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Evaluation of Surveillance for Documentation of Freedom from Bovine Tuberculosis
Francisco Fernando Calvo-Artavia,Lis Alban,Liza R. Nielsen
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030310
Abstract: The objective was to study how surveillance for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) could be made more resource-effective in a bTB free country. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed to: (1) evaluate the sensitivity (CSe) of four surveillance system components (SSC) ( i.e., meat inspection of slaughtered domestic cattle, farmed deer and pigs, and tuberculin testing of adult export cattle) given that bTB would enter one of these components, (2) estimate the probability of freedom (PFree) from bTB over time, and (3) evaluate how future alternative programmes based on visual meat inspection would affect the confidence in freedom from bTB at the very low animal-level design prevalence 0.0002% and a low probabilities of introduction (1%). All, except the export cattle component reached a PFree above 96% within five years. The PFree was slightly reduced if surveillance was changed to visual inspection, e.g., PFree was reduced from 96.5% to 94.3% in the cattle component, and from 98.5% to 97.7% in the pig component after 24 years. In conclusion, visual meat inspection of pigs and cattle will only reduce the confidence in freedom from bTB slightly. However, with negligible probability of introduction (0.1%) the PFree could be maintained well above 99% in the cattle, pigs and deer components, which highlights the importance of rigid testing and quarantine procedures in trade of livestock.
Uso de sedación profunda asistida por un anestesiólogo en resonancia magnética para población pediátrica
Delgado,Jorge Andrés; Abad,Pedro; Angel,Gabriel Jaime; Llano,Juan Fernando; Gómez,Francisco Javier; Calvo,Víctor Daniel;
Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología , 2010,
Abstract: objetive. obtaining diagnostic quality images in the pediatric population using magnetic resonance imaging, requires the use of deep sedation assisted by the anesthesiologist to ensure the total immobility of the patient for an adequate examination. objective. to describe the use of deep sedation assisted by an anesthesiologist in magnetic resonance studies for the pediatric population. methodos. observational study of a series of cases. 113 randomly selected mri scans, with assisted sedation by an anesthesiologist in pediatric patients aged less than 15, treated at the fundación instituto de alta tecnología médica de neantioquia in 2009. the inter-observer consistency was evaluated in 84 examinations with their corresponding series of images. results. average sedation time for the most common mris were are follows: cerebral mri, 45.2 ± 12.4 minutes; cerebral with contrast, 46.3 ± 16.7 minutes; cardiac, 96 ± 24.1 minutes; cerebral angiography, 60 ± 16.8 minutes and cerebral-total spine, 76.3 ± 32 minutes. no significant gender-adjusted differences were found (p > 0.05). the sedatives used for these examinations were: midazolam, ketamine, propofol, chloral hydrate and fentanyl. excellent inter-observer consistency was found in terms of the reliability of the series of images of deep sedation patients (kappa > 0.9). conclusions. sedation assisted by an anesthesiologist is considered a procedure with a low rate of complications that can be used more often in the pediatric population for obtaining diagnostic quality images in patients with co-morbidities and in complex mri procedures.
Los trabajadores de empacadoras de yuca en comunidades de La Fortuna, San Carlos, y Sector ángeles, San Ramón, Costa Rica. Una aproximación sociológica
Francisco Rodríguez Barrientos,óscar Córdoba Artavia
Tecnología en Marcha , 2012,
Abstract: El presente artículo se deriva del proyecto de investigación Mejora en la eficiencia de la cadena productiva de la yuca en el distrito de La Fortuna, San Carlos, Costa Rica. El objetivo fundamental del proyecto consistía en mejorar la eficiencia y la productividad en las diversas etapas del proceso agro productivo de la yuca. La investigación se realizó en una franja territorial que abarcó un sector del distrito de La Fortuna, cantón de San Carlos, provincia de Alajuela, Costa Rica, un importante lugar de producción yuquera, y una porción del distrito de Pe as Blancas (cantón San Ramón, provincia de Alajuela). La franja territorial seleccionada se halla dentro de la Región Huetar Norte costarricense, cuyo sector ligado a la producción, procesamiento y comercialización de yuca constituyó la población meta de la investigación. El proyecto tuvo una duración de tres a os (2006-2008). El presente artículo presenta un bosquejo comparativo entre trabajadores costarricenses y migrantes nicaragüenses que laboran en procesadoras de yuca de la franja territorial estudiada respecto a sus condiciones económicas, sociales y laborales. El artículo enfatiza algunas variables fundamentales como los niveles de ingreso y pobreza, los niveles de escolaridad y la tenencia de seguro social. La información ofrecida es una simple aproximación a una realidad compleja y cambiante, cuyos resultados se busca puedan servir de guía o de hipótesis de trabajo para ulteriores estudios que aborden esta problemática de forma más amplia y sistemática.
Efecto de la aplicación de abonos orgánicos en la supresión de Pythium myriotylum en plantas de tiquisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)
Silvia Artavia,Lidieth Uribe,Francisco Saborío,Luis Felipe Arauz
Agronomía Costarricense , 2010,
Abstract: Los abonos orgánicos ejercen efecto supresivo sobre patógenos de planta; su capacidad supresora varía de acuerdo al tipo de abono y al sistema planta-patógeno. Se evaluó el efecto supresor de diferentes abonos orgánicos en el sistema tiquisque-Pythium myriotylum. Se determinó la madurez, estabilidad, y actividad microbiana de los diferentes abonos, así como el efecto del tipo de compostaje (compost vs vermicompost), el material de origen (estiércol vs broza de café) y el grado de madurez, sobre la supresión del patógeno. El efecto supresivo sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad en plantas de tiquisque se estableció por medio de una escala visual de síntomas a los 3, 6 y 9 días del transplante. Los abonos presentaron relaciones C/N entre 6 y 15 y ninguno afectó la germinación o la longitud de las raíces de plántulas de pepino. Los abonos maduros clasificaron como estables y los inmaduros, con excepción del compost de broza, como inestables. La menor incidencia de pudrición de raíces por P. myriotylum se obtuvo con el uso de vermicompost a base de estiércol maduro, mientras que la menor severidad de la enfermedad ocurrió cuando el suelo se enmendó con el compost y el vermicompost maduro a base de estiércol. En términos generales los abonos obtenidos a partir de estiércol fueron más supresivos, y presentaron una mayor activida microbiana, que los producidos a base de broza de café. Se concluye que el tipo de compostaje, el origen y el grado de madurez tienen influencia sobre la capacidad supresora.
On the cognitive architecture of insects and other information-processing systems
Calvo Garzón,Francisco;
An??lisis filos?3fico , 2008,
Abstract: according to carruthers (2004) ants and bees have minds. this claim is to be understood realistically. we do not interpret the overt behaviour of ants and bees by ascribing to them beliefs and desires in an instrumental manner. they rather possess minds in the relevant cognitive sense. in this paper, i propose to pave the way for a reductio against such a polemic view. in particular, i shall argue that if ants and bees have minds, by the same token, plants do have minds too. in my view, the problem has to do with carruthers' (2002) underlying technical concept of cognitive architecture; a concept which, as i shall argue, can be called into question both on empirical and conceptual grounds.
Responsabilidad social y relaciones laborales en Espa a
Francisco Javier Calvo Gallego
Derecho PUCP , 2010,
Abstract: El autor, analiza la evolución y las características de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial, en Espa a, su impacto económico y social con especial atención a los aspectos laborales dentro de ella, la opinión y las actitudes de los interlocutores sociales; toma importancia a los poderes públicos, estatales y autonómicos, del mismo modo analiza la relación de la RSE y la negociación colectiva en Espa a
Padroniza??o e confiabilidade das medidas antropométricas para pesquisa populacional
Schlickmann Frainer,Deivis Elton; Adami,Fernando; Guedes de Vasconcelos,Francisco de Assis; Altenburg de Assis,Maria Alice; Marino Calvo,Maria Cristina; Kerpel,Raquel;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2007,
Abstract: in this paper we describe the standardization and reliability of anthropometric measurements carried out by five population survey anthropometrists. for the standardization of anthropometric measurement techniques, one expert anthropometrist conducted two theoretical and practical workshops, in september 2006 and march 2007, where the intra- and interobserver technical errors of measurement (tems) were assessed, respectively. for the intraobserver assessment of anthropometric measurements, we studied 121 schoolchildren on two different days. for interobserver assessment, we studied 22 schoolchildren that were measured, during the same period, once by each of the five anthropometrists and by an expert anthropometrist. for skinfold thickness, intraobserver tems in general were smaller than 1 mm; for circumferences, tems in general were smaller than 1 cm. for the subscapular, suprailiac and calf skinfolds, the intraobserver relative tems were greater than the acceptable limit for beginner anthropometrists. intraobserver reliability for skinfold thickness was greater than 0.95 and for circumferences was greater than 0.99 in almost all cases. the results of interobserver tems and reliability were similar to intraobserver assessment. the anthropometrists performed better in the intraobserver relative tems because their values were smaller than the acceptable limit. we conclude that the anthropometrists showed a better performance after two assessments of the error of measurement. this suggests that the standardization process of anthropometric measurements was carried out with success.
Effect of a Multi-Dimensional Intervention Programme on the Motivation of Physical Education Students
Diana Amado, Fernando Del Villar, Francisco Miguel Leo, David Sánchez-Oliva, Pedro Antonio Sánchez-Miguel, Tomás García-Calvo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085275
Abstract: This research study purports to verify the effect produced on the motivation of physical education students of a multi-dimensional programme in dance teaching sessions. This programme incorporates the application of teaching skills directed towards supporting the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A quasi-experimental design was carried out with two natural groups of 4th year Secondary Education students - control and experimental -, delivering 12 dance teaching sessions. A prior training programme was carried out with the teacher in the experimental group to support these needs. An initial and final measurement was taken in both groups and the results revealed that the students from the experimental group showed an increase of the perception of autonomy and, in general, of the level of self-determination towards the curricular content of corporal expression focused on dance in physical education. To this end, we highlight the programme's usefulness in increasing the students' motivation towards this content, which is so complicated for teachers of this area to develop.
Poisson-Dirac branes in Poisson-Sigma models
Ivan Calvo,Fernando Falceto
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We analyse the general boundary conditions (branes) consistent with the Poisson-sigma model and study the structure of the phase space of the model defined on the strip with these boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the perturbative quantization of the model on the disc with a Poisson-Dirac brane and relate it to Kontsevich's formula for the deformation quantization of the Dirac bracket induced on the brane.
Dual branes in topological sigma models over Lie groups. BF-theory and non-factorizable Lie bialgebras
Ivan Calvo,Fernando Falceto
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2006/04/058
Abstract: We complete the study of the Poisson-Sigma model over Poisson-Lie groups. Firstly, we solve the models with targets $G$ and $G^*$ (the dual group of the Poisson-Lie group $G$) corresponding to a triangular $r$-matrix and show that the model over $G^*$ is always equivalent to BF-theory. Then, given an arbitrary $r$-matrix, we address the problem of finding D-branes preserving the duality between the models. We identify a broad class of dual branes which are subgroups of $G$ and $G^*$, but not necessarily Poisson-Lie subgroups. In particular, they are not coisotropic submanifolds in the general case and what is more, we show that by means of duality transformations one can go from coisotropic to non-coisotropic branes. This fact makes clear that non-coisotropic branes are natural boundary conditions for the Poisson-Sigma model.
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