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Agricultural Research for Development in the Tropics: Caught between Energy Demands and Food Needs
Folkard Asch,Christian Huelsebusch
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics , 2009,
Abstract: We have shown in this analysis, that there is no easy answer to the question: is biofuel out competing food production for natural resources. We feel that when addressing this issue future discussions need to include a broader view on the global consequences of regional and national actions. It is necessary to base decisions not on short-term political or economic arguments but on the long term balance for resources and environmental health, both providing the basis for the livelihood of future generations. Therefore, efforts must be made to calculate the real carbon balance and water foot prints for every item and process involved in the production chains and base decisions on the least detrimental approach to crop and energy production and not on the most economical, which basically means cheapest by today’s definition.
Potential of Waste Water Use for Jatropha Cultivation in Arid Environments
Arisoa M. Rajaona,Nele Sutterer,Folkard Asch
Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture2040376
Abstract: Water is crucial for socio-economic development and healthy ecosystems. With the actual population growth and in view of future water scarcity, development calls for improved sectorial allocation of groundwater and surface water for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Instead of intensifying the pressure on water resources, leading to conflicts among users and excessive pressure on the environment, sewage effluents, after pre-treatment, provide an alternative nutrient-rich water source for agriculture in the vicinity of cities. Water scarcity often occurs in arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and large climate variability and where the choice of crop to be grown is limited by the environmental factors. Jatropha has been introduced as a potential renewable energy resource since it is claimed to be drought resistant and can be grown on marginal sites. Sewage effluents provide a source for water and nutrients for cultivating jatropha, a combined plant production/effluent treatment system. Nevertheless, use of sewage effluents for irrigation in arid climates carries the risk of salinization. Thus, potential irrigation with sewage effluents needs to consider both the water requirement of the crop and those needed for controlling salinity build-up in the top soil. Using data from a case study in Southern Morocco, irrigation requirements were calculated using CROPWAT 8.0. We present here crop evapotranspiration during the growing period, required irrigation, the resulting nutrient input and the related risk of salinization from the irrigation of jatropha with sewage effluent.
Decomposition of Organic Substrates and their Effect on Mungbean Growth in Two Soils of the Mekong Delta
Mathias Becker,Folkard Asch,Nguyen Huu Chiem,D. V. Ni
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics , 2008,
Abstract: Agricultural land use in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam is dominated by intensive irrigated rice cropping systems on both alluvial and acid sulfate soils. A stagnating and occasionally declining productivity may be linked on the alluvial soils to low N use efficiency and low soil organic matter content while on acid sulfate soils to acidity, Al toxicity and P deficiency. For economic reasons, farmers increasingly diversify their cropping system by replacing the dry season rice by high-value horticultural crops grown under upland conditions. However, upland cropping is likely to further exacerbate the soil-related problems. Organic substrates from decentralized waste and waste water management are widely available and may help to alleviate the reported soil problems. During the dry season of 2003/2004, the effect of the application of various types and rates of locally available waste products on crop performance was evaluated at both an alluvial and an acid sulfate soil site. The C and N mineralization dynamics of nine organic substrates from waste and waste water treatment were determined by anaerobic (N) and aerobic (C) incubation in the laboratory. The response of 12 week-old mungbean (dry matter accumulation) to substrate application (1.5 – 6.0 Mg ha 1) was evaluated on a degraded alluvial and on an acid sulfate soil. In the alluvial soil, largest mineralization rates were observed from anaerobic sludge. Biomass increases in 12 week-old mungbean ranged from 25-98% above the unfertilized control. In the acid sulfate soil, highest net-N release rates were observed from aerobic composts with high P content. Mungbean biomass was related to soil pH and exchangeable Al3+ and was highest with the application of aerobic composts. We conclude that the use of organic substrates in the rice-based systems of the Mekong Delta needs to be soil specific.
Diagnóstico pré-natal e aborto seletivo: um desafio à prática e às políticas
Asch, Adrienn;
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73312003000200005
Abstract: this article contends that the popularization of selective abortion in the wake of modern prenatal diagnostic techniques poses a risk to the moral integrity of people with disabilities, if it is not accompanied by the intensification of policies for the well-being of people with disabilities.
“All the world's a stage”: Creating Guanajuato, Mexico’s Tourism Image
Claudia Asch
études Caribeénnes , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/etudescaribeennes.3882
Abstract: Cette étude analyse l'image touristique et le projet touristique des municipalités et des offices de tourisme de l'état de Guanajuato, au Mexique. La ville de Cervantès dans les Amériques" (un titre décerné par l'UNESCO en 2005 pour honorer la tradition théatrale de Cervantès joue dans Guanajuato) semble vouloir assoir une image de tranquillité et d'espace, alors que la réalité est bien différente: l’image projetée de la ville de Guanajuato est loin de refléter la vie animée des places et jardins, des ruelles étroites coloniales. Force est de constater que la ville n’a pas encore su tirer profit de sa reconnaissance en tant que site du patrimoine mondial. Les slogans évoluent au gré des fonctionnaires qui organisent en charge de ce secteur. Par le biais d'entrevues avec des fonctionnaires du tourisme et une sélection de matériaux recueillis tourisme, l’auteure montre comment la ville passe par différentes phases marketing sans avoir établie une image cohérente de la destination. This paper will analyze the tourism image the municipal and state tourism offices of Guanajuato, Mexico, a World Heritage site, aim to project through their promotional materials: a small, colonial city, whose streets are shown as empty, cobble-stoned, and set in romantic light. The "city of Cervantes in the Americas" (a title bestowed by UNESCO in 2005 to honor the theatrical tradition of Cervantes plays in Guanajuato) appears to want to set forth an image of tranquility and spaciousness, while the reality is much different: Guanajuato's mainly narrow and windy streets typically bustle, plazas and gardens are full of activity, in short, the town is alive, yet its projected image lacks liveliness. Furthermore, although it is a World Heritage site, Guanajuato has thus far not used that brand to its advantage; instead, Guanajuato has recently had a variety of slogans to promote itself, seemingly at the whim of officials. Through interviews with tourism officials and a selection of collected tourism materials, I show how the city has yet to establish a “coherent” brand, and is going through various phases of place marketing at once.
Rate of Inappropriate Imaging Utilization by the Emergency Department in Community Hospitals  [PDF]
Sébastien Robert, Murray Asch, Larry Nijmeh
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2018.84031
Abstract: Objective: To retrospectively analyse the use of imaging studies in the Emergency Department of community hospitals using evidence based guidelines and clinical judgement. Methods: Medical records of 661 patients who visited the Emergency Department (ED) in 2015 and underwent imaging studies were reviewed. The Canadian Association of Radiologists, American College of Radiologists and Choosing Wisely Canada guidelines were used to determine the appropriateness of imaging studies. The use of prior patient imaging, the rate at which studies were repeated and the respective impacts on patient management of the imaging studies were also examined. Results: Of the 1056 imaging studies reviewed, 228 (22%) were found to be clinical situations where no imaging study was indicated while 168 (16%) were considered a suboptimal choice of imaging study or modality. When no study was recommended, a positive impact on the diagnosis was noted in 105 (46%) cases and on patient management 83 (36%) times. Notably, 219 (21%) patients had a relevant examination performed in the last 30 days, and 147 (14%) reports noted that the results of the prior study also concurred with the imaging study evaluated. Conclusion: In this study, 228 (22%) radiographs and CT studies, excluding MVC related imaging and extremity imaging, were not indicated based on appropriateness criteria and consequently had a limited impact on patient management. This supports the need for increased clinical decision support for ED physicians, regional health information exchanges and consideration of Computerized Physician Order Entry in the ED with embedded appropriateness criteria at the point of ordering.
Zwischen defensiver Legitimation und kultureller Hegemonie: Strategien adliger Selbstbehauptung in der frühen Neuzeit
Asch, Ronald G.
Zeitenblicke , 2005,
Abstract:
On the dynamics created by a time--dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux
J. Asch,P. Stovicek
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/S0034-4877(07)80066-8
Abstract: We study the dynamics of classical and quantum particles moving in a punctured plane under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field and driven by a time-dependent singular flux tube through the hole.
Motion in Periodic Potentials
J. Asch,A. Knauf
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1088/0951-7715/11/1/011
Abstract: We consider motion in a periodic potential in a classical, quantum, and semiclassical context. Various results on the distribution of asymptotic velocities are proven.
Quantum Transport on KAM Tori
Joachim Asch,Andreas Knauf
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/s002200050670
Abstract: Although quantum tunneling between phase space tori occurs, it is suppressed in the semiclassical limit $\hbar\searrow 0$ for the Schr\"{o}dinger equation of a particle in $\bR^d$ under the influence of a smooth periodic potential. In particular this implies that the distribution of quantum group velocities near energy $E$ converges to the distribution of the classical asymptotic velocities near $E$, up to a term of the order $\cO(1/\sqrt{E})$.
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