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Potential of Waste Water Use for Jatropha Cultivation in Arid Environments
Arisoa M. Rajaona,Nele Sutterer,Folkard Asch
Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture2040376
Abstract: Water is crucial for socio-economic development and healthy ecosystems. With the actual population growth and in view of future water scarcity, development calls for improved sectorial allocation of groundwater and surface water for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Instead of intensifying the pressure on water resources, leading to conflicts among users and excessive pressure on the environment, sewage effluents, after pre-treatment, provide an alternative nutrient-rich water source for agriculture in the vicinity of cities. Water scarcity often occurs in arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and large climate variability and where the choice of crop to be grown is limited by the environmental factors. Jatropha has been introduced as a potential renewable energy resource since it is claimed to be drought resistant and can be grown on marginal sites. Sewage effluents provide a source for water and nutrients for cultivating jatropha, a combined plant production/effluent treatment system. Nevertheless, use of sewage effluents for irrigation in arid climates carries the risk of salinization. Thus, potential irrigation with sewage effluents needs to consider both the water requirement of the crop and those needed for controlling salinity build-up in the top soil. Using data from a case study in Southern Morocco, irrigation requirements were calculated using CROPWAT 8.0. We present here crop evapotranspiration during the growing period, required irrigation, the resulting nutrient input and the related risk of salinization from the irrigation of jatropha with sewage effluent.
New Perspectives on Multiple Source Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Thi Le Thu Nguyen,Francois Septier,Harizo Rajaona,Gareth W. Peters,Ido Nevat,Yves Delignon
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we address the challenging problem of multiple source localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). We develop an efficient statistical algorithm, based on the novel application of Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler methodology, that is able to deal with an unknown number of sources given quantized data obtained at the fusion center from different sensors with imperfect wireless channels. We also derive the Posterior Cram\'er-Rao Bound (PCRB) of the source location estimate. The PCRB is used to analyze the accuracy of the proposed SMC sampler algorithm and the impact that quantization has on the accuracy of location estimates of the sources. Extensive experiments show that the benefits of the proposed scheme in terms of the accuracy of the estimation method that are required for model selection (i.e., the number of sources) and the estimation of the source characteristics compared to the classical importance sampling method.
The Spread of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Madagascar Described by a Sentinel Surveillance Network
Soatiana Rajatonirina, Jean-Michel Heraud, Arnaud Orelle, Laurence Randrianasolo, Norosoa Razanajatovo, Yolande Raoelina Rajaona, Armand Eugène Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana, Vincent Richard
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037067
Abstract: Background The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been a challenge for public health surveillance systems in all countries. In Antananarivo, the first imported case was reported on August 12, 2009. This work describes the spread of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar. Methods The diffusion of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar was explored using notification data from a sentinel network. Clinical data were charted to identify peaks at each sentinel site and virological data was used to confirm viral circulation. Results From August 1, 2009 to February 28, 2010, 7,427 patients with influenza-like illness were reported. Most patients were aged 7 to 14 years. Laboratory tests confirmed infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 in 237 (33.2%) of 750 specimens. The incidence of patients differed between regions. By determining the epidemic peaks we traced the diffusion of the epidemic through locations and time in Madagascar. The first peak was detected during the epidemiological week 47-2009 in Antananarivo and the last one occurred in week 07-2010 in Tsiroanomandidy. Conclusion Sentinel surveillance data can be used for describing epidemic trends, facilitating the development of interventions at the local level to mitigate disease spread and impact.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032
Abstract:

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Naz?mmü?
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
Laplace Transform Method for Unsteady Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through a Porous Medium  [PDF]
M. Ali, M. Awais
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53017
Abstract:

In this article, we have effectively used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform to study the time-dependent thin film flow of a second grade fluid flowing down an inclined plane through a porous medium. The solution to the governing equation is obtained by using the standard Laplace transform. However, to transform the obtained solutions from Laplace space back to the original space, we have used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform. Graphical results have been presented to show the effects of different parameters involved and to show how the fluid flow evolves with time.

An Integral Collocation Approach Based on Legendre Polynomials for Solving Riccati, Logistic and Delay Differential Equations  [PDF]
M. M. Khader, A. M. S. Mahdy, M. M. Shehata
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515228
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose and analyze some schemes of the integral collocation formulation based on Legendre polynomials. We implement these formulae to solve numerically Riccati, Logistic and delay differential equations with variable coefficients. The properties of the Legendre polynomials are used to reduce the proposed problems to the solution of non-linear system of algebraic equations using Newton iteration method. We give numerical results to satisfy the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed schemes.

ДОСЛ ДЖЕННЯ АНАЛ ТИЧНОГО МЕТОДУ ОЦ НЮВАННЯ ЙМОВ РНОСТ ПОТЕНЦ ЙНО КОНФЛ КТНИХ СИТУАЦ Й В ПОВ ТРЯНОМУ РУС The study of the analytical method of evaluating the probability of potential conflict situations in air traffic Исследование аналитического метода оценки вероятности потенциально конфликтных ситуаций в воздушном движении
В.M. Василь?в
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2007,
Abstract: Розглянуто застосування запропонованого ран ше методу оц нювання ймов рност потенц йних конфл кт в для системи керування пов тряним рухом. Досл джено властивост методу, наведено проанал зовано результати комп’ютерного моделювання. Application of the method of potential conflicts probability evaluation offered before for air traffic control system is considered. The properties of the method are investigated, results of computer modeling are represented and analyzed. Рассмотрено применение предложенного ранее метода оценки вероятности потенциальных конфликтов для системы управления воздушным движением. Исследованы свойства метода, приведены и проанализированы результаты компьютерного моделирования.
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