than were equivalent cells derived from healthy controls. The hypothesis reveals that these auto reactive T cells have been activated in-vivo and have differentiated into memory cells, suggesting a pathogenic role in type 1 diabetes. In addition, it was observed that different effects with selective blockade of either B7-1 or B7-2 molecules; B7-1 appears to deliver a negative signal by engaging CTLA-4, while B7-2 engagement of CD-28 up regulates T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.
An Impact of Biofield Treatment: Antimycobacterial Susceptibility Potential Using BACTEC 460/MGIT-TB System
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Shrikant Patil, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Mycobacterial Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2161-1068.1000189
Abstract: The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment modality on mycobacterial strains in relation to antimycobacterials susceptibility. Mycobacterial sensitivity was analysed using 12 B BACTEC vials on the BACTEC 460 TB machine in 39 lab isolates (sputum samples) from stored stock cultures. Two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were also used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials (Mycobacterium smegmatis 14468 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis 25177). Rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in treated samples showed increased susceptibility as 3.33%, 3.33% and 400.6%, respectively, as compared to control in extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. Pyrazinamide showed 300% susceptibility as compared to control in multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Isoniazide did not show any improvement of susceptibility pattern against treated either in XDR or MDR strains of Mycobacterium as compared to control. Besides susceptibility, the resistance pattern of treated group was reduced in case of isoniazide (26.7%), rifampicin (27.6%), pyrazinamide (31.4%), ethambutol (33.43%) and streptomycin (41.3%) as compared to the untreated group of XDR strains. The MIC values of few antimicrobials were also altered in the treated group of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a significant reduction observed in MIC values of linezolid (8.0 to 2.0 μg/ml) and tobramycin (2.0 to 1.0 μg/ml); however, very slight changes occurred in the remaining antimicrobials of treated samples. There was no change of MIC values in the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after biofield treatment. Biofield treatment effect on Mycobacterium against anti-tubercular drugs might be due to altered ligand-receptor/protein interactions at either enzymatic and/or genetic level with respect to anti-mycobacterium susceptibility and MIC values of antimicrobials.
In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Shrikant Patil, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Bacteriology & Parasitology , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2155-9597.1000241
Abstract: This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 μg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 μg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Shrikant Patil, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Integrative Oncology , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2329-6771.1000141
Abstract: Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggests that biofield treatment has significantly increased the cell death rate of treated GBM cells and simultaneously boost the viability of normal brain cells. Therefore, biofield treatment could be a suitable alternate treatment strategy for cancer patients in near future.
Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Air & Water Borne Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2167-7719.1000122
Abstract: Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Harish Shettigar, Sambhu Charan Mondal and Snehasis Jana
Microbial & Biochemical Technology , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000223
Abstract: Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol. The revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were selected for the study. Gr. I was considered as control. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10 while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to the control (Gr. I) using MicroScan Walk-Away? system. Although biofield treatment did not show any change with respect to susceptibility pattern. However the minimum inhibitory concentration of S. agalactiae gr. B showed significant (70.37%) alteration, out of twenty-seven tested antimicrobials, among which in Gr. II i.e. 62.96% on day 5 and 66.67% on day 10 while no alteration was found in lyophilized group (Gr. III) as compared to the control. Moreover, the improvement of MIC value of norfloxacin was observed by two-fold (8 to ≤4 μg/mL) in Gr. II on day 10 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. It was observed that overall 48.28% biochemical reactions, out of twenty-nine were altered in Gr. II with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in Gr. II on day 5 (777777615) and on day 10 (757677405) as compared to the control (237147047). The results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. agalactiae gr. B in revived treated cells (Gr. II) with respect to MIC values, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number.
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