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Managing Soil Erosion in Northern Ireland: A Review of Past and Present Approaches
Donal Mullan
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3040684
Abstract: In recent decades, the off-site transport of sediment and nutrients from agricultural land into the neighbouring natural and built environment has become a more pressing environmental sustainability issue than the on-site threats of soil erosion in many of the world’s temperate regions. In the temperate region of Northern Ireland, recent studies have highlighted the off-site issue of soil erosion by water in the present day, and projected that the problem may become more widespread and serious in a changing climate. This review paper examines how this problem is being managed in the present day, and draws on examples of policy in other countries to consider how the role of policy needs to be modified for more effective management. Farmers are generally not adhering to present-day policy and “keeping their land in good agricultural and environmental condition”. A range of suggested changes in policy and practice is offered, ranging from educating farmers on erosion mitigation and remediation to developing specific policies aimed at targeting soil erosion and conservation as their sole objective. An increase in the evidence base from measured erosion rates in the field is postulated to be the most likely route to achieving policy changes.
The ‘Greening’ of Natural Stone Buildings:Quartz Sandstone Performance as a Secondary Indicator of Climate Change in the British Isles?  [PDF]
Stephen McCabe, Bernard Smith, Catherine Adamson, Donal Mullan, Daniel McAllister
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.14018
Abstract: A number of recent studies have explored the impact of climate change on natural building stones. Because of its sensitivity to change, sandstone can be seen as having a predictable, recognisable and sustained response to changes in system inputs that control performance – most crucially for the UK and Ireland, how it responds to an increased moisture input. There has been a widespread biological “greening” of sandstone buildings in response to these periods of wetness during autumn, winter and spring months. Furthermore, there is a wealth of literature detailing the response of sandstone in a variety of environments where sand-stone response is representative of the environment in which it has been placed. This letter suggests that the response of sandstone to trends towards wetter winter conditions is predictable to the extent that it may have potential to be a secondary indicator of climatic change – that is, a system that alters in response to fluctuations in environmental conditions in a sustained way. It is hoped that the letter may stimulate discussion as to what other possible indicators of climatic change remain unacknowledged.
Evaluation of Contamination of Hands of the Medical Students in a Medical Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital  [PDF]
Keshvi Chauhan, Summaiya Mullan
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.79052
Abstract:
Background: In the hospital, patients are often exposed to multiple procedures, invasive devices etc., increasing their chances of contracting such potential pathogens. Most of the time these potential pathogens exhibit multiple drug resistance. Aim: In view of the above factors, this study was undertaken to determine the rate of colonization of potential bacterial pathogens in the hands of final year MBBS undergraduate students. As per their clinical teaching curriculum, they visit the wards/ICU/OT, etc. on a daily basis. Method: Samples were collected from the hands of final year MBBS undergraduate students. The samples were collected by rubbing a saline wet swab stick onto the hands of the students and were inoculated onto nutrient agar plates for 18 - 24 hours at 37°C aerobically. Bacterial isolates were identified till species level by performing gram staining and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-baur disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines 2016. Conclusion: 103 samples were collected from hands of final year undergraduate MBBS students by swab culture method. 38 showed growth and 65 showed no growth. Out of 38 isolates, 36 were Gram positive cocci and 2 were Gram positive bacilli. No Gram negative bacilli were isolated. Amongst 36 Gram positive cocci, 16 were coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus and 20 were Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS). 14 Staphylococcus aureus out of 16 were methicillin sensitive and 2 were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Out of 16 Staphylococcus aureus, 1 isolate showed Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLSB phenotype) and 6 isolates showed complete resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLSB phenotype). 1 Staphylococcus aureus which was Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLSB phenotype) was also methicillin resistant.
Environmental Lead and Nickel Contamination of Tank Rainwater in Esperance, Western Australia: An Evaluation of the Cleaning Program  [PDF]
Jane S HEYWORTH, Narelle MULLAN
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.11001
Abstract: A significant number of birds in the port town of Esperance, Western Australia died in the summer of 2006/2007 and elevated lead levels were found in the kidneys, livers and brains of autopsied birds. These elevated lead levels alerted Government authorities to investigate the public health impacts of potential lead contamination in the community resulting from transport of lead carbonate from the Esperance Port. Water samples from domestic rainwater collection systems were collected to determine the extent of heavy metal contamination; 19% and 24% of tanks had lead and nickel levels above the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cleaning of rainwater tanks had reduced exposure to lead and nickel contamination in the community. Follow-up sampling of 176 tanks across Esperance indi-cated that that there had been reductions in both lead and nickel concentrations, but that the reduction has been greater for nickel concentrations. The reduction in nickel concentration was significantly associated with cleaning status, whereas this was not the case for lead. Proximity to the Esperance Port was an impor-tant determinant of lead concentration. Tank and roof characteristics did not significantly influence the fol-low-up lead concentrations. The results suggested that there was ongoing contamination of rainwater tanks from the environment.
Seize the Hospital to Serve the People
Fitzhugh Mullan
Social Medicine , 2007,
Abstract:
A Reflection on Classroom Observation: A Reminder Regarding Accommodating Different Learning Styles
Kerry Mullan
Humanising Language Teaching , 2011, DOI: 17559715
Abstract:
Comparative Study of Z N Staining vs. Flurochrome Staining and Impact of Sample Processing on Diagnosis of Tuberculosis from Various Clinical Samples  [PDF]
Yogita Mistry, Sangita Rajdev, Summaiya Mullan
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.613089
Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease and India has the highest burden with it. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in many countries is still dependent on microscopy. Although its sensitivity is low in comparison to culture and molecular methods, its sensitivity can still be improved by using fluorescence staining method and processing of samples by homogenization and concentration method. Material and methods: Samples were collected from all newly registered suspected cases of tuberculosis in tertiary care hospital from outward and indoor department during a period of one year. Smears were prepared for Ziehl Neelsen stain and fluorescence stain both before and after homogenization and concentration procedure by 4% NAOH-2.9% sodium citrate method and results of them were interpreted according to RNTCP criteria for grading of sputum samples. All the samples were cultured in liquid culture MGIT system (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube) and results of microscopy were compared with liquid culture taken as gold standard. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software version 16. Result: 350 samples were collected during study period. Out of 350 samples, 48 samples were positive for M. tuberculosis by MGIT system. In comparison with MGIT system, sensitivity of Z N stain for detection of acid fast bacilli was 77% before decontamination procedure, which was increased up to 85.42% after decontamination and concentration process. Sensitivity of fluroscence stain was 85.42% before processing, which was increased up to 91.67% after processing of samples. Conclusion: Sensitivity of smear microscopy can be enhanced by use of fluroscence microscopy and concentration method.
Scenario of Infection Prevention and Control Measures for Tuberculosis in Tuberculosis Inpatient and Outpatient Department in Tertiary Care Hospital  [PDF]
Yogita Mistry, Sangita Rajdev, Summaiya Mullan
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44018
Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases in our country. Also nosocomial infection by tuberculosis can occur, which can be prevented by implementing simple, effective and affordable tuberculosis infection control measures in health care facilities. To evaluate the effectiveness of infection control measures, such study was planned. Questionnaires were administered to all doctors, healthcare workers and servants working in outdoor and indoor department of tuberculosis at tertiary care hospital to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices on prevention and control of Tuberculosis infection. A scoring system was devised to grade them. One-time audit was also done in outpatient and inpatient department. The analysis showed scoring of poor for doctors, good for nurses and poor forward aids. There is a need to develop strategies for training of health care workers on regular basis in order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections. Audit result shows a good level of environmental control measures. Better knowledge, attitude and practices are helpful for the prevention and control of tuberculosis. Also environmental control measures are helpful to prevent infection.
Use of Cost Effective Semi-Automated (Mannual/Micro) MGIT System over BACTEC 960 to Perform First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs Sensitivity Testing  [PDF]
Yogita Mistry, Sangita Rajdev, Summaiya Mullan
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44025
Abstract: Introduction: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) that is the tuberculosis that is resistant to at least 2 of the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs is fatal infectious disease. Cases of MDR-TB are now increasing with 30,000 cases of MDR-TB reported in 2013 by national TB programme. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TB is extremely important for rapid treatment of patient and to prevent spread of MDR-TB to other. BACTEC 960 system helps in rapid diagnosis but purchase of expensive instrument for the same is the limitation. However, the same purpose can be solved by use of semi-automated MGIT system. Aims and Objectives: Aim of this study is to do drug sensitivity testing of the first line anti-tuberculosis drugs with the use of semi-automated MGIT systems. 350 newly registered and suspected cases of tuberculosis in tertiary care hospital were included. Samples were processed for digestion and decontamination and inoculated in MGIT tubes and also on LJ medium. Reading was taken using semi-automated MGIT system. Positive tubes were confirmed by rapid test for M. tuberculosis and then drug sensitivity was performed. Result: Out of 350 samples, 62% were sputum; 33% were pleural fluid and rest 5% were lymph node, Ascetic fluid, CSF, pus. Average day of positivity by MGIT was 13 - 20 days as compared to 25 - 37 days by solid medium, which was statistically significant with p value < 0.01. MDR cases were 2% out of 350 samples. Conclusion: Manual MGIT System is a simple, efficient, safe to use diagnostic system. It does not require any expensive/special instrumentation other than the UV lamp for detection of fluorescence. The rapidity by which mycobacteria are detected is the most important advantage of the Manual MGIT. In areas with limited resources where purchase of expensive instruments such as the MGIT960 is out of scope, the use of manual MGIT for rapid susceptibility testing for MDR-TB could be a possibility.
Resistance Trends among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates in a Tertiary Care Centre in South Gujarat  [PDF]
Nishi Tiwari, Sangita Rajdev, Summaiya Mullan
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2017.73015
Abstract: It is necessary to determine the susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates especially nosocomial one in the clinical settings for making strategy for effective empirical treatment & to reduce incidence of multidrug resistant bugs. Aim of this study was to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of P. aeruginosa isolates from clinical samples between January 2014 to December 2015, received at department of Microbiology, GMC, Surat. Clinical isolates were confirmed as P. aeruginosa by phenotypic methods/Vitek2 compact system as per availability. Genetic sequencing could not be performed due to unavailability. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method/Vitek2 compact system & Interpretation was done according Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) of that year [1] [2]. Seven hundred fifty seven P. aeruginosa strains were studied during the study period. Most of the isolates were from surgery ward (62%), followed by orthopaedic ward (15%). 65% of the total isolates were from swab samples followed by urine (7%), pus, fluid (5%) & devices (4%). 60% isolates were resistant to Ceftazidime & for other drugs resistance pattern was as follows: Cefepime (52%), Levofloxacin (49%), Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (49%), Meropenem & Gentamycin (44%), Ciprofloxacin (43%), Amikacin (41%), Tobramycin (39%), Netlimycin (36%), Piperacillin (32%), Aztreonam (31%), Piperacillin/tazobactam (26%), Imipenem (23%) , Doripenem (12%) & Gatifloxacin (10%). As there is predominance of isolates from surgical ward in present study & resistance to carbapenem group of drugs was also found, indicating that most of the infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be nosocomial.
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