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The filtering capacity of selected Eastern Cape estuaries, South Africa
UM Scharler, D Baird
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: Four Eastern Cape estuaries, the Kromme, Gamtoos, Swartkops and Sundays Estuaries have a permanent connection to the adjacent ocean, but differ in the amount of freshwater inflows as well as in the land-use patterns in their respective catchment areas. The nutrient loading to the four estuaries in terms of phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia therefore varies. The aim of the study was to show how the nutrient loads received by the estuaries differ, and how they act as filters for nutrients. Discriminant analysis revealed such contrasts: The lower reaches of the four estuaries are similar in their inorganic nutrient concentrations, but concentrations diverge in their upper reaches and in the inflowing river water.
Animap Sequences
Nakia D. Baird
Solstice : Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: The link to the fulltext on a current website is given below. Should that link fail to work, please go to this persistent URL and download the associated file for this issue. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/58219While you are there, take a look around and see if there are other issues and documents that are related to your interests!
Growth, production and consumption of the thalassinid prawn Upogebia africana (Ortmann) in the Swartkops estuary
N. Hanekom,D. Baird
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Populations of large and stunted Upogebia africana were regularly and quantitatively sampled in the Swartkops estuary. The growth of these prawns, determined by cohort analyses, was described by von Bertalantty equations: Lt = 24,4 (1 - e-O·0583 (I + 1,8446)) and Lt .. 19,0 (1 _ e-O·0454 (I + 4.0726)) respectively, where Lt - carapace length (in mm) at age t (in months). Eggs were apparently laid after moulting, which ocamed primarily during spring and summer. First sexual maturity was attained after 1,5 years, while the estimated life span was 41ears. The annual somatic production and PglB ratios of the populatio!,!s sampled were 1864 and 1093 kJ.m- and 0,79 and 0,99 respectively. Somatic production of the entire estuarine population was approximately 1077 x 106 kJ.y-1. An estimated 13, 5 and 2% of this was 'consumed' by birds, fish and man respectively, while the remainder apparently entered the scavenger and detrital food webs. ******* AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kwantitatiewe monsters van normale en verdwergde U. africana is met gereelde tussenposes in die Swartkopsgetyrivier geneem. Die groei van hierdie garnale, soos bepaal deur kohort-analise, is deur von Bertalantty groeivergelykings soos volg beskryf: Lt = 24,4 (1 - e-O·0583 (I + 1.8446)) en Lt = 19,0 (1 _ e-O·0454 (I + 4.0726)) waar Lt karapakslengte (in mm) op ouderdom t (in maande). Eiers is blykbaar na vervelling, wat hoofsaaklik gedurende lente en somer plaasgevind het, gele. Geslagsrypheid is na 1,5 jaar bereik, terwyl die berekende lewensduur 4 jaar is. Die jaarlikse somatiese produksie en PglB verhouding van die gemonsterde bevolkings is onderskeidelik 1864 en 1093 kJ.m-2 en 0,79 en 0,99. Somatiese produksie van die hele getyrivier 59 bevolking is naastenby 1077 x 1 cj kJ.J1. 'n Geskatte 13, 5 en 2% hiervan is onderskeidelik deur voels, visse en mense verbruik, terwyl die res waarskynlik die aasvreter- en detritus-voedselwebbinnegedring het.
Beware of the Dog: Traumatic Extrusion of an Artificial Urinary Sphincter Following Blunt Trauma to the Scrotum by a Domestic Animal  [PDF]
Michael S. Floyd jr., Karen Chan, Andrew D. Baird
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2011.14020
Abstract: Artificial urinary sphincters are commonly used in males with intrinsic sphincter deficiency to improve continence and quality of life. Complications include erosion, mechanical failure and infection. Frequently, a staged approach involving removal of the device, followed by a period of healing and subsequent reinsertion of a new sphincter is required to restore continence. We describe the first case ever reported of traumatic sphincter extrusion following blunt scrotal trauma by a dog and review its clinical features and management.
Mental Health of Caribbean Women with HIV/AIDS  [PDF]
Donna S. Baird, Lisa D. Jones, Fayetta Martin, Edilma Yearwood
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312151
Abstract: Caribbean women have the highest HIV-infection rates in the Americas, yet the mental health and well-being of infected women and adolescent girls in the region has been neglected. Unlike this study many studies have that examined the mental health of women and adolescent girls affected by HIV/AIDS have primarily been conducted outside of the Caribbean. Further, gender inequality, stigma and poverty, and their subsequent behavioral manifestations are noted “structural drivers” of this pandemic across the Caribbean region. This paper focuses on Caribbean women and girls as a culturally vulnerable group, as well as addressing possible pre-existing psychiatric or psychological factors that may contribute to unsuccessful prevention of HIV/AIDS and poor disease management in this population.
Aggressive Transition between Alternative Male Social Tactics in a Long-Lived Australian Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) Living at High Density
Troy A. Baird, Teresa D. Baird, Richard Shine
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041819
Abstract: Theory predicts the evolution of alternative male social tactics when intense competition coupled with the superior competitive ability of some individuals limits access to reproductive opportunities by others. How selection has shaped alternative social tactics may be especially interesting in long-lived species where size among sexually mature males varies markedly. We conducted experimental studies on long-lived eastern Australian water dragons living where competition was intense to test the hypotheses that mature males adopt alternative social tactics that are plastic, and that large size and body condition determine resource-holding potential. Approximately one-half of mature males (N = 14) defended territories using high rates of patrol and advertisement display, whereas 16 smaller mature males having lower body condition indices utilized non-territorial social tactics. Although territorial males were larger in absolute size and head dimensions, their heads were not allometrically larger. Territorial males advertised very frequently using displays involving stereotypical movements of the head and dewlap. More aggressive displays were given infrequently during baseline social conditions, but increased during periods of social instability. Female home ranges overlapped those of several territorial and non-territorial males, but females interacted more frequently with territorial males. The extreme plasticity of social tactics in this species that are dependent on body size was confirmed by two instances when relatively large non-territorial males spontaneously evicted territory owners, and by marked shifts in tactics by non-territorial males in response to temporary experimental removals of territory owners, followed (usually) by their expulsion when original owners were reinstated. The high level of social plasticity in this population where same-sex competitors are densely concentrated in preferred habitat suggests that chronic high energetic costs of defense may select for males to cycle between territorial and non-territorial social tactics depending upon their changing energetic status and their current capacity for competition with rivals.
The effect of the heavy metals lead (Pb2+) and zinc (Zn2+) on
RN Jackson, D Baird, S Els
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: This investigation explored the effect of the heavy metals Pb (Pb2+) and Zn (Zn2+) individually and in combination (i.e. three metal solutions) on both the brood and larval development of the burrowing crustacean, Callianassa kraussi. Egg and larval mortalities at factorial (4x7) combinations of salinity (20, 24, 30, 35 mg/l) and seven respective metal concentrations were examined. The results provided various statistically significant trends. Individual concentrations of Pb and Zn at various salinities impacted negatively upon the brood and larval development of Callianassa kraussi. Increasing the specific concentrations of both metals further demonstrated a negative influence, especially on brood development and to a lesser extent on larval development of Callianassa kraussi. Comparing the toxicity of the three concentrations of metals to Callianassa kraussi brood and larval development, it was found that individual Pb concentrations exhibited the least mortality (LC50 Pb-eggs-35ppm = 1.580 mg/l -1 whilst individual Zn concentrations displayed considerably higher mortality (LC50 Zn-eggs-35ppm =0.066 mg/l) but that the combination of Zn and Pb concentrations produced the highest mortality (LC50 Pb&Zn-eggs-35ppm =0.036 mg l -1). Varying salinities in permutation with varying metal concentrations exhibited a significant detrimental influence on the brood and larval development of Callianassa kraussi, notably at the lowest salinities in combination with the highest metal concentrations.
Keloids and Ultrasound Detected Fibroids in Young African American Women
Quaker E. Harmon, Shannon K. Laughlin, Donna D. Baird
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084737
Abstract: Objective Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. Study Design The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Results Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Conclusion Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.
The evolution of the mass ratio of accreting binaries: the role of gas temperature
Matthew D. Young,Jonathon T. Baird,Cathie J. Clarke
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2656
Abstract: We explore an unresolved controversy in the literature about the accuracy of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) in modeling the accretion of gas onto a binary system, a problem with important applications to the evolution of proto-binaries as well as accreting binary super massive black holes. It has previously been suggested that SPH fails to model the flow of loosely bound material from the secondary to primary Roche lobe and that its general prediction that accretion drives mass ratios upwards is numerically flawed. Here we show with 2D SPH that this flow from secondary to primary Roche lobe is a sensitive function of gas temperature and that this largely explains the conflicting claims in the literature which have hitherto been based on either 'cold' SPH simulations or 'hot' grid based calculations. We present simulations of a specimen 'cold' and 'hot' accretion scenario which are numerically converged and evolved into a steady state. Our analysis of the conservation of the Jacobi integral of accreting particles indicates that our results are not strongly compromised by numerical dissipation. We also explore the low resolution limit and find that simulations where the ratio of SPH smoothing length to disc scale height at the edge of the circumsecondary is less than 1 accurately capture binary accretion rates.
Incorporating User Performance Criteria into Building Sustainability Rating Tools (BSRTs) for Buildings in Operation
George Baird
Sustainability , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/su1041069
Abstract: Current Building Sustainability Rating Tools (BSRTs) are concerned mainly with the technical features of new designs. The author argues for the inclusion of user performance criteria in BSRTs for buildings in operation. The case is based on insights gained from surveys of users of sustainable buildings worldwide, and a review of the pioneering NABERS protocol. The paper advocates the establishment of a set of user performance criteria for existing buildings, as a key ingredient in making progress towards a truly sustainable building stock as buildings that perform poorly from the users‘ point of view are unlikely to ever be sustainable.
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