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Correlations between periparturient serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, bilirubin, and urea and the occurrence of clinical and subclinical postpartum bovine endometritis
Toschi B Kaufmann, Marc Drillich, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, Wolfgang Heuwieser
BMC Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-6-47
Abstract: Higher concentrations of urea at wk +1 were associated with increased odds of CE (OR = 1.7, P = 0.04) in primiparous (PP) cows. A predictor cut point of 3.9 mmol/L (sensitivity: 61%, specificity: 70%) was determined. In multiparous (MP) cows, the logistic regression model revealed that higher concentrations of NEFA at wk -1 were associated with increased odds of CE and SCE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 9.1, P = 0.05; healthy vs. SCE: OR = 12.1, P = 0.04). A predictor cut point of 0.3 mmol/L (sensitivity: 38%, specificity: 87% and sensitivity: 35%, specificity: 89%, respectively) was determined. Increasing concentrations of urea at wk +5 were associated with decreased odds of CE (healthy vs. CE: OR = 0.6, P = 0.01; SCE vs. CE: OR = 0.5, P = 0.03). A predictor cut point of 3.8 mmol/L (sensitivity: 52%, specificity: 81%) was determined. For BHBA and bilirubin relationships with CE or SCE were not detected.The corresponding combinations of sensitivity and specificity of the determined predictor cut points were not satisfactory for practical use. Thus, the analysed parameters, i.e. NEFA, BHBA, bilirubin, and urea, at the chosen time points, i.e. at wk -1, at wk +1, and at wk +5 relative to calving, are unsatisfactory for disease prediction. Further research is required to clarify the questions raised by the current study.Postpartum endometritis in cattle is a multifactorial disease with high economic impact. Inflammation of the bovine uterus has been demonstrated to decrease reproductive performance. Both, clinical (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SCE) were associated with increased days to first service as well as decreased conception and pregnancy rates resulting in an increased risk of culling [1-4].Bacteriological contaminations of the uterus after parturition and metabolic changes in the transition period are important etiological factors. Negative energy balance, is known to influence the number and functional properties of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) [5,6]. There is e
Salmonella Prevalence in Turkey Flocks before and after Implementation of the Control Program in Germany
Annemarie K?sbohrer,Andreas Schroeter,Reiner Helmuth,Bernd-Alois Tenhagen
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030342
Abstract: The objective of the study was to describe the Salmonella prevalence in turkey flocks before and after the implementation of the Salmonella control program in Germany and to identify factors that are potentially associated with the presence of Salmonella in the flocks. To achieve this, all breeding flocks and a representative sample of the fattening flocks were tested for Salmonella. None of the 98 turkey breeding flocks but 31 (10.3%) of 300 turkey fattening flocks were positive for Salmonella spp. in the baseline study during 2006/2007. In 11 (3.7%) fattening flocks S. Enteritidis (1 flock; 0.3%) or S. Typhimurium (8 flocks; 2.7%) or monophasic S. Typhimurium (2 flocks; 0.3%), which are of special public health relevance in Germany, were detected. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that production type and season were significant risk factors for the presence of Salmonella spp. in fattening turkey flocks in Germany. Data from mandatory official testing within the Salmonella control program in 2010 and 2011 revealed that Salmonella prevalence in turkey fattening flocks has decreased significantly to 3.3% and 2.6%. In line with this result, prevalence of S. Enteritidis or S. Typhimurium had decreased to 2.6% and 1.5%. Results indicate that the prevalence of Salmonella in turkey fattening flocks has decreased significantly.
Comparison of spa Types, SCCmec Types and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of MRSA Isolated from Turkeys at Farm, Slaughter and from Retail Meat Indicates Transmission along the Production Chain
Birgit Vossenkuhl, J?rgen Brandt, Alexandra Fetsch, Annemarie K?sbohrer, Britta Kraushaar, Katja Alt, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096308
Abstract: The prevalence of MRSA in the turkey meat production chain in Germany was estimated within the national monitoring for zoonotic agents in 2010. In total 22/112 (19.6%) dust samples from turkey farms, 235/359 (65.5%) swabs from turkey carcasses after slaughter and 147/460 (32.0%) turkey meat samples at retail were tested positive for MRSA. The specific distributions of spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles of MRSA isolated from these three different origins were compared using chi square statistics and the proportional similarity index (Czekanowski index). No significant differences between spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles of MRSA from different steps of the German turkey meat production chain were observed using Chi-Square test statistics. The Czekanowski index which can obtain values between 0 (no similarity) and 1 (perfect agreement) was consistently high (0.79–0.86) for the distribution of spa types and SCCmec types between the different processing stages indicating high degrees of similarity. The comparison of antimicrobial resistance profiles between the different process steps revealed the lowest Czekanowski index values (0.42–0.56). However, the Czekanowski index values were substantially higher than the index when isolates from the turkey meat production chain were compared to isolates from wild boar meat (0.13–0.19), an example of a separated population of MRSA used as control group. This result indicates that the proposed statistical method is valid to detect existing differences in the distribution of the tested characteristics of MRSA. The degree of similarity in the distribution of spa types, SCCmec types and antimicrobial resistance profiles between MRSA isolates from different process stages of turkey meat production may reflect MRSA transmission along the chain.
Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany
Katja Alt, Alexandra Fetsch, Andreas Schroeter, Beatriz Guerra, Jens A Hammerl, Stefan Hertwig, Natalja Senkov, Anna Geinets, Christine Mueller-Graf, Juliane Braeunig, Annemarie Kaesbohrer, Bernd Appel, Andreas Hensel, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen
BMC Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-7-69
Abstract: Overall, 152 of 290 (52%) fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%.t011 (66%) and t034 (23%) were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%). In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes) phenotypes.Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p < 0.05), and production type (wean-to-finish OR: 4.0; CI: 1.6-10.4; p < 0.05) as risk factors associated with a positive MRSA finding in fattening pig operations.MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.In recent years, the emergence of the MRSA multilocus sequence type (MLST) CC398 has been reported in livestock in Europe and North America mainly in pigs, but also in veal calves and poultry [1-4]. Characteristic for this newly identified type are its wide spread among livestock and persons in close contact with colonised animals, and its low morbidity.Animal disease involving MRSA CC398 has been described, especially in horses [5-7] and dairy cattle [8]. In addition, CC398 has been associated with severe diseases in humans [9-12]. Currently the only route of transmission considered playing a relevant role in the transmission of MRSA CC398 from animals to humans is direct contact with colonised livestock [13]. Cross-transmission by contact between humans and pigs or veal calves led to the classification of persons occupationally exposed to pigs or veal calves, e. g. farmers, veterinarians and slaughter
A Thermal-Hydraulic Coolant Channel Module (CCM) for Single- and Two-Phase Flow  [PDF]
Alois Hoeld
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.612179
Abstract: A theoretical “drift-flux based thermal-hydraulic mixture-fluid coolant channel model” is presented. It is the basis to a corresponding digital “Coolant Channel Module (CCM)”. This purpose derived “Separate-Region Mixture Fluid Approach” should yield an alternative platform to the currently dominant “Separate-Phase Models” where each phase is treated separately. Contrary to it, a direct procedure could be established with the objective to simulate in an as general as possible way the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic parameters of single- and/or (now non-separated) two-phase fluids flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channels. Their validity could be confirmed by a wide range of verification and validation runs, showing very satisfactory results. The resulting universally applicable code package CCM should provide a fundamental element for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic situations over a wide range of complex systems (such as different types of heat exchangers and steam generators as being applied in both conventional but also nuclear power stations, 1D and 3D nuclear reactor cores etc). Thereby the derived set of equations for different coolant channels (distinguished by their key numbers) as appearing in these systems can be combined with other ODE-s and non-linear algebraic relations from additional parts of such an overall model. And these can then to be solved by applying an appropriate integration routine. Within the solution procedure, however, mathematical discontinuities can arise. This due to the fact that along such a coolant channel transitions from single- to two-phase flow regimes and vice versa could take place. To circumvent these difficulties it will in the presented approach be proposed that the basic coolant channel (BC) is subdivided into a number of sub-channels (SC-s), each of them being occupied exclusively by only a single or a two-phase flow regime. After an appropriate nodalization of the BC (and thus its SC-s) and after applying a “modified finite volume method” together with other special activities the fundamental set of non-linear thermal-hydraulic partial differential equations together with corresponding constitutive relations can be solved for each SC separately. As a result of such a spatial discretization for each SC type (and thus the entire BC) the wanted set of non-linear ordinary differential equations of 1st order could be established. Obviously, special attention had to be given to the varying SC entrance or outlet positions, describing the movement of boiling
The Education of History Teachers in Europe—A Comparative Study. First Results of the “Civic and History Education Study”  [PDF]
Alois Ecker
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.910115
Abstract: The?Civic and History Education Study?is the first comprehensivestudy in Europe to describe and analyse the formation of school teachersof the historio-political subjects. Based on a systemic and organizational approach, between 2010 and 2013 more than 46 institutions of 33 countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) have been investigated and compared on the existing full study programs in initial teacher education for school subjects?History,?Civic/Citizenship Education,?Politics,?Social Studies?and?Cultural Studies.The nature and quality of the education and training that teachers of these subjects receive seems crucial for reflecting thesocial and political developments of lifein multicultural and diverse societies. History teachers and teachers of?Social Studies?or?
Creative Learning Methods and Open Choice of Topics Facilitate Self-Directed Learning and Motivation of Veterinary Students  [PDF]
Carola Fischer-Tenhagen, Wolfgang Heuwieser, Sebastian Arlt
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714193
Abstract: The veterinary curriculum is predominantly characterized by lecturing large amounts of facts than by self-directed learning of the students. According to previous research on educational concepts, however, by just listening, students memorize a smaller fraction of the presented information. In addition, the ability of self-directed learning is a perquisite for lifelong acquisition up to date knowledge for veterinary practitioners. In this project 162 fourth year students attending the clinical rotation of reproduction of domestic animals were enrolled. To motivate students to engage in self-directed learning, instead of writing a clinical case report, they were allowed to choose a topic of their own interest in the field of animal reproduction. They had a free choice for the method of presentation. Their attitudes and experiences were evaluated in a questionnaire. 87.7% of students decided to research and present a topic of their own choice instead of a clinical case report. They presented the information with a talk (44.9%), a quiz or board game (26.8%), a poster, video (18.8%), or with a model (5.1%). Evaluation of the project revealed that the time for preparation did not differ between a chosen topic and a case report. The students stated that learning success and motivation was higher when preparing or listening to presentations and colleague talks compared to writing standard case reports. Overall, motivation was high and as a side effect, the students produced valuable teaching material for following courses.
Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition
Mariusz P Kowalewski, Erika Michel, Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Franco Guscetti, Bernd Hoffmann, Selim Aslan, Iris Reichler
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-9-109
Abstract: The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o.) as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl) and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites) from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated.The data presented suggest that the luteal provision of P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant dogs may be regulated at the PRLr level. Furthermore, a role of PRL not only in maintaining the canine CL function but also in regulating the placental function is strongly suggested. A possible functional interrelationship between luteal P4 and placental and luteal PRLr expression also with respect to the prepartal luteolysis is implied.Regulation of reproductive function in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is governed by many, as yet not fully understood, species-specific mechanisms. Most of the knowledge available so far relates to clinical observations. Thus, the production of progesterone of follicular origin is observed already prior to ovu
The Notion of Antemurale Christianitatis in Connection with the City of Lemberg/Lwów/L viv Lemberg als Antemurale christianitatis zur Zeit des Ersten Weltkriegs
Alois Woldan
Studi Slavistici , 2013,
Abstract: “Antemurale christianitatis” (“Bastion of Christianity”) is a notion frequently associated with the city of L’viv / Lwów/ Lemberg / Leopolis , especially within the context of World War I and the following years. This notion occurs in texts of different genres written in different languages from different national points of view. This concept is thus an essential element of the text of the city of L’viv. The concept of “antemurale” is based on a spatial model consisting of a few elementary components – a dichotomous space divided into two parts, West and East, a strict border between them, and the bastion itself as a kind of fortress situated to the West of that border . In the given texts, all these components are displayed by different historic actors, political powers which are to fulfil either the role of the West or that of the East. When the actors in this concept change, the connotations connected with certain roles do not change – the West is always civilized and cultured, the East always chaotic and barbaric, while the bastion has to defend pure Western values. Here we can find stereotypes which do not correspond to real facts, but show the imaginative force of the concept. Discussing the notion of “antemurale” leads to a discourse that shows the influence of political power executed by linguistic expressions: the concept of “antemurale” is mainly a Polish invention, but it is taken over by the weaker opponent, the Ukrainian side in Galicia, which takes over this model to display it in another, controversial way. There is only a very small number of voices, Austrian and German writers, who try to weaken the rigid border line between the two antagonistic spaces and in this way reveal the notion of Antemurale as an ideological concept. “Antemurale christianitatis” (“Bastion of Christianity”) is a notion frequently associated with the city of L’viv / Lwów/ Lemberg / Leopolis , especially within the context of World War I and the following years. This notion occurs in texts of different genres written in different languages from different national points of view. This concept is thus an essential element of the text of the city of L’viv. The concept of “antemurale” is based on a spatial model consisting of a few elementary components – a dichotomous space divided into two parts, West and East, a strict border between them, and the bastion itself as a kind of fortress situated to the West of that border . In the given texts, all these components are displayed by different historic actors, political powers which are to fulfil either the role of the We
Application of simulation models for optimization of coal blends
Bury Alois
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2004,
Abstract: V prostrediu trhovej ekonomiky sú kladené zvlá vysoké po iadavky na riadenie vyrobnych technológií v oblasti uholnych hlbinnych baní ( a ba, od a enie, apod.) z h adiska dosiahnutia èo najlep ích ekonomickych parametrov ( produktivita práce, zisk, rentabilita).Jednou z mo ností ich zlep ení je aj u itie metód selektívnej a by a homogenizácie. Toto je v ak ve mi zlo ity technicky problém a jeho riadenie patrí k problémom, ktoré doposia neboli uspokojivo vyrie ené.Metódy riadenia tychto procesov sú zalo ené na modelovom rie ení tandartnych i ne tandartnych situácií a na vyu itiu simulaèného systému.èlánok je zamerany na mo nosti vyu ívania simulaènych modelov aplikovate nych na problematiku riadenia selektívnej a by a homogenizácie. Na podklade vysledkov rie enia projektov GAèR: 105/ 94/1119 a 105/97/1320, sme na na om pracovisku ( In titútu ekonomiky a systémov riadenia, na HGF, V B TU Ostrava ) vyvinuli simulaèny program, ktory sme nazvali SIMDUL. Tento program umo òuje vytvorenie simulaèného poèítaèového modelu konkrétnej hlbinnej bani, bez potreby programovania, formou interakèného dialógu u ívatelia so systémom s mo nos ou simulova dynamicky kontinuálne vyvoj kvalitatívnych parametrov uholnych zmesí v zásobníkoch a na linkách pásovych dopravníkov v bani s mo nos ou optimalizácie ich zlo ení.
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