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Food security scenario, challenges, and agronomic research directions of Nepal
DR Bista, LP Amgain, S Shrestha
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.8985
Abstract: The interim constitution of Nepal has mentioned “food sovereignty as fundamental right in its constituents 18.3". However, Nepal is experiencing decline in food security situation due to collision of domestic, national and international crises viz. poor agricultural growth, declined national agricultural priority, global climate change, global food crisis, and political instability. There is domination of small and marginal holders in Nepalese agriculture. Although the share of agriculture in country’s GDP is decreasing, it is still 33%, and the highest among the South Asian countries. Cereals are the most important staple food crops in Nepal and rice number one from area and production followed by maize, wheat, millets and barley. The grain-legumes and potatoes are considered the protective food crops for the maintenance of balance human nutrition in Nepal. Out of 88 countries, Nepal ranked 57th in Global Hunger Index (GHI) with GHI value of 19.8 depicting alarming situation of hunger in different regions of the country. Since the III Five year plan (1975- 80), the government of Nepal has given high priority in agriculture, focusing major approaches on promotion of integrated farming systems to address food and nutrition security. However, the food security situation is deteriorating. Adaptive measures on climate change, food distribution policy, crop and livestock insurance, subsidies on fertilizers and seeds, research and development activities on food-grain crops and bio-diversity conservation, inter agency coordination, food and seed buffer stock, and institutional capacity building would the viable options to maintain the food security in Nepal. From the rigorous study of various past research works, it can be concluded that the wider gap of several food grain crops can be reduced by system research, crop modelling, and up-scaling the use of agricultural machineries and tools.
DDoS Attack Detection Using Heuristics Clustering Algorithm and Na?ve Bayes Classification  [PDF]
Sharmila Bista, Roshan Chitrakar
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2018.91004
Abstract:
In recent times among the multitude of attacks present in network system, DDoS attacks have emerged to be the attacks with the most devastating effects. The main objective of this paper is to propose a system that effectively detects DDoS attacks appearing in any networked system using the clustering technique of data mining followed by classification. This method uses a Heuristics Clustering Algorithm (HCA) to cluster the available data and Na?ve Bayes (NB) classification to classify the data and detect the attacks created in the system based on some network attributes of the data packet. The clustering algorithm is based in unsupervised learning technique and is sometimes unable to detect some of the attack instances and few normal instances, therefore classification techniques are also used along with clustering to overcome this classification problem and to enhance the accuracy. Na?ve Bayes classifiers are based on very strong independence assumptions with fairly simple construction to derive the conditional probability for each relationship. A series of experiment is performed using “The CAIDA UCSD DDoS Attack 2007 Dataset” and “DARPA 2000 Dataset” and the efficiency of the proposed system has been tested based on the following performance parameters: Accuracy, Detection Rate and False Positive Rate and the result obtained from the proposed system has been found that it has enhanced accuracy and detection rate with low false positive rate.
Very High CA125 due to Non-neoplastic Lesion of Ovary
KDB Bista
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njog.v7i2.11146
Abstract: High CA-125 levels have been strongly associated with ovarian malignancy. But due to nonspecific nature of this tumor marker it has been found to be raised to high levels above 1000u/Ml even in some non neoplastic conditions which have to be kept in mind. A young woman was found to have very high Ca125 levels of 3500u/Ml after rupture of endometrioma. Endometrioma, pelvic inflammatory disease, abdominal tuberculosis are some of the nonneoplastic conditions associated with very high levels of Ca125. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.3126/njog.v7i2.11146 ? Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology / Vol 7 / No. 2 / Issue 14 / July-Dec, 2012 / 52-54
Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of cell block with cytology smear in serous effusions
P Bista
Journal of Pathology of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8998
Abstract: Background: Differentiation between benign and malignant serous effusions always poses a great diagnostic dilemma. Differentiation often requires clinical findings, morphological evaluation and sometimes immunocytochemistry. Diagnostic possibility is enhanced if cell blocks are made along with the conventional cytology smears. This will help the clinicians in both treating the patient and determining the outcome of the disease process. Materials and methods: This hospital-based cross sectional analytical study was carried out in Department of Pathology in National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital for one year. The objective of this study was to compare the smears cytology with cell blocks sections in serous effusions. Results: The four criteria scored for each technique were volume of background blood, amount of diagnostic cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration and trauma and architectural preservation. Background blood, amount of diagnostic material present and retention of architecture was more in cell block sections compared with smears cytology; whereas cellular degeneration and trauma was less appreciated in cell block sections which scored more than the smears cytology. Conclusion: Cell block preparation is simple, rapid and inexpensive technique for serous fluids in which malignant cells can be reliably detected thus avoiding unnecessary invasive procedure in patient management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8998 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013) Vol. 3 , 482-486
Incidence, Histological Types and Age at Presentation of Borderline and Malignant Ovarian Tumors at a Tertiary Institute in Nepal
K D B Bista
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/njog.v9i2.11736
Abstract: Aims: The objective of this study was to find the incidence, assess the age and stage of presentation of ovarian malignancy and correlate these features with the histological types. Methods: Retrospective analysis of ovarian tumor cases that underwent primary surgery at our institute between April 2009 - April 2012 was done. Age, histological type, stage of the disease features were analyzed. Statistical analysis was done by Chi square and T test. Results: Out of 451 ovarian tumor cases, 81 cases of borderline and malignant ovarian tumor were seen. Germ cell tumors were the most common type of ovarian tumors. The mean age of presentation of primary malignant tumors was 41.9 years. Serous adenocarcinoma was the most common ovarian cancer occurring in 22.2 % (n =67) cases. In women <40 years the likelihood of germ cell cancer was significantly more than non germ cell malignancies (p value <0.001). Epithelial ovarian malignancies were more likely to present at late stages than non-epithelail malignancies and this was found to be statistically significant with p value of 0.003. Increasing age was associated with increasing stage of cancer. Conclusions: Germ cell tumors were the most common ovarian tumors, but epithelial tumors were the most common malignant ovarian tumors. Increasing age was associated with increasing stage of disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njog.v9i2.11736
Lived Experience of Older Adults with Post-Hip Fracture
Bishnu Bista Thapa
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ijssm.v1i1.9590
Abstract: Objective: this phenomenological study was undertaken to explore lived experiences of community dweller older adults with post hip fractured.?
Insomnia in Patients Suffering from Chronic Medical Illnesses: Prevalence and Impact of IAYT  [PDF]
Bista Suman, Bhargav Praerna, Metri Kashinath, Bhargav Hemant
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2017.710017
Abstract: Background: Sleep is an important lifestyle factor to be addressed in patients having chronic non-communicable diseases. Data revealing prevalence of insomnia in chronic medical illnesses (CMIs) in Indian population are lacking. Yoga has been found effective in improving sleep quality in patients with chronic medical illnesses (CMIs). Aim: To find the prevalence of insomnia in major chronic medical illnesses and to assess the effect of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT) on them. Methods and Material: From the outpatients and inpatients of our integrative therapy clinics, 200 patients (116 males; 84 females) in the age range 49.57 ± 11.71 years, who satisfied the inclusion criteria and were diagnosed by the physician with any of the four major categories of CMIs: cardio-pulmonary, diabetes, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric were screened for insomnia using Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale. Those found suffering from clinically significant insomnia (ISI score > 14) were admitted and a residential IAYT intervention was given for a week. Before and after the intervention, ISI and Pittsburg insomnia rating scale (PIRS) were administered to assess extent of insomnia. Data was analyzed before and after the intervention using paired t-test. Results: Taking all patients of CMIs together, we found that 35% suffered from clinical insomnia, out of which, 12.5% had severe and 22.5% had moderate insomnia. We also found that prevalence of clinical insomnia was highest among those suffering from psychiatric illnesses (62.07%) and minimum in those having musculoskeletal disorders (28.05%). Those suffering from diabetes mellitus and cardio-pulmonary disorders reported prevalence of 32.25% and 31.94% respectively. After IAYT intervention of one week, extent of clinical insomnia reduced from 35% at the baseline to 8.5% in all patients of CMIs taken together. Following changes were observed in percentage of patients suffering from clinical insomnia in different CMIs before and after one week of IAYT intervention: 1) In psychiatric patients, the percentage reduced from 62.07% to 24.13%; 2) In diabetic patients, the percentage reduced from 32.27% to 3.0%; 3) In patients having musculoskeletal disorders, the percentage reduced from 28.05% to 8.53%; and 4) In patients having cardio-pulmonary illnesses, the percentage reduced from 31.94% to 2.7%. Conclusion: Prevalence of insomnia is higher in patients suffering from chronic medical illnesses. IAYT intervention of one week may be
Honeybee Flora at Kabre, Dolakha District
Sanjaya Bista,Gopal P Shivakoti
Nepal Agriculture Research Journal , 2000, DOI: 10.3126/narj.v4i0.4859
Abstract: Adequate knowledge about bee flora is the prerequisite to initiate bee keeping. A study was conducted at Kabre area of Dolakha district during 1997-1999 to identify existing bee flora and develop a floral calendar. Based on the interview with bee farmers and visual observations, 119 important plant species were recorded, out of which 47 species were found major sources for honeybees. Spring season (mid-March to mid-June) and autumn season (mid-Sept to Oct) were identified as honey flow periods having a number of floral plants such as Guizotia abyssinica , Fraxinus floribunda , Prunus cerasoides , Pyrus communis , Castanopsis indica , Brassica spp., Citrus spp., Berberis spp., Rubus spp., Rhododendron spp. and Trifolium spp. Winter season (mid- Nov to Feb) is the critical dearth period with a few flowering plants like Reinwardtia indica , Pogestemon glaber , Caesalpinia spp. and Eupatorium spp. Depending upon the climatic conditions, possibility of planting multipurpose plants has been discussed. Based on available flora, major characteristics of these plant species, utility status and flowering duration a bee floral calendar was developed for Kabre. To conserve these floras, attention must be made to maintain and multiply the existing flora. Key words: Apis cerana ; Bee flora; Bee keeping; Dearth period; Honey flow DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/narj.v4i0.4859 Nepal Agriculture Research Journal Vol. 4&5, 2001/2002 Page: 18-25 Uploaded date : 8 June, 2011
Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
Rabindra Bista,Jae-Woo Chang
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100504577
Abstract: Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.
′BREAKS′ protocol for breaking bad news
Narayanan Vijayakumar,Bista Bibek,Koshy Cheriyan
Indian Journal of Palliative Care , 2010,
Abstract: Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.
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