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Effect of Different Feed Structures and Bedding on the Horizontal Spread of Campylobacter jejuni within Broiler Flocks
Beate Sknseng,Birger Svihus,Knut Rudi,P?l Trosvik,Birgitte Moen
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3040741
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of different feed structures and beddings on the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, and the effect on the cecal microbiota. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or wood shavings were fed either a wheat-based control diet (Control), a diet where 50% of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat prior to pelleting (Wheat), or a wheat-based diet, such as the control diet diluted with 12% oat hulls (Oat). Samples from the cloacal mucosa of all birds were taken daily for C. jejuni quantification and cecum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for C. jejuni quantification and microbiota analyses. We have shown a statistically significant effect of increased feed structure on the reduced spread of C. jejuni in chicken flocks, but no significant differences were detected between types of structure included in the feed. No significant changes in the dominating microbiota in the lower lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract were observed, which indicates that feed structure only has an effect on the upper GI tract. Delaying the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks could, at time of slaughter, result in fewer C. jejuni-positive broilers.
Co-Infection Dynamics of a Major Food-Borne Zoonotic Pathogen in Chicken
Beate Sknseng,P?l Trosvik,Monika Zimonja,Gro Johnsen,Lotte Bjerrum,Karl Pedersen,Nina Wallin,Knut Rudi
PLOS Pathogens , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030175
Abstract: A major bottleneck in understanding zoonotic pathogens has been the analysis of pathogen co-infection dynamics. We have addressed this challenge using a novel direct sequencing approach for pathogen quantification in mixed infections. The major zoonotic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level. We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature (treated with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host and not the background flora that is important in determining the Campylobacter colonisation pattern. Our results showed that mainly two of the seven C. jejuni strains dominated the Campylobacter flora in the chickens, with a shift of the dominating strain during the infection period. We propose a model in which multiple C. jejuni strains can colonise a single host, with the dominant strains being replaced as a consequence of strain-specific immune responses. This model represents a new understanding of C. jejuni epidemiology, with future implications for the development of novel intervention strategies.
Prevalence of Wild-Type Butyrylcholinesterase Genotype in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia  [PDF]
Beate Mueller, Georg Adler
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.53019
Abstract: Approximately, two-thirds patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are reported to have homozygous wild-type butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) gene expression. It is associated with a higher rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, which ultimately leads to increase in the levels of BuChE in advanced stages of the disease. Rivastigmine, a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, might be of additional benefit in patients with AD with wild-type BuChE allele.
The Renin-Angiotensin System in the Development of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Animal Models and Humans
Beate Rassler
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3040940
Abstract: Hypertension is still one of the major causes of death from cardiovascular failure. Increased salt intake may aggravate the rise in blood pressure and the development of consequential damage of the heart, the vessels and other organs. The general necessity of restricted salt intake regardless of blood pressure or salt sensitivity has been a matter of debate over the past decades. This review summarizes the main pathogenic mechanisms of hypertension and salt sensitivity in rat models, particularly in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Although SHRs are commonly considered to be salt-resistant, there is much evidence that salt loading may deteriorate blood pressure and cardiovascular function even in these animals. Similarly, EH is not a homogenous disorder – some patients, but not all, exhibit pronounced salt sensitivity. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure and salt and fluid homeostasis and thus is one of the main targets of antihypertensive therapy. This review focuses on the contribution of the RAS to the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension in SHRs and patients with EH.
Organizaciones sociales y anclaje territorial Escenarios y componentes de la transformación socioterritorial y local en Venezuela
Jungemann,Beate;
Cuadernos del Cendes , 2008,
Abstract: in latin america, social movements and organizations engage in a struggle for better living conditions, demanding more participation in public policies, from and in their territories. for the democratization of society, the socioterritorial anchoring of social organizations is very important. this article examines if in the venezuelan case new public spaces are being built in the microlocal level, based on the practices of communitarian organizations. the analysis of organizations such as communal councils and health committees shows achievements, difficulties and contradictions in which their communitarian practices are embedded. the difficult construction of institutionalized public spaces for the exercise of a citizenship anchored in the socioterritorial realm has begun in venezuela.
Bibliotheken und Portale - ein überblick / Libraries and portals - a survey
Guba, Beate
GMS Medizin-Bibliothek-Information , 2006,
Abstract: Initially a definition of the term portal is given by which the main functionalities of portals are described. Furthermore a distinction is made between two different types of portals: a) Subject-oriented information portals and b) MyLibrary portals. The progress in this area and future tendencies are illustrated by various examples. This article focuses on the scientific context, public libraries are excluded.
Review: Lewis A. Dexter (2006). Elite and Specialized Interviewing. With a New Introduction by Alan Ware and Martín Sánchez-Jankowski Review: Lewis A. Dexter (2006). Elite and Specialized Interviewing. With a New Introduction by Alan Ware and Martín Sánchez-Jankowski Rese a: Lewis A. Dexter (2006). Elite and Specialized Interviewing. With a New Introduction by Alan Ware and Martín Sánchez-Jankowski
Beate Littig
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Der Eigenverlag des European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) besorgte 2006 in der Reihe ECPR Classics die Neuauflage des Buches "Elite and Specialized Interviewing" des Politikwissenschaftlers L.A. DEXTER, das zuerst 1969 erschienen ist. Eliteinterviews sind in DEXTERs Verst ndnis nicht-standardisierte, offene Interviews mit Angeh rigen der politischen oder wirtschaftlichen Elite, die es den Befragten erm glichen, ihre eigenen Relevanzen darzulegen. Was heute als Gemeinplatz qualitativer Sozialforschung gilt, kann zur Zeit der Ersterscheinung von DEXTERs Buch und unter der Vorherrschaft quantitativer Sozialforschung als methodische Innovation angesehen werden. DEXTERs Buch, das weniger ein Methodenbuch als ein Essay über seine umfangreichen Erfahrungen mit dem Interviewen von Eliten ist, enth lt vielf ltige praktische Hinweise für das Interviewen von Eliten, die nach wie vor gültig sind. Sie betreffen sowohl die gegenw rtig prim r englischsprachige Literatur über Eliteinterviews als auch das vergleichbare deutschsprachige Interviewen von ExpertInnen. Insofern kann das Buch zurecht als Klassiker bezeichnet werden, auch wenn die methodologischen und methodischen überlegungen qualitativer Sozialforschung inzwischen differenzierter und methodenkritischer sind. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080151 The European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) republished in 2006 the book of the political scientist L.A. DEXTER on "Elite and Specialized Interviewing." According to DEXTER the main characteristic of this type of interviews is non-standardized treatment. Through this the interviewee is given the chance to present his or her own relevance with regard to the topic and situation at stake. What seems to be self-evident in the context of qualitative social research today—the importance of the interviewee's definition of the situation and the topic at stake—can be regarded as an innovation in the 1970ies considering the predominance of quantitative social research. DEXTER's essay gives a broad variety of hints of how to approach and practically interview elites, which are still up-to-date. Thus the book can be labeled as a classic, despite the fact that the methodological reflections about qualitative social research, including elite interviewing or as in the German-speaking context expert interviews have become much more detailed and divers. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080151 El Consorcio Europeo para la Investigación Política (ECPR, por sus siglas en inglés) reeditó en 2006 el libro del politólogo L.A. DEXTER sobre "Elite and Specialized Interviewing". De acuer
Interviews mit Eliten – Interviews mit ExpertInnen: Gibt es Unterschiede? Interviews with the Elite and with Experts. Are There Any Differences? Entrevistas con élites y con expertos. Existen diferencias?
Beate Littig
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Vergleicht man die überwiegend deutschsprachige Literatur zu Experteninterviews mit den internationalen Beitr gen zu Eliteninterviews, fallen mehr Gemeinsamkeiten als Unterschiede auf. Thematisiert werden hier wie dort die gro en Zugangsprobleme und Spezifika der Interaktionssituation und der Gespr chsführung. Auch bei der jeweiligen Definition der Zielgruppen der Interviews (ExpertInnen und Eliten) gibt es überschneidungen, wenn auch nicht Deckungsgleichheit. Der Beitrag diskutiert die Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede von beiden methodischen Ans tzen und will so zu einer Pr zisierung der Methodologie des Experteninterviews beitragen. Er endet mit einem wissenssoziologisch begründeten Pl doyer dafür, (professionelle) Funktionseliten aufgrund ihrer Machtpositionen als eine spezifische Gruppe von ExpertInnen zu betrachten. Methodologisch betrachtet sind ExpertInnen (und somit auch Eliten) aufgrund ihres spezifischen Deutungs- und Handlungswissens für die sozial- und politikwissenschaftlich orientierte Forschung bedeutsam. Konsequenterweise sind dann Interviews mit Eliten, die auf die Generierung expliziten wie impliziten, professionellen oder berufsbezogenen Wissens abzielen, als Experteninterviews anzusehen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803161 A comparison of the predominantly German-language literature on expert interviews in international articles on interviewing the elite reveals more commonalities than differences. Similar issues are discussed in both, such as the problems of gaining access to these groups, and the specifics of interaction and interviewing. Although not identical, the respective target group definitions (experts and the elite) for such interviews overlap. This article discusses the commonalities and differences in these two methodological approaches, thereby contributing to a more detailed specification of the methodology of expert interviews. It concludes with an appeal based on the sociology of knowledge that the (professional) functional elite—given their positions of power—be considered as a specific group of experts. From a methodological perspective and as a result of their specific background knowledge ("know why") and know-how, experts (and thus also the elite) are of relevance to social and political science research. Consequently, interviews with the elite aimed at generating explicit, tacit, professional or occupational knowledge should be seen as expert interviews. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803161 Una comparación de la literatura preferentemente en alemán sobre entrevistas a expertos y de artículos internacionales sobre la entr
New Measures for Combatting Discrimination in the European Union
Beate Winkler
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2001,
Abstract: The European Commission on November 25, 1999 adopted two Directives related to racial discrimination and equality respectively and a Community Action Plan for combatting discrimination in the period 2001-2006. Between June and November 2000, the Council of the EU moved ahead with determination and speed in adopting said proposals.This paper analyzes and describes the two Directives and the Action Plan as well as the role the European Monitoring Centre for Racism and Xenophobia.
Die Entdeckung der Differenz: Zur Besonderheit des Vaters für das Kind The Discovery of Difference: On the Noteworthiness of the Father for his Child
Beate Kortendiek
querelles-net , 2003,
Abstract: In dem Sammelband wird in zehn Beitr gen aus psychoanalytischer und -therapeutischer sowie bindungs- und systemtheoretischer Perspektive nach der Bedeutung des Vaters für S ugling und Kleinkind gefragt. Hierbei geht es u.a. um die Analyse von Vaterlosigkeit, Bindungsentwicklungen, Spielsituationen und Schlafst rungen unter besonderer Berücksichtung der Entwicklung dyadischer und triadischer Beziehungen zwischen Vater, Mutter und Kind. Die Berichte sind von Wissenschaftler/-innen und Therapeut/-innen aus sterreich, Deutschland und der Schweiz verfasst und gehen zurück auf die Jahrestagung (2001) der Deutschen Gesellschaft für die seelische Gesundheit in der frühen Kindheit“ (Germanspeeking Association für Infant Mental Health/GAIMH). Die Ver ffentlichung erm glicht einen überblick über die aktuelle psychologisch orientierte Forschung und Debatte der frühen Beziehung zwischen Vater und Kind. The ten contributions to this anthology all address the relevance of the father for the baby and infant, employing psychoanalytical and therapeutic perspectives, as well as attachment theory and systemic theory. Among other things, the texts analyse growing up without a father, developing attachment, child play, and sleep disorders with a special focus on the development of dyadic and triadic relations between father, mother, and child. The individual reports were written by scientists and therapists in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, and were inspired by the 2001 annual Meeting of the “German Speaking Association for Infant Mental Health (GAIMH).” This publication offers an overview of current psychological research and debates about early father-child relationships.
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