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Effect of Different Feed Structures and Bedding on the Horizontal Spread of Campylobacter jejuni within Broiler Flocks
Beate Sk?nseng,Birger Svihus,Knut Rudi,P?l Trosvik,Birgitte Moen
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3040741
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of different feed structures and beddings on the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks, and the effect on the cecal microbiota. Broiler chickens raised in 24 eight-bird group cages on either rubber mat or wood shavings were fed either a wheat-based control diet (Control), a diet where 50% of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat prior to pelleting (Wheat), or a wheat-based diet, such as the control diet diluted with 12% oat hulls (Oat). Samples from the cloacal mucosa of all birds were taken daily for C. jejuni quantification and cecum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for C. jejuni quantification and microbiota analyses. We have shown a statistically significant effect of increased feed structure on the reduced spread of C. jejuni in chicken flocks, but no significant differences were detected between types of structure included in the feed. No significant changes in the dominating microbiota in the lower lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract were observed, which indicates that feed structure only has an effect on the upper GI tract. Delaying the spread of C. jejuni in broiler flocks could, at time of slaughter, result in fewer C. jejuni-positive broilers.
Rich and Poor  [PDF]
Birger P. Priddat
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.35023
Abstract: Starting with the medevial poor/rich-topics in the Acquinian tradition of the theological economy of charity, the article develops a rather unkown line in the history of economic thought from Thomas Acquinius to John Locke and Adam Smith. The rich/poor-distribution of the charity-principle transforms over John Lockes’ property/labor-relation in the new Smithian capital/labor-economics. It is a special European line from charity-distribution to labor/capital-accumulation.
Use of wood ash in the treatment of high tannin sorghum for poultry feeding
CC Kyarisiima, MW Okot, B Svihus
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2004,
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effects of wood ash treatment on the nutritional value of high tannin sorghum. High tannin sorghum was either soaked in wood ash slurry and then germinated for four days or soaked in wood ash extract and germinated for 28 hours or germinated after soaking in water. Chemical composition of the grain thus treated was determined. The feeding value of the wood ash extract treated grain was evaluated in a three-week experiment where sorghum replaced maize in broiler starter diets. Treatment of high tannin sorghum with wood ash extract was effective in reducing the tannin level and did not lower the nutrient content of the grain, unlike the treatment that involved the use of wood ash slurry. There was no significant difference in feed intake between the maize based diet and the diet that contained wood ash extract treated sorghum. There was a significant improvement in growth rate of chicks that were fed on diets that contained treated sorghum. This was also reflected in the improvement of the ileal digestibility of the diets that contained treated grain. Treatment of high tannin sorghum with wood ash extract improves its nutritive value. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.34(2) 2004: 110-115
El reto de Duque. Una lectura (de la) crítica: la ausencia de la forma
Birger Angvik
Lexis , 1994,
Abstract: El artículo no presenta resumen.
Rich Design Research Space
Birger Sevaldson
FORMakademisk , 2008,
Abstract: This paper introduces and discusses a Rich Research Space as an inclusive methodological framework and scaffold for research-by-design. The Rich Research Space especially addresses the issue of richness in design processes and design-led research. There is a general trend towards increased complexity in design processes, caused on one hand by the increasing depth and width in the use of design media and methods, and on the other hand by the increasing complexity and interdependency of society due to globalisation. These issues confront the designer-researcher with new challenges. This paper formulates a research strategy for research-by-design in fields that have a high degree of richness in the use of media, the amount of information, and the methods involved. The Rich Research Space concept proposed takes into account the physical, social, and cultural spaces, and the virtual and visual media spaces in which the research-by-design takes place. The concept takes the form of a specific integral approach to design, and a holistic theoretical mindset. It embraces many types of investigation, from analytical to intuitive. The Rich Research Space provides a flexible framework within which the complexity of research-by-design can be interrelated, discussed, and reflected upon. Potentially, it can create a more involved role for the designer-researcher, a role that allows contributions towards the resolution of ever more pressing issues in our society. This approach is currently one of a limited number of possible frameworks that the design professions can utilize in order to make a difference in a world of at times overwhelming complexity. The concept of the Rich Research Space is discussed with reference to an art installation called Barely. Keywords: Research by design, collaborative design, complexity, creativity, research methods.
Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013. Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013. Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design
Birger Sevaldson
FORMakademisk , 2013,
Abstract: AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk. AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Norway, invites to the Relating Systems Thinking and Design to a free and open symposium over two days 9th-11th October 2013, with a preceding full day with diverse workshops and a subsequent special issue in FORMakademisk.
Discussions & Movements in Design Research Discussions & Movements in Design Research
Birger Sevaldson
FORMakademisk , 2010,
Abstract: The main approach of this paper is to look at design research from a systems-oriented perspective. This implies that design research is understood as a dynamic and emergent field of interrelated or contradicting thoughts, concepts and ideas. The first three sections of this paper draw cross-sections into the emerging richness in design research as it matures as a genuine mode of knowledge production. They address some of the positions, concepts, and discussions going on in the field, arguing that practice research in design is the most central. The current state is discussed and the relation between design research and other modes of knowledge production are looked at. A main tendency seems to be that design research is moving towards greater complexity both in issues and approaches and that Research by Design is becoming ever more central. Research by Design emphasizes insider perspectives, a generative approach, operates in rich and multiple layers and relates to real life contexts. The output is new communicable knowledge that is only found within design practice. The next two sections of the paper discuss the various possible relations between design practice and reflection. These span from distant perspectives where design practice is observed by outsider researchers, looking at practice retrospectively or contemporarily as in case studies, to participatory research and insider perspectives where the designer-researcher uses his or her own practice as a means for investigation and a bases and subject for reflection and knowledge production. The last section proposes the critical application of multiple perspectives, methods and media in composite approaches to design research. This analysis does not claim to provide a complete picture, but it suggests a method of looking at the field of design research in both a more holistic and more specific way. This could be helpful to position the individual design researchers approach in the complex landscape of design research. Arguing that ‘traditional sciences’ are very complex and manifold, design research is in itself a very complex, if not one of the most complex field of knowledge production. The paper claims that such a complexity demands an equally rich repertoire of interrelated methods and positions. The main approach of this paper is to look at design research from a systems-oriented perspective. This implies that design research is understood as a dynamic and emergent field of interrelated or contradicting thoughts, concepts and ideas. The first three sections of this paper draw cross-sections int
Tax Culture: A Basic Concept for Tax Politics
Nerré, Birger
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2008,
Abstract: I have suggested not to limit tax-cultural considerations to the side of taxpayers, but to widen its understanding by using an embeddedness approach considering the history of taxation and by that means explicating national tax-cultural diversity (e.g. Nerré 2001b, 2002b, 2006a). In the course of continuing globalization two different kinds of disturbances of tax culture have been identified: tax culture shocks and tax culture lags. Both are due to ignorant and/or ethnocentric policy measures. While lags are caused almost inevitably during any transformation or reform process, shocks should be prevented by implementing appropriate tax political measures on an international (and national!) level in a tax-cultural conform way.
Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera (Editor). Specialised Dictionaries for Learners.
Birger Andersen
Lexikos , 2012, DOI: 10.5788/21-1-53
Abstract: Review of Specialised Dictionaries for Learners.
A Search for Instantons at HERA
Birger Koblitz
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/28/5/317
Abstract: A search for QCD instanton (I) induced events in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA is presented in the kinematic range of low x and low Q^2. After cutting into three characteristic variables for I-induced events yielding a maximum suppression of standard DIS background to the 0.1% level while still preserving 10% of the I-induced events, 549 data events are found while 363^{+22}_{-26} (CDM) and 435^{+36}_{-22} (MEPS) standard DIS events are expected. More events than expected by the standard DIS Monte Carlo models are found in the data. However, the systematic uncertainty between the two different models is of the order of the expected signal, so that a discovery of instantons can not be claimed. An outlook is given on the prospect to search for QCD instanton events using a discriminant based on range searching in the kinematical region Q^2\gtrsim100\GeV^2 where the I-theory makes safer predictions and the QCD Monte Carlos are expected to better describe the inclusive data.
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