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Maize seed production communities in hills towards a new path of contract seed production in Nepal
DB KC, GO Ferrara, N Gadal, S Neupane, R Puri, B Khatiwada, H Sharma
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9017
Abstract: Seed production of farmers preferred improved maize varieties under community based seed production(CBSP) group initiated in the hills of Nepal under Hill Maize Research Project in 2000. Trained members of the community group produce improved seeds identified through participatory varietal selection procedures. Despite quantum jump in maize seed production, 14 tons by 7 CBSP groups in 2000 to 1,036 tons by 207 groups in 2012, seed marketing remained one of the challenges in HMRP districts. Main objective of this study was to analyze maize seed production trend and presowing seed contracts in hill districts under HMRP. Linear regression model showed seed production trend over the period 2000 to 2012 highly significant. Annual compounded growth rate of seed during the same period was estimated to be 34.36%. Pre-sowing seed contract in cereal crops in the hills of Nepal is a new initiative of HMRP IV. Analysis showed 63 formal contracts were signed for 170.45 tons of improved maize seed between 50 CBSP groups and 24 private seed buyers/traders.
Low Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS) Stent in Endovascular Coil Embolization of Cerebral Aneurysms: A Review  [PDF]
Ujjwol KC, Gang Deng
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2019.92009
Abstract:
Cerebral or intracranial aneurysm is a leading cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. It was initially treated with open surgical clipping but as rapid development of technology a less invasive endovascular coiling technique of aneurysm revolutionized the treatment. Due to tortuous anatomy of parent artery and complicated morphology and location of aneurysm there is ongoing challenge in the complete obliteration of aneurysms. To aid in the advances of treating aneurysm stent assisted endovascular coiling was introduced to give more scaffold support to parent artery and decrease events of coil protrusion from aneurysms. Many types and generation of stents were developed. One of the most recently introduced stent is low profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) stent. Due to its low profile nature it can be used in 0.017-inch inner diameter microcatheter and reach small and complex vessels providing high aneurysmal neck coverage which was not possible through other traditional stent. In addition, its braided design with tantalum strands and radiopaque markers make it more visible during stent placement and post procedure stent evaluation. Despite of many advantages of LVIS stent it is related to high rate of thromboembolic complications and technical complications. Aim of this review paper was to evaluate therapeutic safety, effectiveness and feasibility of LVIS stent in endovascular coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms.
Importance of antiresorptive therapies for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors
Talreja DB
Cancer Management and Research , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S33983
Abstract: rtance of antiresorptive therapies for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors Review (1476) Total Article Views Authors: Talreja DB Published Date September 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 287 - 297 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S33983 Received: 18 May 2012 Accepted: 07 July 2012 Published: 11 September 2012 Draupadi B Talreja Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and Northridge Hospital Medical Center, Northridge, CA, USA Abstract: Patients with bone metastases are at risk of skeletal-related events such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, the need for orthopedic surgery to bone, and palliative radiotherapy for severe bone pain. Antiresorptive therapies have demonstrated efficacy for reducing the risk of skeletal-related events and ameliorating bone pain. Despite the well documented clinical benefits of antiresorptive therapies, patient benefits can be limited or compromised by nonadherence with scheduled therapy. Potential reasons for poor compliance include lack of understanding of how antiresorptive therapies work, neglecting the importance of bone health in maintaining quality of life, and being unaware of the potentially debilitating effects of skeletal-related events caused by bone metastases. Indeed, patients may stop therapy after bone pain subsides or discontinue due to generally mild and usually manageable adverse events, leaving them at an increased risk of developing skeletal-related events. In addition, the cost of antiresorptive therapy can be a concern for many patients with cancer. Medical care for patients with cancer requires a coordinated effort between primary care physicians and oncologists. Patients' medical care teams can be leveraged to help educate them about the importance of adherence to antiresorptive therapy when cancer has metastasized to bone. Because primary care physicians generally have more contact with their patients than oncologists, they are in a unique position to understand patient perceptions and habits that may lead to noncompliance and to help educate patients about the benefits and risks of various antiresorptive therapies in the advanced cancer setting. Therefore, primary care physicians need to be aware of various mechanistic and clinical considerations regarding antiresorptive treatment options.
Use of natural isotopes and groundwater quality for improved recharge and flow estimates in dolomitic aquifers
DB Bredenkamp
Water SA , 2007,
Abstract: The application of a model to several dolomitic aquifers in the RSA is presented and has successfully simulated the reappearance of 14C injected from nuclear tests in the discharge from springs. This is based on a new conceptual model, which accounts for the large variations of 14C in the groundwater still representing recently recharged water. The input of 14C is related to the recharge mechanism to yield low concentrations if the infiltration is direct; and higher concentrations if the recharge water interacts with biogenic CO2 generated in the soil zone. The model has produced estimates of the recharge parameters and their controls but requires an independent estimate of the average recharge e.g. the chloride mass balance method. A close match has been obtained with 14C measurements over the past three decades. A shallow component of the recharge mixes with a larger and older deep-water component. The model has provided the turn-over times of water in the system, which represent the storage capacity as multiples of the mean annual recharge. Quantitative estimates of the recharge of dolomitic aquifers could be derived from the bicarbonate concentrations of the spring waters. The model has also been used to simulate the response of the limited temporal tritium measurements and single determinations of CFC for some springs. This has revealed significant differences that are related to additional dilution of the tritium tracer in the unsaturated zone, in comparison to 14C and CFC.
Computer-animated model of accommodation and theory of reciprocal zonular action
Goldberg DB
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S25983
Abstract: mputer-animated model of accommodation and theory of reciprocal zonular action Original Research (2812) Total Article Views Authors: Goldberg DB Published Date October 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 1559 - 1566 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S25983 Daniel B Goldberg1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, Drexel College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 2Eye Physicians, Little Silver, NJ, USA Abstract: This report presents a computer-animated model of the structures of accommodation based on new understanding of the anatomy of the zonular apparatus integrated with current understanding of the mechanism of accommodation. Analysis of this model suggests a new, consolidated theory of the mechanism of accommodation including a new theory of reciprocal zonular action. A three-dimensional animated model of the eye in accommodation and disaccommodation was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator. Current understanding of the anatomy of the zonule and the attachments of the vitreous zonule to the anterior hyaloid membrane is incomplete. Recent studies have demonstrated three components of the vitreous zonule: (1) anterior vitreous zonule (previously “hyalocapsular” zonule), which attaches the ciliary plexus in the valleys of the ciliary processes to the anterior hyaloid membrane in the region medial to the ciliary body and Weiger’s ligament; (2) intermediate vitreous zonule, which attaches the ciliary plexus to the anterior hyaloid peripherally; and (3) posterior vitreous zonule, which creates a sponge-like ring at the attachment zone that anchors the pars plana zonules. The pars plana zonules attach posteriorly to the elastic choroid above the ora serrata. Analysis of the computer-animated model demonstrates the synchronized movements of the accommodative structures in accommodation and disaccommodation. Utilizing model-based reasoning, it is shown that the posterior zonules attach to and provide traction to the anterior vitreous membrane and Weiger’s ligament. This model supports the concept that the ciliary body/zonule/anterior hyaloid complex contributes to the changes in the posterior lens capsule during accommodation, supporting an extralenticular component to accommodation and demonstrating an alternative to the “vitreous support” theories. There is a reciprocal action of the anterior zonules and the posterior zonules. During ciliary body contraction, the anterior zonules lose tension while the posterior zonules stretch and exert force on the posterior lens capsule playing a role in shaping the posterior lens thickness and curvature. During ciliary body relaxation, the posterior zonules lose tension as the lens flattens and is pulled back by the increasing tension of the anterior zonules.
Modulares Espaciales Valencia – Espa a
DB, GO.
Informes de la Construccion , 1980,
Abstract: The project in question is the result of many years of research and aims at achieving new, organic forms, that are better adapted to man, so that Nature presides over Architecture, becoming a part of same. On the other hand it tries to incorporate new materials which, apart from creating the aforegoing forms, prove more economical, permitting the modules to be industrialized. The combination of these modules constitutes the elementary abecedary, giving rise to several forms of joint expression responding to the different requirements of community life. El proyecto que nos ocupa, resultado de largos a os de investigación, es un intento de conseguir nuevas formas orgánicas, más adaptadas al hombre, con un deseo de que la Naturaleza presida la Arquitectura integrándose en ella. Por otro lado trata de incorporar nuevos materiales que, además de crear las formas citadas, sean más económicos permitiendo industrializar los módulos. La combinación de estos módulos constituye el abecedario elemental, dando lugar a varias formas de expresión conjunta para responder a las diferentes necesidades de convivencia.
Computer-animated model of accommodation and theory of reciprocal zonular action
Goldberg DB
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Daniel B Goldberg1,2 1Ophthalmology Department, Drexel College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 2Eye Physicians, Little Silver, NJ, USA Abstract: This report presents a computer-animated model of the structures of accommodation based on new understanding of the anatomy of the zonular apparatus integrated with current understanding of the mechanism of accommodation. Analysis of this model suggests a new, consolidated theory of the mechanism of accommodation including a new theory of reciprocal zonular action. A three-dimensional animated model of the eye in accommodation and disaccommodation was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator. Current understanding of the anatomy of the zonule and the attachments of the vitreous zonule to the anterior hyaloid membrane is incomplete. Recent studies have demonstrated three components of the vitreous zonule: (1) anterior vitreous zonule (previously “hyalocapsular” zonule), which attaches the ciliary plexus in the valleys of the ciliary processes to the anterior hyaloid membrane in the region medial to the ciliary body and Weiger’s ligament; (2) intermediate vitreous zonule, which attaches the ciliary plexus to the anterior hyaloid peripherally; and (3) posterior vitreous zonule, which creates a sponge-like ring at the attachment zone that anchors the pars plana zonules. The pars plana zonules attach posteriorly to the elastic choroid above the ora serrata. Analysis of the computer-animated model demonstrates the synchronized movements of the accommodative structures in accommodation and disaccommodation. Utilizing model-based reasoning, it is shown that the posterior zonules attach to and provide traction to the anterior vitreous membrane and Weiger’s ligament. This model supports the concept that the ciliary body/zonule/anterior hyaloid complex contributes to the changes in the posterior lens capsule during accommodation, supporting an extralenticular component to accommodation and demonstrating an alternative to the “vitreous support” theories. There is a reciprocal action of the anterior zonules and the posterior zonules. During ciliary body contraction, the anterior zonules lose tension while the posterior zonules stretch and exert force on the posterior lens capsule playing a role in shaping the posterior lens thickness and curvature. During ciliary body relaxation, the posterior zonules lose tension as the lens flattens and is pulled back by the increasing tension of the anterior zonules. Keywords: zonule, posterior zonule, vitreous zonule, accommodation, mechanism of accommodation, theor
Importance of antiresorptive therapies for patients with bone metastases from solid tumors
Talreja DB
Cancer Management and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Draupadi B TalrejaDepartment of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and Northridge Hospital Medical Center, Northridge, CA, USAAbstract: Patients with bone metastases are at risk of skeletal-related events such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, the need for orthopedic surgery to bone, and palliative radiotherapy for severe bone pain. Antiresorptive therapies have demonstrated efficacy for reducing the risk of skeletal-related events and ameliorating bone pain. Despite the well documented clinical benefits of antiresorptive therapies, patient benefits can be limited or compromised by nonadherence with scheduled therapy. Potential reasons for poor compliance include lack of understanding of how antiresorptive therapies work, neglecting the importance of bone health in maintaining quality of life, and being unaware of the potentially debilitating effects of skeletal-related events caused by bone metastases. Indeed, patients may stop therapy after bone pain subsides or discontinue due to generally mild and usually manageable adverse events, leaving them at an increased risk of developing skeletal-related events. In addition, the cost of antiresorptive therapy can be a concern for many patients with cancer. Medical care for patients with cancer requires a coordinated effort between primary care physicians and oncologists. Patients' medical care teams can be leveraged to help educate them about the importance of adherence to antiresorptive therapy when cancer has metastasized to bone. Because primary care physicians generally have more contact with their patients than oncologists, they are in a unique position to understand patient perceptions and habits that may lead to noncompliance and to help educate patients about the benefits and risks of various antiresorptive therapies in the advanced cancer setting. Therefore, primary care physicians need to be aware of various mechanistic and clinical considerations regarding antiresorptive treatment options.Keywords: antiresorptive therapy, bisphosphonates, bone metastases, cancer, denosumab, zoledronic acid
Two dimensional temperature distribution model in human dermal region exposed at low ambient temperatures with air flow
DB Gurung
Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v8i2.7320
Abstract: This paper deals with thermo-regulation in human dermal part in a cold atmosphere with significant air flow. The mathematical model involving bio-heat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. The natural three layers of dermal part – epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue are considered for the study. The important parameters like blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation rate and thermal conductivity are taken distinct in each layer according to their distinct sub-regional activities. The human subject is assumed in static condition. The wind speed is considered in the range from the start of forced convection (? 0.2 m/s) and up to 5 m/s. The loss of heat from the skin surface to the environment is taken due to convection, radiation, and insensible perspiration. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 8, No. II, December, 2012, 11-24 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kuset.v8i2.7320
Thermoregulation through Skin at Low Atmospheric Temperatures
DB Gurung
Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v5i1.2843
Abstract: The metabolic heat generation decreases exponentially if the persistence of cooling in human body is sustained. This phenomena is under consideration in dermis and subcutaneous tissue to study the exact solution of temperature distribution in dermal layers at low atmospheric temperatures. Other suitable variable physiological conditions are taken and the solution has been obtained using laplace tranform in one dimensional case. Key words: Thermoregulation; Human dermal part; Laplace transform. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification : 92 C 35. ? DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v5i1.2843 Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, January 2009, pp 14-22
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