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Potential Nutritional Benefits of Current Citrus Consumption
Tami Turner,Betty J. Burri
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3010170
Abstract: Citrus contains nutrients and phytochemicals that may be beneficial for health. We collected citrus production and consumption data and estimated the amount of these compounds that are consumed. We then compared the amounts of citrus and citrus-derived compounds used in studies that suggest a health benefit to the amounts typically found in citrus. Data is scarce, but suggests that citrus consumption might improve indices of antioxidant status, and possibly cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity.
Vacuum-Matter Interaction through Hyper-Dimensional Time-Space Shifting  [PDF]
René Burri
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2016.23037
Abstract: In the last decade, the need to arrive at a Grand Unification Theory (GUT) has become more and more pressing, being able to open a new matter and universe knowledge. However, the difficulty arises from the fact that new particle discovery shall not resolve the conflict between the various main forces; that is the gravitation and quantum-relativistic theories. It is evident that new players must enter the scene together with extraordinary innovations from a conceptual point of view as they had already been shown in history when the revolutionary Newton and Einstein theories came into the scene. The study presents an attempt to make a connection between quantum1 [1] physics and relativistic theories2 [2] through the introduction of a new item from the peculiar concept of “precursive time”. The analysis was carried out starting from the plausible hypothesis that the time component is the subject of “curvature” as a result of the interaction. For the representation of the model, the geometry of the hypersphere has been applied, which resolves correlations between the imaginary temporal level, devoid of vector coordinates, and the four-dimensional M4 plane.
A Rank-Order Procedure Applied to an Ethoexperimental Behavior Model—The Multivariate Concentric Square FieldTM (MCSF) Test  [PDF]
Bengt J. Meyerson, Betty Jurek, Erika Roman
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.34035
Abstract: Designing relevant animal models in order to investigate the neurobiological basis for human mental disorders is an important challenge. The need for new tests to be developed and traditional tests to be improved has recently been em-phasized. The authors propose a multivariate test approach, the multivariate concentric square fieldTM (MCSF) test. To measure and evaluate variation in the behavioral traits, we here put forward a statistical procedure of which the working title is “trend analysis”. Low doses of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam (DZP; 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg) were used for exploring the use of the trend analysis in combination with multivariate data analysis for assessment of MCSF per-formance in rats. The commonly used elevated plus maze (EPM) test was used for comparison. The trend analysis comparing vehicle and the DZP1.5 groups revealed significantly higher general activity and risk-taking behavior in the DZP1.5 rats relative to vehicle rats. This finding was supported by multivariate data analysis procedures. It is concluded that the trend analysis together with multivariate data analysis procedures offers possibilities to extract information and illustrates effects obtained in the MCSF test. Diazepam in doses that have no apparent increase in open arm activity in the EPM was effective to alter the behavior in the MCSF test. The MCSF test and the use of multivariate data analysis and the proposed trend analysis may be useful alternatives to behavioral test batteries and traditionally used tests for the understanding of mechanisms underlying various mental states. Finally, the impact of an ethological reasoning and multivariate measures enabling behavioral profiling of animals may be a useful complementary methodology when phenotyping animals in behavioral neuroscience.

CARAL: The City of the Sacred Fire / La Ciudad del Fuego Sagrado by Ruth Shady Solís
Betty J Meggers
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2006,
Abstract:
Is "Safety" Dangerous? A Critical Examination of the Classroom as Safe Space
Betty J. Barrett
Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 2010,
Abstract: The notion that the classroom can, indeed must, be a safe space to promote student engagement and enhance academic outcomes is pervasive in the teaching and learning literature. Despite the prevalence of this claim, there is a dearth of empirical evidence documenting the effectiveness of safe space classrooms in achieving these goals. The purpose of this essay is to provide a critical examination of the classroom as safe space. I begin by deconstructing the common meanings of safety as presented in the pedagogical literature and provide an overview of the existing research on student perceptions of safe space learning environments. I then problematize the metaphor of the classroom as safe space through an examination of 1) the impact of safety on student intellectual development 2) the impossibility of safety for students in marginalized and oppressed populations 3) the challenges to assessing student learning in safe environments and 4) the ambiguity inherent in defining safety for students. I conclude by arguing that both educators and students are better served by the development of an alternative discourse of classroom safety, one that is predicated on the notion of classroom civility.Dans la litte rature sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage, la notion selon laquelle la classe doit vraiment e tre un espace se curitaire pour promouvoir la participation de l’e tudiant et ame liorer ses re sultats scolaires est omnipre sente. Malgre la pre valence de cette affirmation, il y a une pe nurie de donne es probantes empiriques venant e tayer l’efficacite des classes en tant qu’espace se curitaire afin d’atteindre ces buts. L’objectif du pre sent essai est de proce der a un examen critique de la classe en tant qu’espace se curitaire. Je commence par de construire la signification courante de la se curite telle qu’elle est pre sente e dans la litte rature sur la pe dagogie et fournis un aperc u de la recherche existante sur les perceptions des e tudiants relativement aux environnements d’apprentissage se curitaires. Je conside re ensuite la me taphore de la classe en tant qu’espace se curitaire comme un proble me et examine : 1) les re percussions de la se curite sur le de veloppement intellectuel des e tudiants; 2) le caracte re impossible de la se curite pour les e tudiants qui font partie des populations marginalise es et opprime es; 3) les difficulte s lie es a l’e valuation de l’apprentissage des e tudiants dans des environnements se curitaires; 4) l’ambigui te inhe rente a la de finition de la se curite des e tudiants. Je conclus en expliquant
Handbook of South American Archaeology
Betty J Meggers
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2011,
Abstract:
Evidence for Genetic Variation in Human Mate Preferences for Sexually Dimorphic Physical Traits
Karin J. H. Verweij, Andrea V. Burri, Brendan P. Zietsch
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049294
Abstract: Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large sample of twins, we assess forced-choice, dichotomous mate preferences for height, skin colour, hair colour and length, chest hair, facial hair, and breast size. Across the traits, identical twins reported more similar preferences than nonidentical twins, suggesting genetic effects. However, the relative magnitude of estimated genetic and environmental effects differed greatly and significantly between different trait preferences, with heritability estimates ranging from zero to 57%.
Measurement of calprotectin in ascitic fluid to identify elevated polymorphonuclear cell count
Emanuel Burri,Felix Schulte,Jürgen Muser,Rémy Meier
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i13.2028
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic capability of calprotectin in ascitic fluid for detecting a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count > 250/μL ascites. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 130 ascites samples were analysed from 71 consecutive patients referred for paracentesis. Total and differential leukocyte cell counts were determined manually with a Neubauer chamber and gentian-violet stain. Calprotectin was measured in 1 mL ascetic fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a point-of-care (POC) lateral flow assay with the Quantum Blue Reader (Bühlmann Laboratories). All measurements were carried out in a central laboratory by senior personnel blinded to patient history. A PMN count > 250/μL was the primary endpoint of the study. The diagnostic value of ascitic calprotectin measurement was assessed by comparing to the final diagnosis of each patient that had been adjudicated by investigators blinded to calprotectin values. RESULTS: The PMN count was > 250/μL in 19 samples (14.6%) from 15 patients (21.1%) and varied widely among the study population (range 10-19 800/mL and 1-17 820/mL, respectively). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) was the final diagnosis in four patients (5.6%). All patients with PMN ≤ 250/μL had negative bacterial culture. PMN count was elevated in five patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, three with lymphoma, one with neuroendocrine carcinoma, and two with secondary peritonitis due to abdominal perforation. PMN cell counts correlated with ascitic calprotectin values (Spearman’s rho; r = 0.457 for ELISA, r = 0.473 for POC). A considerable range of ascitic calprotectin concentrations was detected by ELISA [median 0.43 μg/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 0.23-1.23 (range 0.10-14.93)] and POC [median 0.38 μg/mL, IQR 0.38-0.56 (range 0.38-13.31)]. Ascitic calprotectin levels were higher in samples with PMN > 250/μL, by both ELISA [median (IQR) 2.48 μg/mL (1.61-3.65) vs 0.10 μg/mL (0.10-0.36), P < 0.001] and POC [2.78 μg/mL (2.05-5.37) vs 0.38 μg/mL (0.38-0.41), P < 0.001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for identifying an elevated PMN count was 0.977 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.995) for ELISA and 0.982 (95%CI: 0.942 to 0.997) for POC (P = 0.246 vs ELISA). Using the optimal cut-off value for ELISA (0.63 μg/mL), ascitic calprotectin had 94.8% sensitivity, 89.2% specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of 8.76 and 0.06 respectively, positive and negative predictive values of 60.0% and 99.0% respectively, and 90.0% overall accuracy. Using the optimal cut-off value for
Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects
Mira Burri
Diversity , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/d2081059
Abstract: “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.
Vassiliev Invariants and Gleam Polynomials
Urs Burri
Mathematics , 1996,
Abstract: It was shown by Goussarov that Vassiliev invariants are polynomials in the gleams for a fixed Turaev shadow. In this paper we show that Vassiliev invariants are almost characterized by this fact. We also prove that the space of knot invariants which are polynomials in the gleams is bigger than the Vassiliev subspace.
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