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Cubiertas Vegetales en Vi?edos: Comportamiento de mezclas de Leguminosas Forrajeras Anuales y Efectos sobre la Fertilidad del Suelo
Ovalle,Carlos; del Pozo,Alejandro; Lavín,Arturo; Hirzel,Juan;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000400006
Abstract: with the objective of evaluating and selecting cover crops to improve soil management in vineyards (vitis vinifera l.) cv. cabernet sauvignon, five cover pastures were evaluated: a) control without vegetation; b) control with spontaneous vegetation; c) legume mixture of early maturing cultivars of subterranean clover (trifolium subterraneum l.) and burr medic (medicago polymorpha l.); d) legumes mixture of late maturing cultivars of subterranean clover and balansa clover (t. michelianumsavi); and e) legumes mixture of late maturing cultivars and annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum gaud.). the study was conducted at cauquenes experimental center, agriculture research institute (inia), over two seasons, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. the experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates. the three pasture mixtures had a good establishment and achieved high populations. biomass production was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the mixtures with late maturing cultivars of subterranean clover and balansa clover, compared to the mixture of early maturing cultivars of subterranean clover and burr medic (2.3 to 4 t dm ha-1 yr -1 and 5.3 to 6.2 t dm ha-1 yr -1 in the first and second year, respectively). the contents of n, p and k in the biomass of the cover crops were higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those covers with spontaneous species, which allowed for increasing the content of available n in the soil. as well, higher contents of k and p were detected in the soil. the over crops exercised an important detrimental effect on the population of the spontaneous species that grow in the inter-rows of the vineyard.
Cubiertas Vegetales en Vi edos: Comportamiento de mezclas de Leguminosas Forrajeras Anuales y Efectos sobre la Fertilidad del Suelo Cover Crops in Vineyards: Performance of Annual Forage Legume Mixtures and Effects on Soil Fertility
Carlos Ovalle,Alejandro del Pozo,Arturo Lavín,Juan Hirzel
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: Con el objetivo de evaluar y seleccionar cubiertas vegetales como cultivos entre hileras, para mejorar el manejo del suelo en un vi edo (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, se evaluaron cinco cubiertas: a) testigo sin vegetación; b) testigo con vegetación espontánea; c) mezcla de leguminosas de cultivares precoces de trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L.) con hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L.); d) mezcla de cultivares tardíos de trébol subterráneo con trébol balansa (T. michelianum Savi); e) mezcla de leguminosas tardías con ballica anual (Lolium rigidum Gaud .) El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Experimental Cauquenes del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), durante dos temporadas, 2005-2006 y 2006-2007. El dise o experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Las tres mezclas forrajeras se establecieron adecuadamente y lograron altas poblaciones. La producción de biomasa fue significativamente más alta (P ≤ 0,05) en las mezclas de tréboles tardíos y trébol balansa, respecto de la mezcla de tréboles subterráneos precoces y hualputra (2,3 y 4 t MS ha-1 a o-1 y 5,3 y 6,2 t MS ha-1 a o -1 en el primer y segundo a o, respectivamente). Los contenidos de N, P y K en la biomasa de las cubiertas fueron mayores que en las cubiertas de especies espontáneas, lo que incrementó el contenido de N disponible en el suelo. Se encontró un mayor contenido de K y P en el suelo. Las cubiertas ejercieron un efecto detrimental sobre la población de las especies espontáneas o malezas que crecen en la entre hilera del vi edo. With the objective of evaluating and selecting cover crops to improve soil management in vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, five cover pastures were evaluated: a) control without vegetation; b) control with spontaneous vegetation; c) legume mixture of early maturing cultivars of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.); d) legumes mixture of late maturing cultivars of subterranean clover and balansa clover (T. michelianumSavi); and e) legumes mixture of late maturing cultivars and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). The study was conducted at Cauquenes Experimental Center, Agriculture Research Institute (INIA), over two seasons, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replicates. The three pasture mixtures had a good establishment and achieved high populations. Biomass production was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the mixtures with late maturing cultivars of subterranean clover and balansa clover, compar
Pig Compost Use on Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Soils and Corn Plants  [PDF]
Juan Hirzel, Ingrid Walter
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64057
Abstract: The use of pig compost (PC) in agricultural land has increased in Chile in the last years. This organic amendment is a valuable nutritional source for crops, but its applying must be done in a controlled manner since it exhibited high copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. A short-term field experiment was conducted out to study the effects of increasing PC rates on the production and quality corn crop in two soils located at south central Chile. Five treatments were evaluated: control without fertilization (C), conventional fertilization (CF) (350 kg N ha-1), and three increasing PC rates (15.33, 30.65, and 61.31 Mg·ha-1, corresponding to 350, 700, and 1400 kg N ha-1, respectively) in a split plot design with four replicates. The overall results indicated that dry matter production, grain yield, and plant Zn and Cu concentrations were similar among fertilization sources and rates. Extractable soil Zn concentration exhibited a rate-related increase of PC in both locations, while Cu concentration exhibited this behavior only at the soil located in Chillan. Nevertheless, the values obtained were below of those considered phytotoxic levels. Therefore, the contribution of Zn and Cu through PC applying at different rates to the soils studied showed a slight affect in soil extractable Zn and Cu values without negatively effects on quantity and quality corn crop. The organic amendment applied can be a good and cheaper substitute to conventional fertilization, although further monitoring of Zn and Cu soil levels should be carried out to avoid any environmental risk.
Implicancias del Staphylococcus saprophyticus en la patología infecciosa urinaria de la mujer
W. Hirzel
Acta bioqu?-mica cl?-nica latinoamericana , 2004,
Abstract:
Availability of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium from Poultry Litter and Conventional Fertilizers in a Volcanic Soil Cultivated with Silage Corn
Hirzel,Juan; Walter,Ingrid;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392008000300006
Abstract: poultry litter (pl) is an organic matter source used as soil amendment. besides its important nutrient content, it is a cheap alternative to conventional fertilizers in crop production. the efficient use of pl also helps reduce the environmental problems normally associated with its disposal near poultry production farms. this article reports the relative effects of pl and conventional fertilizers on the availability of soil n, p and k, dry matter (dm) production and total nutrient content in silage corn (zea mays l.). the field experiment was carried out in a soil derived from volcanic ash (tipic melanoxerands) of central south chile. corn was grown for three seasons (2002-2005) and pl and conventional fertilizers were applied in the first two years. the residual effect of the added fertilizer sources was evaluated in the third year. dm production in the fertilized treatments was similar and fluctuated between 30.6 and 37.1 mg ha-1 for the two years of fertilization, and between 18.9 and 20.4 mg ha-1 for the year without addition of nutrients. the plant nutrient concentrations were similar between fertilized treatments, except for the second year, in which n and p concentrations were higher with pl. during the third year (without fertilization), n decreased in the whole plant. soil nutrient availability was similar between fertilization sources for the three years evaluated, the higher concentration being presented in the first two years (with fertilization). these results suggest that pl is an alternative fertilizer source to conventional fertilizers.
Availability of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium from Poultry Litter and Conventional Fertilizers in a Volcanic Soil Cultivated with Silage Corn Disponibilidad de Nitrógeno, Fósforo y Potasio de Cama de Broiler y Fertilizantes Convencionales en un Suelo Volcánico Cultivado con Maíz
Juan Hirzel,Ingrid Walter
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2008,
Abstract: Poultry litter (PL) is an organic matter source used as soil amendment. Besides its important nutrient content, it is a cheap alternative to conventional fertilizers in crop production. The efficient use of PL also helps reduce the environmental problems normally associated with its disposal near poultry production farms. This article reports the relative effects of PL and conventional fertilizers on the availability of soil N, P and K, dry matter (DM) production and total nutrient content in silage corn (Zea mays L.). The field experiment was carried out in a soil derived from volcanic ash (Tipic Melanoxerands) of Central South Chile. Corn was grown for three seasons (2002-2005) and PL and conventional fertilizers were applied in the first two years. The residual effect of the added fertilizer sources was evaluated in the third year. DM production in the fertilized treatments was similar and fluctuated between 30.6 and 37.1 Mg ha-1 for the two years of fertilization, and between 18.9 and 20.4 Mg ha-1 for the year without addition of nutrients. The plant nutrient concentrations were similar between fertilized treatments, except for the second year, in which N and P concentrations were higher with PL. During the third year (without fertilization), N decreased in the whole plant. Soil nutrient availability was similar between fertilization sources for the three years evaluated, the higher concentration being presented in the first two years (with fertilization). These results suggest that PL is an alternative fertilizer source to conventional fertilizers. La cama de broiler (PL) es un compuesto orgánico utilizado como enmienda de suelos, cuyo contenido de nutrientes y bajo precio permiten considerarla como una alternativa al uso de fertilizantes. El uso de PL como fertilizante permite disminuir el riesgo de contaminación ambiental en las zonas de acopio. En este trabajo se compara el efecto en producción de materia seca (MS) y concentración de nutrientes en maíz (Zea mays L.) para ensilaje, y disponibilidad de N, P y K en un suelo volcánico (Tepic Melanoxerands) de la zona centro sur de Chile, obtenido con PL, fertilizantes convencionales y un control sin fertilización. El cultivo fue realizado durante tres temporadas consecutivas; en las dos primeras se fertilizó y la tercera temporada permitió conocer el efecto residual de la fertilización. aplicada. La producción de MS fue similar entre los tratamientos con fertilización, y fluctuó entre 30,6 y 37,1 Mg ha-1 para los a os con fertilización, y entre 18,9 y 20,4 Mg ha-1 para el a o posterior (sin fertiliz
Efecto de diferentes dosis de fertilización inorgánica con N, P, K y fuente orgánica (estiércol de broiler) sobre la producción de maíz y la fertilidad del suelo
Hirzel,Juan; Rodríguez,Nicasio; Zagal,Erick;
Agricultura Técnica , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072004000400005
Abstract: the availability of broiler manure (cb), a mix of broiler litter and wood shavings, has steadily increased as result of the higher poultry production. the use of broiler manure as a soil fertilizer decreases contamination of storage area, and at the same time improves soil fertility. in this study macronutrients, ph, organic matter (om) and electrical conductivity (ec) of soil and corn silage (zea mays l.) production were compared, obtained with two sources of n:p2o5:k2o; cb: and inorganic fertilizers (urea, triple superphosphate (tps), potassium chloride (kcl)) in volcanic ash soils of the vii and viii region, chile, in a vitrandepts and a typic melanoxerands soils, respectively. both fertilizer sources were applied at a rate of 192:150:141 and 384:300:282 kg n:p2o5:k2o ha-1. additionally, macronutrient concentration in the silage corn was measured at harvest. changes in chemical fertility were measured at 0-20 cm soil depth in the vitrandepts soil and at 0-20 and 20-40 cm in the typic melanoxerands soil. results indicated that in the vitrandepts soil corn dm and the available p olsen level were improved significantly with the cb application rates, and mg exchange level was reduced with urea in higher doses. in the typic melanoxerands soil no significant differences were found in all these parameters, although an increase in p olsen levels was observed.
Effect of Split Nitrogen Applications on Durum Wheat Cultivars in Volcanic Soil
Hirzel,Juan; Matus,Iván; Madariaga,Ricardo;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392010000400009
Abstract: durum wheat (triticum turgidum l. var. durum) is an important crop for the world population and occupies a large cultivated area worldwide. new cultivars need constant improvement of their agronomic management, within which n fertilization is highlighted. durum wheat is also important in chile where genetic breeding and agronomic management have been developed to increase yield, industrial, and nutritional grain quality. the objective of this experiment was to determine the appropriate number of n applications during a crop cycle in a volcanic ash soil in south central chile. nitrogen split applications were carried out on three durum wheat cultivars in a melanoxerands soil during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 seasons. a rate of 200 kg ha-1 n was applied at different growing stages including planting, tillering, flag leaf, and heading (200-0-0-0, 100-100-0-0, 66-67-67-0, and 50-50-50-50 kg n ha-1, respectively). the evaluated traits were grain yield, hectoliter weight, and wet gluten content. results indicated that the use of two and three split n applications increased grain yield and wet gluten content with differences among genotypes. the best n split strategy corresponded to two and three n splits: at planting and tillering; at planting, tillering, and flag leaf, respectively.
Effect of Nitrogen Rates and Split Nitrogen Fertilization on Grain Yield and its Components in Flooded Rice
Hirzel,Juan; Pedreros,Alberto; Cordero,Karla;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392011000300015
Abstract: nutritional management in rice (oryza sativa l.) crops is mainly associated with n fertilization, which is difficult to adjust in field conditions due to variations in soil type and climatic conditions. between 28 000 and 46 000 ha per year is dedicated to rice production in chile and profits depend on fertilization. a field experiment determine the effect of n rates and split n fertilization on grain yield and its components was carried out in two locations during two consecutive seasons (2007 to 2009), where five n rates and five split n fertilizations were evaluated. the locations were in parral (36o2’ s; 72o08’ w, vertisol) and san carlos (36o19’ s; 71o59’ w, inceptisol), with n rates of 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 kg ha-1 applied in different development stages, such as sowing, tillering, panicle initiation, and boot. results indicate an important seasonal effect on grain yield. yield increased with n rates higher than 120 and 140 kg ha-1 in san carlos and parral, respectively. moreover, higher productivity with split n fertilization was (1) 33% of n at sowing, 33% at tillering, and 34% at panicle initiation or (2) 50% of n at sowing and 50% at panicle initiation. yield components with the highest effect on productivity were affected by the evaluated split n. on the other hand, higher n rates increased the percentage of both stained and sterile grains per panicle.
Chemical properties of volcanic soil affected by seven-year rotations
Hirzel,Juan; Undurraga,Pablo; González,Jorge;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392011000200016
Abstract: long-term crop rotation systems can benefit soil chemical-physical properties and crop productivity. the lack of information on the effect of long-term crop rotations on soil chemical-physical properties for volcanic soils in chile could restrict reaping real benefits, and make it difficult to take agricultural management decisions, which could lead to possible negative consequences on some soil chemical-physical properties and the environment. the development of information associated with the effect on soil chemical-physical properties with respect to long-term rotation systems and their fertilization management contribute to improving agronomic management decisions for these soils. a study was carried out to assess the effect of six rotation systems replicating fertilization management used by farmers, especially n and p application, and eventually low rates of k, ca and mg on soil chemical properties in a volcanic soil after 7 yr in central south chile. affected chemical properties were ph, inorganic n, and available k, along with a general decrease of ph related to fertilization used, which was insufficient in ca, k, and mg. moreover, this soil exhibited high p adsorption capacity (90.2 to 97.5%). hence, crop rotations that included pasture legumes and crops with high nutrient inputs such as sugar beet (beta vulgaris l.) generated a less negative effect on soil chemical properties. this study indicates that fertilization management in crop rotation systems must consider the input and output nutrient balances to prevent the negative effect on some soil chemical properties.
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