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Spatial and temporal population dynamics of rodents in three geographically different regions in Africa: Implication for ecologically- based rodent management
A.W. Massawe
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: As part of a three years study to develop ecologically-based rodent management (EBRM) in southern Africa, a Capture Mark Recapture study was carried out in Tanzania, Namibia and Swaziland to establish the demographic patterns and population dynamics of rodents. Two study -grids were established in each country. In Tanzania, ten species of rodents and one shrew (Crocidura sp.) were identified in the study area. The rodent species consisted of Mastomys natalensis, Aethomys chrysophilus, Arvicanthis neumanni, Gerbilliscus vicina, Acomys spinosissimus, Lemniscomys griselda, Lemniscomys zebra, Rattus rattus, Graphiurus sp. and Mus minutoides. Mastomys natalensis was dominant and contributed more than 70% of the captures. In Namibia, five species were captured, namely Mastomys natalensis, Gerbilliscus leucogaster, Saccostomus campestris, Mus minutoides and Steatomys pratensis. Mastomys natalensis contributed about 50% of the captures. In Swaziland, only M. natalensis was captured in the study grids. There was a clear pattern in the population dynamics, with breeding confined to the wet seasons in the three countries. Mastomys natalensis was the dominant pest species, for which EBRM should focus on. The highest population density of M. natalensis occurred during and after the rains, which coincided with the most susceptible phenological stage of crops. The breeding seasonality and density fluctuations observed in the three countries conform to observations made elsewhere in Africa, which support the hypothesis that rainfall events promote primary productivity on which murid rodents depend. Development of EBRM in these countries will be determined by the local conditions and how they influence the demographic processes of the rodent populations. EBRM should make use of the available ecological knowledge of the local rodent pest species and the focus should be on (ecological) management practices applicable at the community level including community based intensive trapping, field hygiene, removing cover and sources of food for rodents.
The Type of Farming Practice may Affect the Movement and Reproduction Pattern of Rodents in Crop Fields: A Case Study of Mastomys natalensis
A.W. Massawe,R.H. Makundi
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: A Capture-Mark-Release study was carried out in crop fields in Morogoro, Tanzania, to investigate how the movement and reproduction of multimammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, was influenced by farming practices. Two land preparation methods and two cropping systems were investigated in a Complete Randomized Design (CDR) experiment with 2x2 factors. The results showed that females and males differed significantly in their movements in the different land management practices (Wald Stat =16.27; df = 1 and p = 0.001). It was also observed that land preparation methods and cropping systems had no significant effect on the proportion of females and males in the population. However, significant changes in the proportions of both sexes occurred with time and these were influenced by cropping systems for females (F(29,120) = 1.612; p = 0.039) and land preparation methods for males in the population (F(29,120) = 2.1352; p<0.001). The distribution of females with perforated vagina was significantly influenced by the land preparation methods (p= 0.05) and was higher in the slash and burn fields than in the tractor ploughed fields (Tukey LSD test; F (1, 32) = 11.199; p<0.001). An interaction between land preparation methods and cropping system on the distribution of sexually active females in the population was found (F (1, 12) = 5.279, p = 0.040). Therefore one could generalize that the slash and burn fields were more conducive for breeding and consequently higher increase in the population of M. natalensis due to better food conditions.
Winning the Fight Against Rodent Pests: Recent Developments in Tanzania
L.S. Mulungu,V.D. Ngowo,R.H. Makundi,A.W. Massawe
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Rodent management programs in Tanzania have been reactive and did not consider the population ecology of the target species. The strategies used to manage rodents were probably most suited to managing low-density rodent populations and were selected to solve localised rodent problems in certain areas. These included bounty schemes, burning of homes and vegetation, trapping and poisoning. In recent years, new developments in rodent pest management include a system designed to provide early warning of potent damage. An understanding of the population processes that give rise to rodent pest’s problems provides the framework for evaluating the causes and solutions. Population models for predicting outbreaks have been developed. These have incorporated simulations and aspects of economics in the implementation of control strategies. Simulation based on Bioeconomics models have shown that the most economically rewarding strategies differ significantly from current practices of symptomatic treatment when severe rodent damage is noticed in the fields. Therefore, shifting from symptomatic practices and controlling rodents on a calendar basis can substantially improve the economic conditions for the majority of maize producers in Tanzania.
The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean
Bruckner,A.W;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: the marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in sri lanka,spread to hawaii and the philippines in the 1950s,and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical pacific,indian and atlantic oceans.currently,45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually,with an import value of us$28-44 million.the largest suppliers are indonesia and the philippines,followed by brazil,maldives,vietnam,sri lanka and hawaii.in the tropical western atlantic,16 countries have export fisheries, including the u.s.(florida and puerto rico).the u.s.is the world ?s largest buyer,followed by the european union and japan.the global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes,of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale.damselfish,anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50%of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses,blennies,gobies,triggerfish,file-fish,hawkfishes,groupers and basselets account for 31%of the trade,and the remaining 16%is represented by 33 families.the most important fishes from the caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish,queen triggerfish,redlip blenny,puddingwife,bluehead wrasse,and blue chromis.the caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species,but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries.it is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced,and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.
Die ingeborenheid-hipotese van die TGG en Dooyeweerd se filosofie
A.W. Coetzee
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1996, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v61i1.588
Abstract: In this article certain presuppositions of the innateness hypothesis of the TGG are judged by comparing it to aspects from the philosophy of Dooyeweerd. It is indicated that: (i) the TGG as well as Dooyeweerd postulates a radical structural distinction between man and animal but on different grounds; (ii) the intertwined unity of human nature is not fully recognised by the TGG; (iii) the complementary role o f man and reality in determining the structure of knowledge is acknowledged by both the TGG and Dooyeweerd. On these grounds it is stated that the TGG can not uncritically be accommodated into Dooyeweerd's philosophical framework.
The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean
A.W Bruckner
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka,spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s,and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific,Indian and Atlantic Oceans.Currently,45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually,with an import value of US$28-44 million.The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines,followed by Brazil,Maldives,Vietnam,Sri Lanka and Hawaii.In the tropical Western Atlantic,16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S.(Florida and Puerto Rico).The U.S.is the world ’s largest buyer,followed by the European Union and Japan.The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes,of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale.Damselfish,anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50%of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses,blennies,gobies,triggerfish,file-fish,hawkfishes,groupers and basselets account for 31%of the trade,and the remaining 16%is represented by 33 families.The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish,queen triggerfish,redlip blenny,puddingwife,bluehead wrasse,and blue chromis.The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species,but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries.It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced,and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region. El comercio de peces marinos ornamentales se inició en la década de 1930 en Sri Lanka y se extendió a Hawai y Las Filipinas en la década de 1950.Posteriormente se convirtió en una industria multimillonaria cuando,en la década de 1970,se establecieron pesquerías a través del Pacífico tropical y los Océanos índico y Atlántico.Actualmente,45 países suplen los mercados globales con un estimado de 14-30 millones de peces por a o,con un valor de US$28- 44 millones.Los mayores exportadores son Indonesia y Filipinas,seguidos por Brasil,Maldivas,Vietnam,Sri Lanka y Hawai.En el Atlántico Occidental tropical,16 países tienen pesquerías de exportación,incluyendo a los Estados Unidos (Florida y Puerto Rico).Estados Unidos es el mayor comprador,seguido de la Unión Europea y Japón. El comercio mundial consiste de más de 1400 especies de peces de arrecife,de las cuales so
Reforma policial y derechos humanos en Brasil: la dimensión internacional
A.W. Pereira
Araucaria , 2008,
Abstract: Brasil ha participado de manera importante en el movimiento mundial de los derechos humanos que se ha producido durante las últimas décadas. Este país se ha visto fuertemente influido por las tendencias internacionales y por la comunidad transnacional de derechos humanos. En la década de los ochenta del pasado siglo, la dictadura militar que gobernaba en Brasil fue reemplazada por un régimen democrático y, desde entonces, se han creado multitud de instituciones formales para la protección de los derechos humanos. Sin embargo, estas instituciones sólo han cambiado parcialmente las prácticas cotidianas. Lo cual puede comprobarse en el ámbito de las actuaciones policiales, en el que la violencia arbitraria, la corrupción y la ineficacia son lugares comunes. En los últimos a os se han producido importantes esfuerzos para transformar la práctica policial; en este terreno, los reformadores también se han visto influidos por los acontecimientos internacionales, y han buscado conjugar la preocupación por la eficacia policial con el respeto de los derechos humanos.
L. Wils, De houding van de politieke partijen tegenover de Vlaamse beweging in de 19de eeuw. Persstudies
A.W. Willemsen
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1974,
Abstract:
R.L. Schuursma, Het onaannemelijk tractaat. Het verdrag met Belgi van 3 april 1925 in de Nederlandse publieke opinie
A.W. Willemsen
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1976,
Abstract:
Geyl als grootnederlander in de jaren twintig. [Geyl en Vlaanderen. Een discussie]
A.W. Willemsen
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1975,
Abstract:
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