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Economic losses related stages of processing of corn and wheat, cooperative unit in the north of Paraná = Perdas econ micas vinculadas às etapas de beneficiamento de milho e trigo, em unidade cooperativa do norte do Paraná
Evandro Marcos Kolling,Emerson Trogello,Alcir José Modolo
Agro@mbiente On-line , 2012,
Abstract: The national grain production is growing year after year, however the agricultural system does not develop itself as a whole. Steps such as the processing of grains still contain high losses of quantitative and qualitative, which culminates in large economic losses in grain processing units. The present study sought to highlight the economic losses arising from the processing of grain crops of winter corn and wheat in crop year 2006 in a unit processing/grain store, located in the northern region of Paraná State. To this end, the improvement process in a commercial level was accompanied with a view to raising the technical breakdown caused by grain damaged by excessive drying and, in various stages of processing (receiving, shipment and post-drying). The percentage data were extrapolated to the total static capacity of the unit recorded and converted to monetary values, considering the commercial value of this product. It can be seen that the steps of processing unit contributed to the increase of damage in corn and wheat, raising the percentage of impurity, and broken wheat middling phase until the phase of receiving shipment. The economic results showed an associated loss of R$ 220,083.00 to excessive drying and R$ 52,800.00 for damage to products upon analysis of the full drive capacity processing/store.=Resumo - A produ o nacional de gr os cresce ano após ano, entretanto o sistema agrícola n o se desenvolve como um todo. áreas como o beneficiamento de gr os ainda apresentam elevadas perdas de ordem quantitativa e qualitativa, o que culmina em perdas econ micas de grande porte nas unidades beneficiadoras de gr os. O presente estudo buscou evidenciar as perdas econ micas oriundas do beneficiamento de gr os das culturas de milho safrinha e trigo no ano agrícola de 2006,em uma unidade beneficiadora/armazenadora de gr os, localizada na regi o norte do estado do Paraná. Para tal, o processo de beneficiamento, em caráter comercial, foi acompanhado com vistas ao levantamento da quebra técnica ocasionada por gr os danificados e pela secagem excessiva, nas diversas etapas do beneficiamento (recebimento, pós-secagem e expedi o). Os dados percentuais foram extrapolados para a capacidade estática total da unidade observada, sendo convertidos a valores monetários, considerando o valor comercial presente dos produtos. Pode-se observar que as etapas de beneficiamento da unidade contribuíram para o aumento de danos em gr os de milho e trigo, elevando a porcentagem de impureza, quebrados e triguilho da fase de recebimento até a fase de expedi o. Os resultados econ
Seeding quality and soybean yields from using different furrowers and operation speeds Qualidade de semeadura e produtividade da soja sob diferentes sulcadores e velocidades de opera o
Alcir José Modolo,Emerson Trogello,Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa,Rivanildo Dallacort
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: The sowing process for annual no-till crops affects the physical soil conditions around the seeds by exposing them to adverse conditions that may limit initial plant development and reduce potential yield. The use of seed drills that are not compatible with field conditions and the use of inappropriate seed drill speeds affect sowing performance. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of different seed drill types and operating speeds on soybean quality parameters and yield components. Two furrow opener (double disc and chisel) and four operating speed (0.86; 1.22; 1.47 and 1.94 m s-1) treatments were used. The following variables were evaluated: mean number of days until emergence, plant distribution uniformity, sowing depth, area of the soil disturbed, crop stand and grain yield. Overall, the chisel furrow opener provided a greater sowing depth and increased the disturbed soil area more than the double disc furrow opener. Increased operating speeds reduced crop stands and yields and increased the disturbed soil area. Em culturas anuais submetidas ao sistema plantio direto o processo de semeadura afeta o condicionamento físico do solo ao redor das sementes expondo as mesmas a condi es adversas, podendo limitar o desenvolvimento inicial das plantas e minimizar o potencial produtivo. O uso de sulcadores n o condizentes com a situa o de campo e de velocidades inadequadas s o fatores que afetam o bom desempenho da semeadura. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve por objetivo, avaliar o efeito de diferentes sulcadores e velocidades de opera o sobre parametros de qualidade de semeadura e componentes de produtividade da cultura da soja. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combina o entre dois sulcadores (disco e haste) e quatro velocidades de opera o (0,86; 1,22; 1,47 e 1,94 m s-1). Foram avaliados: o número médio de dias para a emergência, a uniformidade de distribui o de plantas, a profundidade de semeadura, a área de solo mobilizado, o estande de plantas e a produtividade de gr os. De acordo com os resultados, o sulcador tipo haste proporcionou maior profundidade de semeadura e área de solo mobilizada, quando comparado ao disco duplo defasado. O aumento da velocidade reduziu o estande de plantas e a produtividade da cultura e aumentou a área de solo mobilizada.
Desempenho de híbridos de milho na Regi?o Sudoeste do Paraná sob diferentes espa?amentos entre linhas
Modolo, Alcir José;Carnieletto, Ricardo;Kolling, Evandro Marcos;Trogello, Emerson;Sgarbossa, Maicon;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902010000300016
Abstract: corn plant arrangement is one of the most important management tool to improve solar radiation interception and it can be done through changes in plant density, row spacing, distribution of plants in the row and plant variability aiming to optimize its use and maximize the yield. due to it, the objective of this work was to study the effects of different corn hybrids and row spacing over the corn development cultivated in a no-tillage system in the southwest of paraná. the experiment was carried out at the experimental area of the utfpr agronomy course located in pato branco - pr, following a complete randomized block design factorial (3 x 3), with four replications. the treatments consisted of combinations among three hybrids (dkb 240, pioneer 30r50 and sg 6010) and three row spacing (0.45; 0.70 and 0.90 m). after seeding, were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, grain yield and its components. according to the results, there were no interaction among hybrids and row spacing, the row spacing reduction promoted greater number of spikes per plant and increased corn grain yield.
Desenvolvimento inicial e produtividade da cultura do milho no sistema de integra??o lavoura-pecuária
Trogello, Emerson;Modolo, Alcir José;Carnieletto, Ricardo;Kolling, Evandro Marcos;Scarsi, Marina;Sgarbossa, Maicon;
Revista Ceres , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2012000200019
Abstract: crop-livestock systems may be defined as the integration of two activities aiming to rationally maximize the land use and to decrease production costs. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different heights of remaining pasture and seed drills on the yield of corn grown in sequence. the treatments consisted of combinations of four remaining pasture residue heights (0,05; 0,15; 0,30 m and ungrazed) and two planter furrow openers on seed drills (shoe and disk), used for seeding after grazing. after corn sowing, the depth of seed deposition, the rate of seedling emergence, initial stand of plants, initial and final plant height and crop yield were evaluated. the different grass heights .significantly influenced the depth of seeding, the initial height and insertion of first cob and grain yield. pasture height of 0,05 m corresponded to the lowest seed depth when compared with the other heights. the different furrow openers affected only the depth of seeding.
Efeito da compacta o do solo sobre a semente no desenvolvimento da cultura do feij o = Effect of soil compaction upon the seed on the development of bean culture
Alcir José Modolo,Emerson Trogello,Anderson Luis Nunes,Jo?o Cleber Modernel da Silveira
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2011,
Abstract: Um dos fatores da baixa produtividade está na dificuldade de se estabelecer a popula o ideal de plantas por ocasi o da semeadura, pelos vários fatores que impedem a germina o normal de parte das sementes. Dentre os fatores primordiais para a germina o est o a umidade, a temperatura e a aera o do solo. é importante citar que estes fatores s o diretamente influenciados pelo estado de compacta o do solo ao redor da semente. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da combina o entre profundidades desemeadura e cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora da semeadora-adubadora sobre a emergência e o desenvolvimento da cultura do feij o, em sistema de plantio direto. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso composto por 12 tratamentos (três profundidades de semeadura e quatro níveis de cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora) e quatro repeti es. Os resultados mostraram que a semeadura realizada a 5,0 cm de profundidade apresentou o melhor índice de velocidade-emergência, quando comparada às profundidades de 3,0 e 7,0 cm. One of the factors of low productivity is the difficulty of establishing the ideal population of plants at sowing time, due to the several factors that prevent the normal germination of part of the seeds. Among the primordial factors for germination are humidity,temperature, and airing of the soil. It is important to mention that these factors are directly influenced by the state of soil compaction around the seed. The present work aimed to study the effects of the combination between depths of sowing and loads applied by press wheel of the seeder on the emergence and development of bean culture, in no-tillage systems. The factorial scheme was applied, at the delineation in random blocks composed of twelve treatments (threedepths of sowing and four levels of loads applied by the press wheel) and four replications. The results showed that the sowing performed at 5.0 cm of depth presented the best index of speed emergence when compared to the depths of 3.0 and 7.0 cm.
Manejos de cobertura vegetal e velocidades de opera o em condi es de semeadura e produtividade de milho Management of cover vegetation and speed of operation on conditions of sowing and corn yield
Emerson Trogello,Alcir J. Modolo,Marina Scarsi,Cristiano L. da Silva
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2013,
Abstract: Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar parametros da qualidade de semeadura e o desenvolvimento e rendimento da cultura do milho semeada no sistema plantio direto sobre diferentes manejos de cobertura vegetal e velocidades de opera o da semeadora-adubadora na regi o sudoeste do estado do Paraná. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas, as quais constituíram os manejos de cobertura vegetal da aveia preta (aveia gradeada, rolada, triturada e dessecada) e as subparcelas as velocidades de opera o (4,5 e 7,0 km h-1) no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repeti es. Avaliaram-se o espa amento entre plantas, a uniformidade de distribui o de sementes, a profundidade de semeadura, o índice de velocidade de emergência, o estande de plantas, a área de solo mobilizada e a produtividade média da cultura. Os dados tabulados foram analisados pelo teste F a 0,05 e, apresentando significancia, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 0,05 de probabilidade. Concluiu-se que a melhor distribui o de sementes foi observada na menor velocidade e a produtividade média da cultura n o foi influenciada pelos tratamentos. Os manejos de cobertura vegetal n o se mostraram eficientes na melhoria das condi es de semeadura. The objective of this study was to evaluate quality parameters of sowing and the development and yield of maize sown in no tillage system under different vegetation managements and operating speeds of the seeder in the southwest region of the S tate of Paraná. A split-plot design was used, where the plots were the vegetation management of the oat (oat latticed, rolled, chopped and desiccated) and split plot the operation speeds (4.5 and 7.0 km h-1), in a randomized block design with four replications. The spacing between plants, uniformity distribution of seed, sowing depth, rate of emergence, plant stand, soil area mobilized and yield of the crop were evaluated. The tabulated data were analysed by F test at 0.05 level of probability and in case of significance, the means were compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability level. It was concluded that the best seed distribution was observed at lower speed and the mean productivity of the crop was not affected by treatments. The management of vegetation was not effective in improving conditions for sowing.
Efeito da compacta??o do solo sobre a semente no desenvolvimento da cultura do feij?o
Modolo, Alcir José;Trogello, Emerson;Nunes, Anderson Luis;Silveira, Jo?o Cleber Modernel da;Kolling, Evandro Marcos;
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v33i1.4236
Abstract: one of the factors of low productivity is the difficulty of establishing the ideal population of plants at sowing time, due to the several factors that prevent the normal germination of part of the seeds. among the primordial factors for germination are humidity, temperature, and airing of the soil. it is important to mention that these factors are directly influenced by the state of soil compaction around the seed. the present work aimed to study the effects of the combination between depths of sowing and loads applied by press wheel of the seeder on the emergence and development of bean culture, in no-tillage systems. the factorial scheme was applied, at the delineation in random blocks composed of twelve treatments (three depths of sowing and four levels of loads applied by the press wheel) and four replications. the results showed that the sowing performed at 5.0 cm of depth presented the best index of speed emergence when compared to the depths of 3.0 and 7.0 cm.
Demanda energética de uma semeadora-adubadora em diferentes velocidades de deslocamento e rota??es do motor
Silveira, Jo?o Cleber Modernel da;Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos;Modolo, Alcir José;Silva, Suedêmio de Lima;Trogello, Emerson;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2013, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902013000100006
Abstract: the operating speed of the tractor influences various aspects, including fuel consumption, operational capacity and sowing quality. this study aimed to assess the energy needs of a tractor-planter when sowing maize in a no-tillage system, according to its travel speed and the rotation speed of the motor shaft. the 12 treatments consisted of four travel speeds, obtained by staggering the gears, and three tractor-engine rotation speeds. during sowing, the speed of operation, engine speed, the traction force and hourly consumption of fuel were monitored. the results showed that the average power requirement on the drawbar per seeding row, groove depth, and worked area, increased with an increase in the operating speeds of the mechanism. hourly fuel consumption went up with the increase in operating and engine-rotation speeds, being lowest at a speed of 1,500 rpm.
Profundidade de sulco, área de solo mobilizada e for?a de tra??o de uma semeadora-adubadora em raz?o da velocidade de deslocamento
Silveira, Jo?o Cleber Modernel da;Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos;Modolo, Alcir José;Silva, Suedêmio de Lima;Trogello, Emerson;
Revista Ceres , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2011000300008
Abstract: the aim of this his study was to evaluate the furrow depth, the area of soil disturbance and the draft force required for a precision seeder-fertilizer as a function of seeding speed in a no till system for corn production. the experiment was conducted in a 43 factorial randomized block design with four replications, consisting of four forward speeds obtained by changing gears and three tractor's engine rotation speeds. during seeding, the operating speed, engine rotation speed and draft force on the drawbar were measured. after seeding, furrow depth and area of soil disturbed were assessed. the results showed that: the furrow depth was influenced by the increase in the operating speed; the area of soil disturbed increased by 41% with increasing operating speed, the average drawbar draft required per seeding line and per area of soil disturbed decreased with increasing speed; and the average drawbar draft per furrow depth increased with the operating speed.
Efeito de cargas aplicadas e profundidades de semeadura no desenvolvimento da cultura do feij?o em sistema plantio direto
Modolo, Alcir José;Trogello, Emerson;Nunes, Anderson Luis;Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos;Silveira, Jo?o Cleber Modernel da;Dambrós, Marcos Paulo;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542010000300029
Abstract: among the primordial factors for the germination are humidity, temperature, and aeration of the soil. it is important to mention that these factors are directly influenced by the soil compaction state around the seed. the present paper had the aim of studying the effects of the combination between depths of sowing and loads applied by press wheel of the seeder upon the development of bean culture, in a no-tillage system. factor schedule was applied to the delineation in random blocks composed by twelve treatments (three depths of sowing and four levels of loads applied by the press wheel) and four replications. the results showed that depth of sowing significantly influenced the index of emergency speed, the initial and final stands of plants and yield of culture. the different loads applied for the press wheel did not significantly influence the evaluated variables.
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