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Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution
Megan L. Devane,Brent J. Gilpin,Beth Robson,John D. Klena,Marion G. Savill,John A. Hudson
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030579
Abstract: Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases ( n = 1248) revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution.
Childhood TB Surveillance: Bridging the Knowledge Gap to Inform Policy
Andrew J. Brent
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/865436
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death globally. Natural history studies show that young children are at particularly high risk of progression to active TB and severe, disseminated disease following infection. Despite this, high-quality regional and global surveillance data on the burden of childhood TB are lacking. We discuss the unique aspects of TB in children that make diagnosis and therefore surveillance challenging; the limitations of available surveillance data; other data which provide insights into the true burden of childhood TB. Improved surveillance is among the key research priorities identified for childhood TB, but progress to date has been slow. Recent advances in TB diagnostics, and standardized clinical diagnostic guidelines and case definitions, all provide opportunities for new strategies to improve surveillance. Better-quality data on the burden and trends of childhood TB will inform and improve both public health policy and clinical practice. 1. Introduction Three main challenges currently hamper efforts to control tuberculosis (TB) globally. Firstly, the ability to identify and diagnose cases remains suboptimal and is particularly poor among children and human-immunodeficiency-virus- (HIV-) infected individuals, with direct implications for the availability and quality of surveillance data in these groups. Secondly, there is a need for better (particularly shorter) treatment regimens to improve individual case management and to prevent and control the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains. Thirdly, the search is still on for better tuberculosis vaccines to provide more complete and longer-lasting protection against active TB. Success in all three areas is likely to be required to achieve the Stop TB goal to eliminate TB as a public health problem by 2050 [1, 2]. This paper addresses the first of these challenges and focuses on the need and potential strategies to improve diagnosis and thereby surveillance of childhood TB in low-resource, high-burden settings. In 2009 an estimated 9.4 million cases of TB occurred worldwide, equivalent to an annual global incidence of 137 per 100,000 population [3]. In the same year, 1.7 million deaths were attributed to tuberculosis [3]. TB remains second only to HIV as a leading infectious cause of death globally [4]. Global estimates of the causes of death among children have also been derived [5, 6], and the latest estimates based on data from 2008 are illustrated in Figure 1 [4]. Given the overwhelming burden of tuberculosis among the population as a whole and the
NO HABRá MáS PENAS NI OLVIDO DE OSVALDO SORIANO: VIOLENTAS IMáGENES DE UN TANGO PERONISTA
Brent J Carbajal
Alpha (Osorno) , 2007,
Abstract:
HERIR TU FIERA CARNE DE ELOY URROZ Y SANAR TU PIEL AMARGA DE JORGE VOLPI: ALMAS GEMELAS Y NOVELAS DEL "CRACK”
Brent J Carbajal
Alpha (Osorno) , 2005,
Abstract:
Biofuels and Sustainable Transport: A Conceptual Discussion
Erling Holden,Geoffrey Gilpin
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5073129
Abstract: Strategies for sustainably using biofuels must be thoroughly assessed at several levels. First, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable development’s main dimensions. Second, the use of biofuels must comply with sustainable transport’s main dimensions. Third, gains from using biofuels strategies must compare favorably to gains from other sustainable transport strategies, such as altering transport patterns and reducing transport volume. Fourth, the gains must compare favorably to gains from improving conventional fossil-fuel-based advanced vehicles. Fifth, the gains must compare favorably to gains from using other alternative fuels. Sixth, the gains from using one generation of biofuels (e.g., first generation) must compare favorably to gains from using others (e.g., second through fourth generations). Performing scientifically sound and fair comparisons demands reliable theoretical perspectives and a well-established methodological basis. Industrial ecology theory and life cycle assessment methodology, respectively, are well-suited for these tasks.
Communication patterns in a psychotherapy following traumatic brain injury: A quantitative case study based on symbolic dynamics
Paul E Rapp, Christopher J Cellucci, Adele MK Gilpin, Miguel A Jiménez-Monta?o, Kathryn E Korslund
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-119
Abstract: The content of three therapy session transcripts (sessions were separated by four months) obtained from a patient with a history of several motor vehicle accidents who was receiving dialectical behavior therapy was scored and analyzed using methods derived from the mathematical theory of symbolic dynamics.The analysis of symbol frequencies was largely uninformative. When repeated triples were examined a marked pattern of change in content was observed over the three sessions. The context free grammar complexity and the Lempel-Ziv complexity were calculated for each therapy session. For both measures, the rate of complexity generation, expressed as bits per minute, increased longitudinally during the course of therapy. The between-session increases in complexity generation rates are consistent with calculations of mutual information. Taken together these results indicate that there was a quantifiable increase in the variability of patient-therapist verbal behavior during the course of therapy. Comparison of complexity values against values obtained from equiprobable random surrogates established the presence of a nonrandom structure in patient-therapist dialog (P = .002).While recognizing that only limited conclusions can be based on a case history, it can be noted that these quantitative observations are consistent with qualitative clinical observations of increases in the flexibility of discourse during therapy. These procedures can be of particular value in the examination of therapies following traumatic brain injury because, in some presentations, these therapies are complicated by deficits that result in subtle distortions of language that produce significant post-injury social impairment. Independently of the mathematical analysis applied to the investigation of therapy-generated symbol sequences, our experience suggests that the procedures presented here are of value in training therapists.Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of acute and long-term d
Fractional Resonance-Based Filters
Todd J. Freeborn,Brent Maundy,Ahmed Elwakil
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/726721
Abstract:
Systematic Renormalization in Hamiltonian Light-Front Field Theory
Brent H. Allen,Robert J. Perry
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.58.125017
Abstract: We develop a systematic method for computing a renormalized light-front field theory Hamiltonian that can lead to bound states that rapidly converge in an expansion in free-particle Fock-space sectors. To accomplish this without dropping any Fock sectors from the theory, and to regulate the Hamiltonian, we suppress the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian between free-particle Fock-space states that differ in free mass by more than a cutoff. The cutoff violates a number of physical principles of the theory, and thus the Hamiltonian is not just the canonical Hamiltonian with masses and couplings redefined by renormalization. Instead, the Hamiltonian must be allowed to contain all operators that are consistent with the unviolated physical principles of the theory. We show that if we require the Hamiltonian to produce cutoff-independent physical quantities and we require it to respect the unviolated physical principles of the theory, then its matrix elements are uniquely determined in terms of the fundamental parameters of the theory. This method is designed to be applied to QCD, but for simplicity, we illustrate our method by computing and analyzing second- and third-order matrix elements of the Hamiltonian in massless phi-cubed theory in six dimensions.
High-Resolution Panchromatic Spectral Models of Galaxies including Photoionisation and Dust
Patrik Jonsson,Brent Groves,T. J. Cox
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: An updated version of the dust radiation transfer code Sunrise, including models for star-forming regions and a self-consistent calculation of the spatially dependent dust and PAH emission, is presented. Given a hydrodynamic simulation of a galaxy, this model can calculate a realistic 2-dimensional ultraviolet--submillimeter spectral energy distribution of the galaxy, including emission lines from HII regions, from any viewpoint. To model the emission from star-forming regions, the MAPPINGSIII photoionization code is used. The high wavelength resolution (~ 1000 wavelengths) is made possible by the polychromatic Monte-Carlo algorithm employed by Sunrise. From the 2-D spectral energy distributions, images in any filter bands or integrated galaxy SEDs can be created. Using a suite of hydrodynamic simulations of disc galaxies, the output broad-band images and spectral energy distributions are compared with observed galaxies from the multiwavelength SINGS and SLUGS galaxy surveys. Overall, the output spectral energy distributions show a good match with observed galaxies in colours ranging from GALEX far-UV to SCUBA submillimeter wavelengths. The only possible exception is the 160 micron/850 micron colour, which the simulations underestimate by a factor "of order 5" compared to the SINGS sample. However, the simulations here agree with the SLUGS galaxies, which consistently have significantly larger amounts of cold dust than the SINGS galaxies. The Sunrise model can be used to generate simulated observations of arbitrary hydrodynamic galaxy simulations. In this way, predictions of galaxy formation theories can be directly tested against observations of galaxies.
Antibiasing: High Mass-to-Light Ratios in Dense Clusters
R. Brent Tully,Edward J. Shaya
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Modeling of the velocity field of the Local Supercluster leads to the conclusion that there must be a substantial differential between the mass-to-light ratios of most galaxies and those in a small number of special places. Specifically, M/L=1000 is indicated for the full Virgo Cluster while M/L=150 is appropriate for most environments. It is argued that a higher M/L value is characteristic of E/S0 knots, regions where the galaxy density is high and collapse time scales are short. Regions larger than galaxies where collapse is ocurring only on the order of the age of the universe, the environment where spirals and irregulars predominate, are characterized by a low M/L. Overall, the mean density of the universe is well below closure. There could be comparable total mass in the relatively rare E/S0 knots as there is in the environments dominated by spirals and irregulars.
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