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Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities
Johannes Rousk, Kathrin Ackermann, Simon F. Curling, Davey L. Jones
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034197
Abstract: The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from general metal toxicity.
Lettuce Cultivar Mediates Both Phyllosphere and Rhizosphere Activity of Escherichia coli O157:H7
Richard S. Quilliam, A. Prysor Williams, Davey L. Jones
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033842
Abstract: Plant roots and leaves can be colonized by human pathogenic bacteria, and accordingly some of the largest outbreaks of foodborne illness have been associated with salad leaves contaminated by E. coli O157. Integrated disease management strategies often exploit cultivar resistance to provide a level of protection from economically important plant pathogens; however, there is limited evidence of whether the genotype of the plant can also influence the extent of E. coli O157 colonization. To determine cultivar-specific effects on colonization by E. coli O157, we used 12 different cultivars of lettuce inoculated with a chromosomally lux-marked strain of E. coli O157:H7. Lettuce seedlings grown gnotobiotically in vitro did exhibit a differential cultivar-specific response to E. coli O157 colonization, although importantly there was no relationship between metabolic activity (measured as bioluminescence) and cell numbers. Metabolic activity was highest and lowest on the cultivars Vaila-winter gem and Dazzle respectively, and much higher in endophytic and tightly bound cells than in epiphytic and loosely bound cells. The cultivar effect was also evident in the rhizosphere of plants grown in compost, which suggests that cultivar-specific root exudate influences E. coli O157 activity. However, the influence of cultivar in the rhizosphere was the opposite to that in the phyllosphere, and the higher number and activity of E. coli O157 cells in the rhizosphere may be a consequence of them not being able to gain entry to the plant as effectively. If metabolic activity in the phyllosphere corresponds to a more prepared state of infectivity during human consumption, leaf internalization of E. coli O157 may pose more of a public health risk than leaf surface contamination alone.
Assessing the Potential for Ion Selective Electrodes and Dual Wavelength UV Spectroscopy as a Rapid on-Farm Measurement of Soil Nitrate Concentration
Rory Shaw,A. Prysor Williams,Anthony Miller,Davey L. Jones
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030327
Abstract: Current fertiliser recommendations for nitrogen are limited in their accuracy and may be improved by the use of simple on-farm soil rapid tests. This paper investigates the potential for using nitrate (NO 3 ?) ion selective electrodes (ISEs) and dual wavelength UV spectroscopy as part of a rapid soil NO 3 ? diagnostic test. Three soil types, representing the major soil types for agriculture in the western UK, were tested. For the three soils, the ISE rapid test procedure gave a near 1:1 response ( r 2 = 0.978, 0.968, 0.989) compared to the internationally-approved standard laboratory method. However, the accuracy of the ISE rapid test was reduced at low soil NO 3 ? concentrations (<10 mg NO 3 ? L ?1). We also show that NO 3 ? analysis of H 2O soil extracts by dual wavelength UV spectroscopy was also highly correlated ( r 2 = 0.978, 0.983, 0.991) to the standard laboratory method. We conclude that both ISE and dual wavelength UV spectroscopy have clear potential to be used for the rapid on-farm determination of soil NO 3 ? concentration. Barriers to use of these field-based assessment tools include, farmer perception of cost-benefit, general attitude to new technologies and the ability to generate useful fertiliser use strategies from soil NO 3 ? measurements.
Epigenetic Epidemiology of Common Complex Disease: Prospects for Prediction, Prevention, and Treatment
Caroline L. Relton ,George Davey Smith
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000356
Abstract:
Interrelationships between negative mood and clinical constructs: a motivational systems approach
Gary I. Britton,Graham C. L. Davey
Frontiers in Psychology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00393
Abstract: A series of three experiments was designed to test predictions from a motivational systems approach to understanding the role of clinical constructs in anxiety-based problems. Negative mood, inflated responsibility, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) were separately manipulated within analog samples to examine their effect on the other two factors. In the first experiment (n = 59) the negative mood group scored significantly higher in terms of inflated responsibility than the positive mood group. In the second experiment (n = 63) the high responsibility group scored significantly higher in terms of both negative mood and IU than the low responsibility group. In the third experiment (n = 61) the high IU group scored significantly higher in terms of negative mood than the low IU group. Tests of indirect effects revealed an indirect effect of IU on inflated responsibility through negative mood and an indirect effect of negative mood on IU through inflated responsibility, suggesting all three constructs are causally interrelated. The findings are consistent with contemporary transdiagnostic views of clinical constructs, and support a view of anxiety that is underpinned by a coordinated and interdependent motivational system evolved to manage threat.
Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy
Jones L
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1967,
Abstract:
A ganglion cyst at the elbow causing superficial radial nerve compression: a case report
John McFarlane, Ravi Trehan, Miguel Oliveira, Carl Jones, Simon Blease, Paul Davey
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-122
Abstract: A 45-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of a painful lump in the anterior aspect of her left elbow associated with altered sensation in the dorsoradial aspect of her left hand. There was no history of trauma or any exacerbating factors. On examination the altered sensation was in the superficial radial nerve distribution and she had a positive Tinel's sign over the site of the swelling which was located over the anterior aspect of the radiocapitellar joint.The unique clinical symptoms and signs of our diagnosis of superficial radial nerve compression were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and then operative findings.The aetiology and pathogenesis of ganglia remain obscure, but degenerative changes at the joint and repeated minor trauma often seem to be a factor in their development. The cysts are usually attached to the underlying adjacent joint capsule, tendon or tendon sheath.The radial nerve branches into the motor branch (posterior interosseous nerve, PIN) and sensory branch (superficial branch) at the elbow. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is a cutaneous and articular nerve that descends into the forearm under the cover of the brachioradialis and then crosses the roof of the anatomical snuffbox to supply the skin of the dorsum of the hand. Ganglia can occur proximal to the proximal edge of supinator muscle and to the arcade of Frohse or distal to this position. Most reported cases have been located just anterior to the radial head, causing a nerve palsy as the mass pushes the entire radial nerve, including the PIN and the superficial nerve, anteriorly. The arcade of Frohse is a site where the PIN is readily compressed. As the superficial nerve does not pass under the arcade it tends to avoid compression by ganglia [1].A 45-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of a painful lump in the anterior aspect of her left elbow associated with altered sensation in the dorsoradial aspect of her left hand. There was no history of tra
A case of an ectopic cervical thymic cyst  [PDF]
Simon Davey, Janet McNally
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22041
Abstract:

Ectopic cervical thymic cysts are uncommon lesions and definitive preoperative diagnosis is not always possible. Surgical excision is recommended due to the small but possible chance of malignant degeneration in adulthood. We present a case of a nine year old boy with an asymptomatic lesion in his neck, discuss the differential diagnoses of such lesions and treatment considerations.

The Equivalence between the Mann and Ishikawa Iterations for Generalized Contraction Mappings in a Cone  [PDF]
L. Jones Tarcius Doss, T. Esakkiappan
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.211192
Abstract: In this paper, equivalence between the Mann and Ishikawa iterations for a generalized contraction mapping in cone subset of a real Banach space is discussed.
CD8+ T Cells from a Novel T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mouse Induce Liver-Stage Immunity That Can Be Boosted by Blood-Stage Infection in Rodent Malaria
Lei Shong Lau equal contributor,Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz equal contributor,Vanessa Mollard,Angelika Sturm,Michelle A. Neller,Anton Cozijnsen,Julia L. Gregory,Gayle M. Davey,Claerwen M. Jones,Yi-Hsuan Lin,Ashraful Haque,Christian R. Engwerda,Catherine Q. Nie,Diana S. Hansen,Kenneth M. Murphy,Anthony T. Papenfuss,John J. Miles,Scott R. Burrows,Tania de Koning-Ward,Geoffrey I. McFadden,Francis R. Carbone,Brendan S. Crabb ,William R. Heath
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004135
Abstract: To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections.
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