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COMPARACIóN DE ENSILAJE DE TRIGO Y DE MAíZ EN LA ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS
Rojas G.,Claudio; Manríquez B.,Moisés;
Agricultura Técnica , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072001000400006
Abstract: during 72 days of the winter season of 1998, twenty-four normando steers, 20 to 21 months of age and 385 kg average liveweight, were fattened in order to evaluate animal response to feeding of whole wheat (triticum aestivum l.) silage in comparison to maize (zea mays l.) silage. treatments were t1: maize silage; t2: wheat silage at milky starchy stage; and t3: wheat silage at soft or hard starchy stage. the feed was composed of a mixture of silage and concentrates in a 62.5: 37.5 ratio, respectively. the concentrates were formulated with oats (avena sativa l.) and white lupines (lupinus albus l.), urea and minerals in order to obtain an approximately isoproteic ration with 13% crude protein. the experimental design was a completely randomized block with 8 replicates. the feed consumption and daily liveweight gains of t3 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than t1 and t2. feed conversion efficiency and dressing percent were not statically different due to the treatments (p> 0.05). it was concluded that wheat silage, especially at the soft or hard starchy stage, can replace maize silage on rations for fattening steers without affecting weight gains.
Cama de Broiler y Grano de Cebada Entero o Molido en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos
Rojas G,Claudio; Manríquez B,Moisés;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000100012
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the animal response to feeding with fattening rations which included ryegrass-white clover (lolium perenne l.-trifolium repens l.) pasture silage, broiler litter, and milled or whole barley (hordeum vulgare l) grain.. treatments were 1) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and milled barley supplemented at the time of winter feeding; 2) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter incorporated to the silo at the date of conservation and milled barley supplemented at feeding time; 3) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and milled barley incorporated into the silo at the date of conservation; and 4) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and whole barley grain incorporated to the silo at ensiling. daily lw gains (lwg) were 1.086, 1.099, 1.074 and 1.111 kg animal-1 (p ≥ 0.05); feed consumption were 8.7, 8.7, 8.4 and 8.4 kg dm animal-1 and feed conversion of 8, 7.9, 7.9 and >7.5 kg dm feed kg-1 lw gain, for the treatments 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectively. it was concluded that incorporating broiler litter alone or with barley grain in the silage at the ensiling moment did not affect daily lwg and feed consumption of steers and that incorporating whole or milled barley grain to the silage at the date of conservation produced similar animal response.
COMPARACIóN DE ENSILAJE DE TRIGO Y DE MAíZ EN LA ENGORDA INVERNAL DE NOVILLOS Comparison of wheat and maize silage in winter finishing of steers
Claudio Rojas G.,Moisés Manríquez B.
Agricultura Técnica , 2001,
Abstract: Durante 72 días de la temporada invernal de 1998, se utilizaron 24 novillos Normando de 20 a 21 meses de edad y 385 kg de peso vivo (PV) promedio, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta animal al consumo de ensilaje de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) cosechado en dos estados vegetativos, en comparación a ensilaje de maíz (Zea mays L.). Los tratamientos fueron T1: ensilaje de maíz; T2: ensilaje de trigo grano lechoso harinoso; y T3: ensilaje de trigo grano harinoso suave a duro. La alimentación estuvo constituída por la mezcla de ensilaje con concentrados, en la relación 62,5: 37,5, respectivamente. Los concentrados se formularon para cada ensilaje, con grano de avena (Avena sativa L.), lupino blanco (Lupinus albus L.), urea y sales minerales, de forma que la oferta de alimentos fuera aproximadamente isoproteica para niveles de 13%. El dise o experimental fue de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. El consumo de alimentos y los incrementos de PV del T3 fueron significativamente mayores (P <0,05) al T1 y T2. La eficiencia de conversión del alimento y el rendimiento centesimal de las canales en caliente no presentaron diferencias debidas a tratamientos (P >0,05). Se concluye que el ensilaje de trigo, especialmente en el estado de grano harinoso suave a duro, puede reemplazar al ensilaje de maíz, con menos de 30% de MS, en raciones de engorda de novillos, sin afectar los incrementos de PV. During 72 days of the winter season of 1998, twenty-four Normando steers, 20 to 21 months of age and 385 kg average liveweight, were fattened in order to evaluate animal response to feeding of whole wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) silage in comparison to maize (Zea mays L.) silage. Treatments were T1: maize silage; T2: wheat silage at milky starchy stage; and T3: wheat silage at soft or hard starchy stage. The feed was composed of a mixture of silage and concentrates in a 62.5: 37.5 ratio, respectively. The concentrates were formulated with oats (Avena sativa L.) and white lupines (Lupinus albus L.), urea and minerals in order to obtain an approximately isoproteic ration with 13% crude protein. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with 8 replicates. The feed consumption and daily liveweight gains of T3 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than T1 and T2. Feed conversion efficiency and dressing percent were not statically different due to the treatments (P> 0.05). It was concluded that wheat silage, especially at the soft or hard starchy stage, can replace maize silage on rations for fattening steers without affecting weight gains.
Cama de Broiler y Grano de Cebada Entero o Molido en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos Broiler Litter and Whole or Milled Barley Grain in Winter Steer Fattening Rations
Claudio Rojas G,Moisés Manríquez B
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: El estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta animal al consumo de raciones de engorda formuladas con cama de broiler y grano de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) entero o molido incorporado al ensilaje de praderas de ballica-trébol blanco (Lolium perenne L.-Trifolium repens L.) al momento de su elaboración. Los tratamientos fueron: 1) ensilaje, cama de broiler y grano de cebada molido, mezclados al momento de la alimentación invernal; 2) ensilaje adicionado con cama de broiler al momento de ensilar y grano de cebada molido adicionado al momento de la alimentación invernal; 3) ensilaje adicionado con cama de broiler y grano de cebada molido al momento de ensilar; y 4) ensilaje adicionado con cama de broiler y grano de cebada entero al momento de ensilar. Los incrementos diarios de PV fueron de 1,086; 1,099; 1,074 y 1,111 kg animal-1 (P ≥ 0,05); el consumo de alimentos de 8,7; 8,7; 8,4 y 8,4 kg MS animal-1 y las eficiencias de conversión de alimentos de 8; 7,9; 7,9 y 7,5 kg MS alimento consumido kg-1 incremento PV para los tratamientos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. Se concluye que la incorporación de cama de broiler sola o con grano de cebada al ensilaje de praderas, al momento de su confección, no afecta el consumo ni los incrementos de PV de los novillos y la incorporación de grano de cebada entero o molido al momento de realizar el ensilaje, produce respuestas similares en los novillos. The objective of this study was to evaluate the animal response to feeding with fattening rations which included ryegrass-white clover (Lolium perenne L.-Trifolium repens L.) pasture silage, broiler litter, and milled or whole barley (Hordeum vulgare L) grain.. Treatments were 1) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and milled barley supplemented at the time of winter feeding; 2) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter incorporated to the silo at the date of conservation and milled barley supplemented at feeding time; 3) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and milled barley incorporated into the silo at the date of conservation; and 4) pasture silage based ration with broiler litter and whole barley grain incorporated to the silo at ensiling. Daily LW gains (LWG) were 1.086, 1.099, 1.074 and 1.111 kg animal-1 (P ≥ 0.05); feed consumption were 8.7, 8.7, 8.4 and 8.4 kg DM animal-1 and feed conversion of 8, 7.9, 7.9 and >7.5 kg DM feed kg-1 LW gain, for the treatments 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectively. It was concluded that incorporating broiler litter alone or with barley grain in the silage at the ensiling moment did not affect daily LWG and feed
EVALUACIóN DE LA éPOCA DE CORTE DE TRITICALE (X Triticosecale Wittmack) PARA ENSILAJE
Rojas G.,Claudio; Catrileo S.,Adrián; Manríquez B.,Moisés; Calabí F.,Francisco;
Agricultura Técnica , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072004000100004
Abstract: at the carillanca research center, 38o41? s lat, 72o25? w long, 200 m.a.s.l., of the national agricultural research institute (inia), in a transitional dryland soil, a study was conducted in order to evaluate the chemical qualities of triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) cv. tolhuaca inia as whole plant, to determine the optimum cutting stage for the elaboration of silage. the crop was sown on april 19, 1999 to evaluate ten treatments corresponding to the following phenological stages of triticale early boot (t1); visible spikes (t2); beginning anthesis (t3); anthesis in progress (t4); aqueous grain (t5); milky grain (t6); milk-flour stage (t7); flour stage (t8); soft flour stage (t9) and hard grain (t10). a randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. the dm production results were statistically analyzed through simple regression analysis. the relations between chemical parameters and dm production indicated that the optimum stage for harvesting triticale for quality silage was at t4, with 210 days of growth, 29.5% dm, 70.6% in vitro digestibility (div), 7.6% crude protein (pc), a metabolizable energy content of 2.46 mcal me kg-1 and 21.5 t dm ha-1.
EVALUACIóN DE LA éPOCA DE CORTE DE TRITICALE (X Triticosecale Wittmack) PARA ENSILAJE An evaluation of the cutting stage on triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) for silage
Claudio Rojas G.,Adrián Catrileo S.,Moisés Manríquez B.,Francisco Calabí F.
Agricultura Técnica , 2004,
Abstract: En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Temuco, Chile (38o41’ lat. Sur, 72o25’ long. Oeste, 200 m.s.n.m.), sobre un suelo transicional de secano, se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad química del triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) cv. Tolhuaca INIA como planta entera, para determinar el momento de corte más adecuado para la elaboración de ensilaje. El cultivo fue sembrado el 19 de abril de 1999 para evaluar diez tratamientos correspondientes a los siguientes estados fenológicos del triticale cv. Tolhuaca INIA: T1: bota abriéndose; T2: espiguillas visibles; T3: comienzo antesis; T4: antesis en progreso; T5: grano acuoso; T6: grano lechoso; T7: grano lechoso harinoso; T8: grano harinoso; T9: grano harinoso suave a duro, y T10: grano duro. Se utilizó un dise o experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Los resultados para la producción de MS se analizaron estadísticamente a través de análisis de varianza. Los parámetros químicos se analizaron mediante regresiones simples de los resultados. Las relaciones de los parámetros químicos y de producción de MS se alaron que el momento de corte más adecuado del triticale para confeccionar un ensilaje de calidad, correspondió al estado de antesis en progreso (T4), con 210 días de crecimiento, 29,5% MS, 70,6% de digestibilidad in vitro (DIV), 7,6% de proteína cruda (PC), 2,46 Mcal de energía metabolizable (EM) kg-1 y 21,5 t MS ha-1. At the Carillanca Research Center, 38o41’ S lat, 72o25’ W long, 200 m.a.s.l., of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA), in a transitional dryland soil, a study was conducted in order to evaluate the chemical qualities of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) cv. Tolhuaca INIA as whole plant, to determine the optimum cutting stage for the elaboration of silage. The crop was sown on April 19, 1999 to evaluate ten treatments corresponding to the following phenological stages of triticale early boot (T1); visible spikes (T2); beginning anthesis (T3); anthesis in progress (T4); aqueous grain (T5); milky grain (T6); milk-flour stage (T7); flour stage (T8); soft flour stage (T9) and hard grain (T10). A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. The DM production results were statistically analyzed through simple regression analysis. The relations between chemical parameters and DM production indicated that the optimum stage for harvesting triticale for quality silage was at T4, with 210 days of growth, 29.5% DM, 70.6% in vitro digestibility (DIV), 7.6%
N-METHYL-1H- INDOLE-2-CARBOXAMIDE FROM THE MARINE FUNGUS CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIOIDES
V MANRíQUEZ,A GALDáMEZ,B VELIZ,J ROVIROSA
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2009,
Abstract: The crystal structure of N-methyl-1H- indole-2-carboxamide C10H10N2O was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure can be described as consisting of an indole group and as substituent, linked at C2, the N-methylcarboxamide group. The molecular structure is essentially planar. The crystal packing results in N-H ------ O hydrogen bonds which join the molecules into centrosymmetric dimeric rings. The knowledge of the crystal structure allows a complete assignment of the 1H and 13C-NMR spectra. The N-methyl-lH- indole-2-carboxamide is the first indole derivative isolated from marine fungus.
Identifying priority areas for conservation in Mexican Tropical deciduous forest based on tree species
Cué-B?r,Eva M.; Villase?or,José Luis; Morrone,Juan J.; Ibarra-Manríquez,Guillermo;
Interciencia , 2006,
Abstract: the main objective was to identify and rank areas for the conservation of exclusive, or nearly exclusive, tree species of the tropical deciduous forest in mexico, a land cover type greatly endangered worldwide. a list of 425 tree species (67.5% endemic to mexico), including 56 families and 185 genera registered at the state level, was compiled from an exhaustive revision of specialized floristic literature. the conservation status of these species was assessed by registering their presence in the tropical deciduous forest areas, located within the limits of mexican natural protected areas. parsimony analysis of endemicity led to identify 16 areas of endemism, supported by 54 synapomorphies and 73 autapomorphies (72.4% endemic to mexico). protected areas include a low to medium proportion both of widespread tree species (129 species, 30.3%) and species characterizing areas of endemism (56 species out of 127, 44.1%). in the latter group, only 7 species are included within a risk category. analyses of complementarity (total richness of species and of species within areas of endemism) and of phylogenetic diversity (families and genera) are coincident in assigning high conservation priority for areas in the states of chiapas, guerrero, jalisco, michoacán, oaxaca, and yucatán. based on the results, specific recommendations are provided for the development of strategies of tree conservation in the mexican tropical deciduous forest.
Reversibilidad espirométrica en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica: ?Debe emplearse 200 ó 400 μg de salbutamol?
Manríquez,Jorge; Díaz p,Orlando; Mendoza i,Laura; Borzone t,Gisella; Lisboa b,Carmen;
Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73482006000300004
Abstract: the optimal dose of salbutamol for testing spirometric reversibility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) has not been determined and either 200 or 400 μg are commonly used. the purpose of the present study is to test both doses in a group of patients with mild to severe copd. forty stable copd patients were included to receive in random order both doses of salbutamol, with spirometry being performed before and after 15 min of their administration. absolute and percent predicted changes were evaluated. for the latter, an increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (fev1), slow vital capacity (svc), forced vital capacity (fvc) and inspiratory capacity (ic) equal or greater than 10% predicted was considered clinically significant. no differences were found in absolute post-bronchodilator values between the two doses. in addition, the proportion of responders to 200 and 400 μg of salbutamol according to the percent predicted changes was similar with both doses. this was particularly true when all variables related to volume changes (svc, fvc, and ic) were included in the analysis. in conclusion, the present results indicate that for testing spirometric reversibility in copd patients the 200 μg dose of salbutamol is as effective as the 400 μg dose
Reversibilidad espirométrica en la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica: Efecto diferencial del salbutamol sobre el volumen espiratorio forzado del primer segundo y el volumen pulmonar
Manríquez H,Jorge; Díaz P,Orlando; Borzone T,Gisella; Lisboa B,Carmen;
Revista médica de Chile , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872004000700001
Abstract: background: in recent years it has been suggested that in copd, lung volumes can be modified more than expiratory flows, with bronchodilators. aim: to study the acute effects of salbutamol on fev1 and lung volumes at rest. subjects and methods: forty stable copd patients were studied using a single dose of salbutamol (200 μg). forced expiratory volumen in 1 second (fev1), slow vital capacity (svc), forced vital capacity (fvc), and inspiratory capacity (ic) were measured at baseline and after salbutamol administration. results: after salbutamol, 39/40 patients exhibited a clinically significant increase in volumes (svc, fvc or ic ?10% predicted). a significant increase in fev1 (?10% predicted) was observed in only 13 patients. conclusions: our results demonstrate that changes in lung volumes, and consequently in dynamic lung hyperinflation, take place more frequently than changes in maximal expiratory flows during the spirometric test in patients with copd. assessment of spirometric reversibility based only on changes in fev1 underestimates the effect of bronchodilator drugs in these patients (rev méd chile 2004; 132: 787-93)
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