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Crop and Soil Responses to Using Corn Stover as a Bioenergy Feedstock: Observations from the Northern US Corn Belt
Jane M. F. Johnson,Veronica Acosta-Martinez,Cynthia A. Cambardella,Nancy W. Barbour
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3010072
Abstract: Corn ( Zea mays L.) stover is a potential bioenergy feedstock, but little is known about the impacts of reducing stover return on yield and soil quality in the Northern US Corn Belt. Our study objectives were to measure the impact of three stover return rates (Full (~7.8 Mg ha ?1 yr ?1), Moderate (~3.8 Mg ha ?1 yr ?1) or Low (~1.5 Mg ha yr ?1) Return) on corn and soybean ( Glycine max. L [Merr.]) yields and on soil dynamic properties on a chisel-tilled (Chisel) field, and well- (NT1995) or newly- (NT2005) established no-till managed fields. Stover return rate did not affect corn and soybean yields except under NT1995 where Low Return (2.88 Mg ha ?1) reduced yields compared with Full and Moderate Return (3.13 Mg ha ?1). In NT1995 at 0–5 cm depth, particulate organic matter in Full Return and Moderate Return (14.3 g kg ?1) exceeded Low Return (11.3 g kg ?1). In NT2005, acid phosphatase activity was reduced about 20% in Low Return compared to Full Return. Also the Low Return had an increase in erodible-sized dry aggregates at the soil surface compared to Full Return. Three or fewer cycles of stover treatments revealed little evidence for short-term impacts on crop yield, but detected subtle soil changes that indicate repeated harvests may have negative consequences if stover removed.
Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation
R. Michael Lehman,Cynthia A. Cambardella,Diane E. Stott,Veronica Acosta-Martinez,Daniel K. Manter,Jeffrey S. Buyer,Jude E. Maul,Jeffrey L. Smith,Harold P. Collins,Jonathan J. Halvorson,Robert J. Kremer,Jonathan G. Lundgren,Tom F. Ducey,Virginia L. Jin,Douglas L. Karlen
Sustainability , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/su7010988
Abstract: Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms), characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soil health and how biological properties and processes contribute to sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services. We continue by examining what can be done to manipulate soil biology to: (i) increase nutrient availability for production of high yielding, high quality crops; (ii) protect crops from pests, pathogens, weeds; and (iii) manage other factors limiting production, provision of ecosystem services, and resilience to stresses like droughts. Next we look to the future by asking what needs to be known about soil biology that is not currently recognized or fully understood and how these needs could be addressed using emerging research tools. We conclude, based on our perceptions of how new knowledge regarding soil biology will help make agriculture more sustainable and productive, by recommending research emphases that should receive first priority through enhanced public and private research in order to reverse the trajectory toward global soil degradation.
Experiences of Low Gestational Weight Gain: A Phenomenological Study with Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Cynthia L. Murray, Sherrill A. Conroy
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619300
Abstract: Low maternal, gestational weight gain is associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age infants, neural tube defects, infant death, failure to initiate breastfeeding, and childhood asthma. The advantage of qualitative research is it can provide valuable insights for health care professionals into the experience and perceptions of low gestational weight gain from the vantage point of women with first-hand lived experience. In this Heideggarian interpretive phenomenological study, the meaning and experiences of weight gain for pregnant women with low gestational weight gain were explored. Data were collected through interviews with 10 pregnant women from Atlantic Canada. Conroy’s pathway for interpretive phenomenology was utilized. A hermeneutical spiral of interpretation identified six patterns or major themes: confronting one’s mortality; defending oneself against a permanent metamorphosis into a stranger; playing with fire and brimstone; slipping under the radar; trying to find peace; and riding an emotional roller coaster. The findings point to a war that is being waged over pregnant bodies with respect to weight that leaves pregnant women fending for themselves, apparently with little help from their health care providers. Implications of the findings for health practice, education, and research are discussed.
Characterization and Comparison of Saprist and Fibrist Newfoundland Sphagnum Peat Soils  [PDF]
Emmanuel S. Asapo, Cynthia A. Coles
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.117057
Abstract: Saprist and fibrist sphagnum peat soils obtained from the same natural peat bog owned by Traverse Nurseries, Torbay, Newfoundland, Canada were characterized to study their potential for adsorbing metals. Both peat soils had a pH of 4.2. The saprist peat had the lower fiber content (68.6% versus 75%), higher cation exchange capacity (70 meq/100g versus 45 meq/100g), higher moisture content (86% versus 82%), higher organic matter content (91% versus 84%), higher wet bulk density (0.65 g/cm3 versus 0.60 g/cm3) and higher dry bulk density (0.28 g/cm3 versus 0.20 g/cm3). A crystallography study showed that the saprist peat was completely amorphous and the metal content analysis showed high calcium and iron concentrations in both types of peat with higher values in the fibrist peat. Carboxylic acid, alcoholic hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, amine and amide functional groups were present and these could be responsible for binding metal ions via ion exchange and or complexation reactions.
CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins in normal mammary development and breast cancer
Cynthia A Zahnow
Breast Cancer Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/bcr428
Abstract: Breast cancer is, in part, a result of the overexpression of transcription factors that disrupt the delicate balance between cellular proliferation, terminal differentiation and programmed cell death. Yet, when expressed at physiologic levels, many of these same transcription factors are critical for normal development of the mammary gland. The C/EBPs play a pivotal role in controlling growth and differentiation of the mammary gland. Accordingly, this review focuses on the role that the C/EBPs play in both breast cancer and in normal mammary development.The C/EBPs together form a highly conserved family of transcription factors that bind to sequence-specific DNA sequences as dimers and that regulate the transcription of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation. Six C/EBP genes have thus far been identified, and they are designated C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, C/EBPε, and C/EBPζ (also known as CHOP [C/EBP homologous protein-10] or GADD153) (for a review of the nomenclature, see [1]). Of these genes, C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPδ have been the most thoroughly studied in rodent and human mammary tissue, and will be the focus of this review.C/EBPs belong to the leucine zipper class of DNA-binding proteins. They contain an amino-terminal transactivation domain and a highly basic DNA-binding region immediately adjacent to the carboxyl-terminal, leucine-rich dimerization domain (Fig. 1).The dimerization domain is characterized as an amphipathic, α-helix containing a heptad repeat of leucines that project uniformly along the hydrophobic side of the helix and that interdigitate with the leucine residues of a dimerization partner [2]. Dimerization can occur within a C/EBP family, between different C/EBP family members, or between different groups of leucine zipper proteins [3]. Dimerization of these helices has been proposed to bring into close proximity the basic amino acids associated with the DNA binding domain from the two polypeptide chains [2,4]. Dimerization
El itinerario del estructuralismo en la Universidad de Buenos Aires (1958 - 1966)
Acu?a,Cynthia;
Anuario de investigaciones , 2005,
Abstract: main subjet: consider the subjects that study structuralist authors in the university of buenos aires between 1958 and 1966, and the objective of these readings. objectives: introduce some results of a reception study focusing in the transformation produced by the reader on the text. methodology: (collect data from syllabus; (2) interviews to old students and professors; (3) case analisis, in wich structuralist categories are used; (4) data synthesis and verification. sources: syllabus and historical documents (faculty of philosophy, university of buenos aires); eliseo verón's review of a book of germani. results: french structuralism is used as a tool for ideologic criticism, and it emerged as an alternative scientific model
A dor, o indivíduo e a cultura
Sarti, Cynthia A.;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902001000100002
Abstract: in the pain, the relation between the individual and society appears clearly. the way in which pain is felt and expressed is ruled by cultural codes and pain itself is constituted, as a human fact, by the meanings given to it by society, that sanctions the ways to demonstrate feelings. although pain is a singular experience for the one who feels it, it happens within a symbolic system, making it a cultural fact.
Advances in labor analgesia
Cynthia A Wong
International Journal of Women's Health , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S4553
Abstract: dvances in labor analgesia Review (8876) Total Article Views Authors: Cynthia A Wong Published Date October 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 139 - 154 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S4553 Cynthia A Wong Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery.
Clinical Aspects of Genomics: An Update
Cynthia A. Prows
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2008,
Abstract: With each passing year genomic technology and information increases in relevance for clinical practice in diverse healthcare settings. This article focuses on three examples of how genomics is impacting the care of patients in diverse healthcare settings: genomics and infectious diseases, genomics and breast cancer, and genomics and medications. Nurses have an important role in both helping patients understand the purpose, limitations, and potential benefits and risks of genomic technology and providing information related to their care.
Advances in labor analgesia
Cynthia A Wong
International Journal of Women's Health , 2009,
Abstract: Cynthia A WongDepartment of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery.Keywords: labor analgesia, neuraxial analgesia, epidural analgesia, childbirth pain
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