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Community based maize seed production in the hills and mountains of Nepal: A review
D Sapkota, S Pokhrel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7550
Abstract: A review on the community based maize seed production and technology dissemination in Nepal was made in 2009 to know the seed production situation and technology dissemination approaches. Twenty three open pollinated maize varieties and one hybrid were released by the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) up to 2009. A number of stakeholders were involved on improved technologies dissemination, seed production and marketing. Approaches for technology dissemination include district seed self sufficiency program (DISSPRO) and community based seed production (CBSP) program. About 4500 ton of cereal seeds annually has been producing from these approaches. Approach include subsidies on source seeds, creation of revolving funds, group/co-operative formation, their mobilization for participatory varietal selection (PVS), demonstrations, training, informal research and development (IRD) kit distribution and exchange visits. In community level, activities such as community based seed production approaches, particiapatory technology development, verification and dissemination for sustainable seed production and marketing has been taken place. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7550 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.107-112
Analysis of Use and Outcomes of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC-Line) in Hemato-Oncological Patients  [PDF]
Sulav Sapkota, Radheshyam Naik
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2018.91005
Abstract: Aims: To audit the use and outcomes of using PICC lines in hemato-oncological patients. Objectives: To study the demographics of patients: ?studying the use of PICC line in hemato-oncological patients; studying the rate of complications in PICC line; studying the cause of early removal of PICC line. Methods: All PICCs inserted in adult hemato-oncological patients in Hematology and Medical Oncology Department of Health Care Global (HCG) Hospital were studied prospectively, as per the proforma, till PICCs were removed or patient expired and the pattern of complications were noted. Results: Eighty-four PICCs were inserted over a period of initial nine months and followed for a total of 1 year with three months post insertion duration for a total of 10,868 catheter-days (mean of 129 days i.e. 4.3 months, range: 1 to 288 days). The most common indication for PICC was chemotherapy (100%). Among them
Single lesion multibacillary leprosy, a treatment enigma: a case report
Bishwa R Sapkota, Kapil D Neupane, Ram K Maharjan
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-3-8
Abstract: A 20-year-old man belonging to a moderately endemic leprosy area in the Terai region of Nepal reported a large single, hypopigmented, well defined anaesthetic lesion on his left thigh extending to his knee which had been present for 2 years. There was no other nerve involvement. Clinical diagnosis was tuberculoid leprosy and immunological lateral flow test for anti-Phenolic glycolipid-I antibody was positive. Six months of paucibacillary multidrug treatment was advised immediately. However, the patient was reclassified as multibacillary on the basis of a positive skin smear and appropriate treatment of 24 months multibacillary multidrug regimen was commenced after only 1 week. Slit skin smear examination for Mycobacterium leprae from the lesion revealed a bacterial index of 4+ while it was negative from the routine sites. Histopathological examination from skin biopsy of the lesion further supported the bacterial index of the lesion granuloma which was 2+ and the patient was diagnosed as borderline tuberculoid. Bacteriological, histological, and immunological findings of this patient were borderline tuberculoid leprosy and he should have been treated with multibacillary regimen from the beginning. Five months after commencement of treatment, the patient developed a leprae reaction of Type 1 or reversal reaction with some nerve function impairment and enlargement of the lateral popliteal nerve of the left leg. This reversal reaction was managed by standard oral prednisolone whilst continuing the multibacillary multidrug regimen.This case illustrates and emphasizes the importance of slit-skin smear and biopsy as routine in all new cases to help differentiate multibacillary from paucibacillary for correct treatment. It further suggests that there are factors yet undetermined which play a significant role in determining the host response to M. leprae which is a remaining challenge in this disease.Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and
Bioinformatics—an entry-level avenue for biomedical research in Nepal
Yadav Sapkota
Frontiers in Genetics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00042
Abstract:
Vehicular Pollution in Katmandu Valley
Ramchandra Sapkota
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5106
Abstract: This paper highlights the issue of vehicular pollution in the Kathmandu valley. Vehicular pollutants include CO, HC, NOx, Sox, lead and particulate matters which have damaging effects on both human health and ecology. Diesel-driven vehicles emit particulates that are very fine and a large proportion of them are less than 2.5 microns in size, which can penetrate deeper into our lungs. These pollutants are believed to affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Uncontrolled growth of vehicle population, poor transportation infrastructure, traffic congestion, driving patterns and inefficient public transportation systems are major factors in increasing vehicular pollution levels. Key words : Vehicular pollution; Vehicle population; Pollutants; Transportation infrastructure; PM2.5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5106 Journal of the Institute of Engineering Vol. 8, No. 1&2, 2010/2011 Page: 149-152 Uploaded Date : 20 July, 2011
The Iconography of Divinity: Kali as a Power-Cluster of Ten Different Goddesses
Jiblal Sapkota
Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ctbijis.v1i1.10464
Abstract: This article is an exploration of Kali, a Hindu deity, through Panofskian three-tiered meanings of a visual art: pre-iconographical description, iconographical analysis and iconological interpretation. It presents neither a dogmatic nor an erotic interpretation of Kali but a purely objective analysis of the Hindu deity. It is argued that Kali has layers of implications, associations and meanings as well as multiple forms, namely Kali, Chinnamasta Kali, Tara, Bhuvaneshwori, Bagalamukhi, Dhumbavati, Kamala, Bhairavi, Sodasi, and Matangi. Each form is also associated with different mythologies, allegories and allusions of their origin. It is assumed that this article has had great significance in the academia as well as for the academicians and academics who are interested in carrying out research works, with an objective description, analysis and interpretation of any visual art. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ctbijis.v1i1.10464 Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Vol.1(1) 2013; 11-20
Ecology and management issues of Mikania micrantha in Chitwan Naitonal Park, Nepal
Loknath Sapkota
Banko Janakari , 2007, DOI: 10.3126/banko.v17i2.2153
Abstract: Mikania micrantha, one of the worst invasive weeds in the world, is a plant of Neotropical origin and threatening to the ecosystem of most countries within the moist tropical zones of south east Asia. Three habitat types were taken to study the ecology and management issues of the weed. The study was conducted from October, 2006 to February, 2007 taking random sampling intensity of 0.3%, 0.03% and 0.0012% of the invaded area for tree, shrub and herb, respectively and plot size were 20*25m, 5*5m and 1*1m, accordingly. The riparian, edge, grassland with sparse tree and shrub, low canopy area of natural and afforested forest were found to be highly invaded by the weed. A total of 102 plant species were affected in various degrees by the weed. The highest invasion was found in Dalbegia sissoo tree in afforested land and the prevalent effect was observed in Bombax ceiba of below 17 cm DBH. Most of the trees of above 30 cm DBH were found to be low invasion. All the shrub species in invaded area were highly smothered and only some herbs like Ageratum conizoides, Aquisetum debile, Eragrostis unioloides, Diplazium esculentum and Tectoria macrodonta were observed to be exposed.
Knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among school going adolescents of rural Nepal
D Sapkota,D Sharma,H P Pokharel,Shyam Sundar Budhathoki,Vijay Kumar Khanal
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jkmc.v2i3.9962
Abstract: Background: Adolescence is a transition period from childhood to adult life during which pubertal development and sexual maturation take place, thus making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge towards menstruation among adolescent girls. Menstrual hygiene and management is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged and has not received adequate attention. Objective: This study was done to assess the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among school going adolescents. Methods: A descriptive study was done among sixty-one female adolescents of Shree Himali Secondary School, Panchkanya, Sunsari, where data were collected from the adolescents meeting the inclusion criteria. Results: It was found that 36.1% correctly reported about menstruation where most common informant was mother (39.3%). Dysmenorrhoea was the commonest problem faced during menstruation (78.7%) followed by back pain and excessive blood loss. More than half of respondents (54.1%) used sanitary pads and frequency of changing pads twice a day was highest (50.8%). Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche by 36.1% of girls whereas 44.3% perceived it as an expectant process. Girls still faced different types of restrictions like not being allowed to visit holy places, not being allowed to cook and touch male family member etc. Conclusion: Traditional beliefs regarding menstruation still persist and menstrual hygiene among the adolescents was found to be unsatisfactory. It highlights the need of targeted interventions to raise awareness and provision of family health education package to all girls. Menstrual hygiene is an issue that needs to be addressed at all levels. Journal of Kathmandu Medical College ?Vol. 2, No. 3, Issue 5, Jul.-Sep., 2013 Page: 117-121 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jkmc.v2i3.9962 Uploaded date : 3/4/2014
Diversity of Flowering Plants in Nubri Valley, Manaslu Conservation Area, Central Nepal  [PDF]
Shova Sapkota, Bikram Pandey, Krishna Kumar Shrestha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.86102
Abstract: Central Nepal has long history in the field of botanical investigation in contrast with different parts of the nation. Nevertheless, the present study area (Manaslu Conservation Area) is still under-explored. The present floristic study was carried out with the aim of fulfilling this gap by giving particular attention on flowering plants and their documentation. Two field visits were directed in May-June 2012 and September-October 2012 in two unique seasons with a specific end goal to gather plant samples of both seasons. On the contrary, herbarium specimens were prepared and later identified at Tribhuvan University Central Herbarium (TUCH) and National Herbarium and Plant Laboratory (KATH). The present study uncovers the presence of 276 species of flowering plants belonging to 78 families and 200 genera of which 63 families belong to dicotyledons and 15 families belong to monocotyledons. Among these, 17 species (6.15%) of climbers, 178 species (64.49%) of herbs, 58 species (21.01%) of shrubs and 23 species (8.33%) of trees are found. Economically important flowering plants comprise about 156 species where 75 species are used as medicine, 29 species as fuel wood, 23 species as fodder, 29 species are edible, 6 species are for religious purpose, 5 specifically for construction purpose, 10 for ornamental and 13 species reported to have miscellaneous uses. MCA accounts to 9 flowering plant species for research and development and agro-technology development and 12 species are listed under IUCN and CAMP threatened categories. MCA and its affinity are likewise house to 10 endemic flowering plants. As from the study it can be inferred that Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) is a treasure hub of flowering plants that not only represent its economic importance rather it is also a house to threaten and endemic flowering plants. Thus, proper management plans must be implemented for the conservation of resources in MCA.
Asymptomatic throat carriage rate and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Streptococcus pyogenes in Nepalese school children
SP Dumre,K Sapkota,M Adhikari,D Acharya,M Karki,S Bista,SR Basnyat,SK Joshi
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v7i4.2760
Abstract: Background: Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes several suppurative and non suppurative infections. In addition to pharyngitis and skin infections, GAS are also the causative agent of post-streptococcal infection syndromes such as acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and post-streptococcal glumerulonephritis (PSG). GAS frequently colonises in the throat of an asymptomatic person. Pharyngeal carriage rates of GAS among healthy school children vary with geographical location and seasons. Objectives: We carried out this preliminary study to determine the throat carriage rate and antimicrobial resistance trend of Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A streptococcus (GAS) among the Nepalese school children. Materials and methods: Four schools situated at different locations of Kathmandu valley were included in the study. Throat swabs from 350 students of age group 5-15 years were collected, immediately transported to the laboratory and were processed for S. pyogenes following standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. Results: S. pyogenes was isolated from 10.9% (38/350) of the screened children. The GAS colonisation rate was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) with sex and age sub-groups, although the rate was slightly higher among girls and age sub-group 9-12 years. No significant difference in carrier rate was observed among different schools (P>0.05). All isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. No resistance was detected for penicillin and its derivative antibiotic ampicillin. Highest resistance rate was observed for cotrimoxazole (71.0%) followed by chloramphenicol (7.8%), ciprofl oxacin (5.2%) and erythromycin (5.2%). Conclusion: Antibiotic resistant GAS isolated from asymptomatic Nepalese school children is a public health concern. When screened and appropriately treated with antibiotics, carriers can be prevented from spreading of streptococcal infections in the school environment and the community. Preventing cross infections would ultimately reduce the incidence of life-threatening sequelae which are debilitating and difficult to treat. It is recommended to conduct regular screening and GAS surveillance in schools, and maintain rational use of antibiotics to minimise GAS carriage/infections and resistance. Key words : Streptococcus pyogenes ; Antibiotics Resistance ; Throat carriage; Children; Nepal. DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v7i4.2760 Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2009) Vol.7, No.4 Issue 28, 392-396
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