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Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods
Alessandra Durazzo,Maria Zaccaria,Angela Polito,Giuseppe Maiani,Marina Carcea
Foods , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/foods2010053
Abstract: Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.
Italian Wild Rocket [Diplotaxis Tenuifolia (L.) DC.]: Influence of Agricultural Practices on Antioxidant Molecules and on Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Effects
Alessandra Durazzo,Elena Azzini,Maria Claudia Lazzè,Anna Raguzzini,Roberto Pizzala,Giuseppe Maiani
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3020285
Abstract: Wild rocket [ Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] belongs to the Brassicaceae family and has its origin in the Mediterranean region. The effect of conventional and integrated cultivation practices on the nutritional properties and benefits of wild rocket [ Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] were studied. Bioactive molecules content (vitamin C, quercetin, lutein), antioxidant properties and bioactivity of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of rocket in Caco-2 cells were determined. Regarding antioxidant properties, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) values ranged from 4.44 ± 0.11 mmol/kg fw to 9.92 ± 0.46 mmol/kg fw for conventional rocket and from 4.13 ± 0.17 fw mmol/kg to 11.02 ± 0.45 mmol/kg fw for integrated rocket. The characteristics of wild rocket as a dietary source of antioxidants have been pointed out. Significant differences in the quality of conventional and integrated rocket have been shown, while no influence of agronomic practice on biological activity was reported. A significant accumulation of cells in G1 phase and a consequent reduction in the S and G2 + M phases were observed in Caco-2 cells treated with rocket polyphenol extract.
Jorge de Lima e a Poesia Transicional
Leandro Durazzo
Revista Espa?o Acadêmico , 2011,
Abstract: Resumo: Este pequeno artigo estuda a poesia como transmiss o de um estado poético vivenciado. Jorge de Lima, pela via da poesia como linguagem essencial – que busca reproduzir no leitor a própria experiência do sentimento poético -, traz à realidade a vivência integradora do homem com o meio – cósmico, social, religioso. Tra ando paralelos com as no es de objeto transicional (Winnicott) e mito como objeto transicional coletivo (Green), buscaremos evidenciar o modo pelo qual, poeticamente, Jorge de Lima cria uma experiência lingüística criativa, que equilibra e relaciona as motiva es subjetivas do poeta com as implica es objetivas da realidade externa, sociocultural. Abstract: The paper studies poetry as the transmission of a lived poetical state. Jorge de Lima, through poetry as essential language – that strives to reproduce in the reader the very existence of the poetical feeling – brings to reality the integrating living between man and environment – whether cosmic, social or religious. Establishing parallels with the notion of transitional object (Winicott) and myth and collective transition object (Green), the aim of this article is to throw light over the way through which, poetically, Jorge de Lima builds a creative linguistics experience that balances and relates the poet’s subject motivations to the external and social objective implications.
Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture
Elena Azzini, Angela Polito, Alessandro Fumagalli, Federica Intorre, Eugenia Venneria, Alessandra Durazzo, Maria Zaccaria, Donatella Ciarapica, Maria S Foddai, Beatrice Mauro, Anna Raguzzini, Lara Palomba, Giuseppe Maiani
Nutrition Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-125
Abstract: An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood) were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation.The daily macronutrients intake (g/day) have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene), vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10) in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P < 0.05). Lower levels of MDA were associated with MDS > 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern.Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammation.The Mediterranean Diet (MD), a nutritional model inspired by the traditional food regimes of countries in the Mediterranean basin, including Italy, Greece, Spain and Morocco, has ente
Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon
Alessandra Durazzo,Maria Stella Foddai,Andrea Temperini,Elena Azzini,Eugenia Venneria,Massimo Lucarini,Enrico Finotti,Gianluca Maiani,Paola Crinò,Francesco Saccardo,Giuseppe Maiani
Antioxidants , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/antiox2020052
Abstract: The artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon ( Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds.
Studies on Production Planning of Dispersion Type U3Si2-Al Fuel in Plate-Type Fuel Elements for Nuclear Research Reactors  [PDF]
Miguel Luiz Miotto Negro, Michelangelo Durazzo, Marco Aurélio de Mesquita, Elita Fontenele Urano de Carvalho, Delvonei Alves de Andrade
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2016.64023
Abstract: Several fuel plants that supply nuclear research reactors need to increase their production capacity in order to meet the growing demand for this kind of nuclear fuel. After the enlargement of the production capacity of such plants, there will be the need of managing the new production level. That level is usually the industrial one, which poses challenges to the managerial staff. Such challenges come from the fact that several of those plants operate today on a laboratorial basis and do not carry inventory. The change to the industrial production pace asks for new actions regarding planning and control. The production process based on the hydrolysis of UF6 is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. Production planning and control of the industrial level of fuel production on that production route is a new field of studies. The approach of the paper consists in the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of costs. We also carried out a sensitivity analysis of the model. The results help in minimizing costs in different production schemes and show the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. The management team will therefore have a clearer view of the costs and of the new, necessary production and inventory levels.
Determination of Uranium Traces in Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 Pool Water  [PDF]
Adonis Marcelo Saliba-Silva, Olair dos Santos, Elita Fontenele Urano de Carvalho, Humberto Gracher Riella, Michelangelo Durazzo
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2017.73014
Abstract: IEA-R1 nuclear reactor operation has the routine to control uranium content in pool water to be in trace range below 50 μg/L. There are several routes to determine the uranium trace content in water in the literature; voltammetry has been systematically employed. In the present study, the chosen chemical determination of uranium traces used the voltammetric method known as AdCSV (adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry). This technique, based on mercury voltammetry, is an adequate methodology to determine uranium traces. The chloranilic acid [CAA] (2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzo-quinone) is indicated as chelating agent. The redox reaction of UO2+2with CAA is sensitive in the range of 2 < pH < 3. But pH variation imposes changing on [UO2(CAA)2] reduction potential. In this work, we present the uranium trace results for IEA-R1 reactor water, sampled after an operation routine shutdown. The uranium trace determination for IEA-R1 pool water showed content around 1 μg/L [U] with statistical significance. Therefore the IEA-R1-reactor-water purification showed to be adequate and safe.
Focus on Therapeutic Strategies of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Marilena Durazzo,Paola Belci,Alessandro Collo,Enrica Grisoglio,Simona Bo
International Journal of Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/464706
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world (it affects 30% of the general adult population). The NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), defined by steatosis, hepatocellular damage, and lobular inflammation in individuals without significant alcohol consumption and negative viral, congenital, and autoimmune liver disease markers. Currently, NAFLD is considered an emerging epidemic in light of the dramatic increase in obesity rates. With the progressive nature of NASH and its rising prevalence there is a significant need for a specific and targeted treatments since to date there has not been any validated therapies for NAFLD other than weight loss, which is well known to have a poor long-term success rate. In recent years, visceral adipose tissue has taken an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis, and current therapeutic approaches aim at reducing visceral obesity and free fatty acid overflow to the liver. This paper is focused on the treatments used for NAFLD and the potential new therapy.
Chronic Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Neurocognition and Brain Neurobiology
Timothy C. Durazzo,Dieter J. Meyerhoff,Sara Jo Nixon
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7103760
Abstract: Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive and neurobiological implications of chronic cigarette smoking in cohorts that were not seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorders. Studies that specifically assessed the neurocognitive or neurobiological (with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance-based neuroimaging studies) consequences of chronic smoking are highlighted. Chronic cigarette smoking appears to be associated with deficiencies in executive functions, cognitive flexibility, general intellectual abilities, learning and/or memory processing speed, and working memory. Chronic smoking is related to global brain atrophy and to structural and biochemical abnormalities in anterior frontal regions, subcortical nuclei and commissural white matter. Chronic smoking may also be associated with an increased risk for various forms of neurodegenerative diseases. The existing literature is limited by inconsistent accounting for potentially confounding biomedical and psychiatric conditions, focus on cross-sectional studies with middle aged and older adults and the absence of studies concurrently assessing neurocognitive, neurobiological and genetic factors in the same cohort. Consequently, the mechanisms promoting the neurocognitive and neurobiological abnormalities reported in chronic smokers are unclear. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if the smoking-related neurobiological and neurocognitive abnormalities increase over time and/or show recovery with sustained smoking cessation.
Focus on Therapeutic Strategies of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Marilena Durazzo,Paola Belci,Alessandro Collo,Enrica Grisoglio,Simona Bo
International Journal of Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/464706
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world (it affects 30% of the general adult population). The NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), defined by steatosis, hepatocellular damage, and lobular inflammation in individuals without significant alcohol consumption and negative viral, congenital, and autoimmune liver disease markers. Currently, NAFLD is considered an emerging epidemic in light of the dramatic increase in obesity rates. With the progressive nature of NASH and its rising prevalence there is a significant need for a specific and targeted treatments since to date there has not been any validated therapies for NAFLD other than weight loss, which is well known to have a poor long-term success rate. In recent years, visceral adipose tissue has taken an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis, and current therapeutic approaches aim at reducing visceral obesity and free fatty acid overflow to the liver. This paper is focused on the treatments used for NAFLD and the potential new therapy. 1. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world (it affects 30% of the general adult population) [1]. The NAFLD is an umbrella term for a group of diseases defined by a hepatic fat infiltration >5% hepatocyte, in the absence of excessive alcohol intake, defined by two standard drinks (20?g ethanol) daily for men and one standard drink (10?g ethanol) daily for women. The NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), defined by steatosis, hepatocellular damage, and lobular inflammation [2] in individuals without significant alcohol consumption and negative viral, congenital, and autoimmune liver disease markers. While steatosis does not carry the risk of progressive liver disease, patients with NASH are at risk of developing cirrhosis (20–30% of patients) [3]. NASH may progress to decompensated liver disease and result in liver failure. Furthermore, NASH confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes [4] both directly and through its association with other cardiometabolic abnormalities, including obesity and metabolic syndrome [5]. Currently NAFLD is considered an emerging epidemic in light of the dramatic increase in obesity rates. With the progressive nature of NASH and its rising prevalence, there is a significant need for a specific and targeted treatments since to date there has
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