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Characterization of Dairy Slurry in Sourthern Chile Farms Caracterización de purines de lecherías en el Sur de Chile
Francisco Salazar,Juan Carlos Dumont,David Chadwick,Rodolfo Salda?a
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: In this study 50 slurry samples were collected from commercial dairy farms located in the South of Chile during 1995-1997. Samples were analyzed for dry matter, pH, organic matter, available and total macro nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium), available and total micro nutrients (zinc, iron, manganese and copper) and total aluminum. Results showed that the dry matter content in dairy effluents was low, with 62% of the samples being < 4% DM. This reflected the large volumes of water that the storage received. A great variation in nutrient content was observed in the analyzed samples, probably reflecting differences in feeding regimes, use of wash water, rainfall and age of slurry at the time of sampling. In general, the concentration of macro and micronutrients was low. In the present study, the dry matter in the slurry proved to be a good indicator of some nutrients in the samples analyzed. Positive correlations (p < 0.001) were obtained between dry matter content and total phosphorus (r2 = 89%), total calcium (r2 = 87%), total magnesium (r2 = 82%), available phosphorus (r2 = 75%), ammonium nitrogen (r2 = 68%), total potassium (r2 = 64%), available potassium (r2 = 60%), total nitrogen (r2 = 55%), total zinc (r2 = 74%), total manganese (r2 = 64%) and total iron (r2 = 62%). Data from this study could be used as a guideline to estimate nutrient contribution from dairy slurry when applied to farmland. En este estudio se colectaron 50 muestras de purines de predios lecheros ubicados en el Sur de Chile (X Región). Las muestras fueron analizadas para determinar materia seca, pH, materia orgánica, macro nutrientes totales y disponibles (nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio, calcio, magnesio y sodio). También se analizaron micro nutrientes disponibles y totales (zinc, hierro, manganeso y cobre) y aluminio total. Los resultados permitieron determinar que los purines tenían un bajo contenido de materia seca, ya que 62% de las muestras tenían menos de 4%. Esto refleja la gran cantidad de agua que reciben los pozos de almacenamiento. Se observó una gran variabilidad entre las muestras colectadas, lo que puede ser explicado por diferencias en la alimentación, uso de agua de lavado, aguas lluvia y tiempo de almacenamiento del purín. En general, la concentración de macro y micro nutrientes fue baja. En el presente estudio, la materia seca del purín mostró ser un buen indicador de algunos nutrientes analizados. Correlaciones positivas (p < 0.001) fueron obtenidas entre la materia seca y el fósforo total (r2 = 89%), calcio total (r2 = 87%),
Characterization of Dairy Slurry in Sourthern Chile Farms
Salazar,Francisco; Dumont,Juan Carlos; Chadwick,David; Salda?a,Rodolfo; Santana,Mabel;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200005
Abstract: in this study 50 slurry samples were collected from commercial dairy farms located in the south of chile during 1995-1997. samples were analyzed for dry matter, ph, organic matter, available and total macro nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium), available and total micro nutrients (zinc, iron, manganese and copper) and total aluminum. results showed that the dry matter content in dairy effluents was low, with 62% of the samples being < 4% dm. this reflected the large volumes of water that the storage received. a great variation in nutrient content was observed in the analyzed samples, probably reflecting differences in feeding regimes, use of wash water, rainfall and age of slurry at the time of sampling. in general, the concentration of macro and micronutrients was low. in the present study, the dry matter in the slurry proved to be a good indicator of some nutrients in the samples analyzed. positive correlations (p < 0.001) were obtained between dry matter content and total phosphorus (r2 = 89%), total calcium (r2 = 87%), total magnesium (r2 = 82%), available phosphorus (r2 = 75%), ammonium nitrogen (r2 = 68%), total potassium (r2 = 64%), available potassium (r2 = 60%), total nitrogen (r2 = 55%), total zinc (r2 = 74%), total manganese (r2 = 64%) and total iron (r2 = 62%). data from this study could be used as a guideline to estimate nutrient contribution from dairy slurry when applied to farmland.
NITROGEN LEACHING LOSSES ON A VOLCANIC ASH SOIL AS AFFECTED BY THE SOURCE OF FERTILISER
Alfaro V,Marta; Salazar S,Francisco; Endress B,Denisse; Dumont L,Juan C; Valdebenito B,Aldo;
Revista de la ciencia del suelo y nutrición vegetal , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27912006000200005
Abstract: an intact lysimeters study was carried out to measure the potential nitrogen (n) losses on an andisoil of southern chile with different fertilisers. the treatments tested were: fish slurry (fs), dairy slurry (ds), potassium nitrate (if) and a control treatment (c), with no n addition. an equivalent amount of 150 kg of total n ha-1 was applied to each lysimeter and then the equivalent to 1260 mm of rainfall was irrigated over a 90 days period. leachate samples were analysed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and organic n (no). total n losses were calculated as the product between drainage and the respective n concentration in the leachates. lowest n losses were obtained in the control and fs treatments (66 kg n ha-1) and the greatest amount was obtained in the if treatment (261 kg n ha-1). nitrogen was mainly lost as nitrate and no (each was 49% of the total n losses). high soil organic matter of andisoils can be more relevant than fertiliser for n leaching losses.
NITROGEN LEACHING LOSSES ON A VOLCANIC ASH SOIL AS AFFECTED BY THE SOURCE OF FERTILISER Pérdidas de nitrógeno por lixiviación por efecto de la fuente del fertilizante en un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas
Marta Alfaro V,Francisco Salazar S,Denisse Endress B,Juan C Dumont L
Revista de la Ciencia del Suelo y Nutrición Vegetal , 2006,
Abstract: An intact lysimeters study was carried out to measure the potential nitrogen (N) losses on an andisoil of Southern Chile with different fertilisers. The treatments tested were: fish slurry (FS), dairy slurry (DS), potassium nitrate (IF) and a control treatment (C), with no N addition. An equivalent amount of 150 kg of total N ha-1 was applied to each lysimeter and then the equivalent to 1260 mm of rainfall was irrigated over a 90 days period. Leachate samples were analysed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and organic N (No). Total N losses were calculated as the product between drainage and the respective N concentration in the leachates. Lowest N losses were obtained in the control and FS treatments (66 kg N ha-1) and the greatest amount was obtained in the IF treatment (261 kg N ha-1). Nitrogen was mainly lost as nitrate and No (each was 49% of the total N losses). High soil organic matter of andisoils can be more relevant than fertiliser for N leaching losses. Un experimento con lisímetros intactos se llevó a cabo para medir el potencial de pérdida de nitrógeno (N) en un andisol del sur de Chile con diferentes fertilizantes. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron purín de pescado (FS), purín de lechería (DS), nitrato de potasio (IF) y un tratamiento control (C), sin adición de N. Se aplicó una dosis equivalente a 150 kg ha-1 de N total a cada lisímetro y luego estos fueron regados con el equivalente a 1260 mm de lluvia distribuida en un periodo de 90 días. Las muestras de lixiviado fueron analizadas para nitrato, nitrito, amonio y N orgánico (No). Las pérdidas totales de N fueron calculadas como el producto del drenaje colectado y su respectiva concentración de N en la muestra. Las pérdidas más bajas de N se obtuvieron en el tratamiento control y en el tratamiento FS (66 kg N ha-1), y las pérdidas más altas se obtuvieron el tratamiento IF (261 kg N ha-1). El nitrógeno fue perdido principalmente como nitrato y como No (cada uno representó el 49% del total de las pérdidas). El alto contenido de materia orgánica de un andisol puede ser más relevante para las pérdidas de N por lixiviación que el tipo de fertilizante utilizado.
Siting Study of Solar Thermoelectric Plants in the State of Minas Gerais  [PDF]
Chigueru Tiba, Ruibran Januário dos Reis Reis, Júlio César Ezequiel da Costa, Ver?nica Wilma Bezerra Azevedo, J?ao Francisco Abreu, Melina Amoni Silveira Alves, Daniel Pereira Guimar?es, Marco Aurélio Dumont Porto
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.65037
Abstract: The generation of heliothermal electricity has received increasing attention throughout the world in countries such as Spain, the USA, Germany and many others. In Brazil, this type of energy generation in the form of large projects (above 80 MW) remains unexplored. However, it is known that in the country, there are extensive areas of normal direct irradiation with high intensity and a low seasonality factor, especially in the semiarid regions in Brazil, mainly the North and Northeast of Minas Gerais. Moreover, these Minas Gerais regions have other significant characteristics for the installation of these plants: proximity to transmission lines, flatness, the fact that the respective vegetation is not endangered, a suitable land use profile (availability of land not used in agriculture), low wind speed, low population density, and, most recently, an increase in the demand for local electric energy due to the economic growth above the Brazilian average rate. Furthermore, the introduction of solar plants in that region, due to its distributed nature, will bring development and growth to the region (normally poor) by generating employment and income. This article presents a study of the optimal location of thermoelectric plants in the semiarid regions of Minas Gerais, conducted with Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. GIS consists of a set of specialised resources that allow the manipulation of spatial data, bringing efficiency and agility in the identification of suitable places for the installation of solar plants, while simultaneously enabling the consideration of future scenarios for energy planning, with its respective impact, costs and benefits. The study has identified very promising solar irradiation levels for the electric generation by solar energy, whether thermoelectric or photovoltaic, reaching an annual solar irradiation of 2700 kWh/m2 in the summer and in the range of 2200 - 2400 kWh/m2 on an annual basis. This area includes a vast region in the North/Northeast of the state, which also has continuous and flat regions, with slopes inferior to 3%; in addition, high-quality hydro resources are abundant and well distributed. Furthermore, the Minas Gerais region has few areas with high agriculture profile and reduced quantity of protected units.
L'idée de développement culturel : esquisse pour une psychanalyse
Fernand Dumont
SociologieS , 2007,
Abstract: Texte intégral de l’article de Fernand Dumont paru dans la revue Sociologie et Sociétés, vol. XI, n°1, 1979, précédé d’une introduction par Daniel Mercure. Dans cet article, l'auteur discute en profondeur de la notion de développement culturel en se posant les questions suivantes : de quelle culture s'agit-il lorsque l'on parle de développement culturel ? Et pourquoi le développement ? C’est parce que l'auteur plaide pour la primauté de la culture dans l'observation sociale qu'il se montre très critique envers les idées re ues. Unabridged version of the article of Fernand Dumont about L’idée de développement culturel : esquisse pour une psychanalyse ( The idea of cultural development : outline of a psychoanalysis , published in Sociologie et Sociétés in 1979. It’s preceded of an introduction by Daniel Mercure. In this paper, the author discusses in depth the notion of cultural development, asking himself the following questions : with which culture are we dealing when we speak of cultural development ? And why development ? Showing himself very critical of accepted ideas, the author pleads the case for the primacy of culture in the process of social observation Texto integral del artículo de Fernand Dumont, L'idée de développement culturel : esquisse pour une psychanalyse publicado en la revista Sociologie et Sociétés, vol. XI, n°1, 1979. Prólogo de Daniel Mercure. En este artículo, el autor profudiza la noción de desarrollo cultural y se plantea las preguntas siguientes : de que cultura se trata cuando se habla de desarrollo cultural ? y por qué el desarrollo ? El autor se déclara favorable a la primacía de la cultura en la observación social y es por esta razón que se muestra muy crítico hacia las ideas establecidas.
After the revolution: a Fantasied Model of Health Care
Matthew Dumont
Social Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: After the revolution: a Fantasied Model of Health Care
Multiplicidades móviles, dibujo de una pluralidad situacional
Guillaume Dumont
Encrucijadas : Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales , 2012,
Abstract: Este artículo pretende confrontar el trabajo de campo “convencional” con la etnografía multi-situada, dentro del debate de las nuevas prácticas de investigación. En el seno de la sociedad contemporánea, las formas, contornos y tendencias propias y atribuidas a nuestros sujetos y objetos de investigación, cambian. Uno de estos numerosos cambios reside en las nuevas movilidades de los individuos iniciadas en torno al siglo XXI. Estas movilidades implican la participación en varios mundos sociales y la multiplicidad de las formas de identificación. Es por ello que surge la necesidad de adaptar las herramientas empíricas y analíticas, es decir, dise ar nuevas formas de investigación. La etnografía multi-situada es una de ellas que, a pesar de no ser un método novedoso, si es reciente en su formalización. Aunque este método ha sufrido varias críticas, es importante tener en cuenta sus aportes y la necesidad de su puesta en práctica. Así, basándonos en varios artículos centrados en la construcción, utilidad y utilización de este método de investigación, intentaremos superar la función comparativa que normalmente le ha sido atribuida para revalorizar su utilidad actual.
Estimated impact of global population growth on future wilderness extent
E. Dumont
Earth System Dynamics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/esdd-3-433-2012
Abstract: Wilderness areas in the world are threatened by the environmental impacts of the growing global human population. This study estimates the impact of birth rate on the future surface area of biodiverse wilderness and on the proportion of this area without major extinctions. The following four drivers are considered: human population growth (1), agricultural efficiency (2), groundwater drawdown by irrigation (3), and non-agricultural space used by humans (buildings, gardens, roads, etc.) (4). This study indicates that the surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land will reduce with about 5.4% between 2012 and 2050. Further, it indicates that the biodiverse land without major extinctions will reduce with about 10.5%. These percentages are based on a commonly used population trajectory which assumes that birth rates across the globe will reduce in a similar way as has occurred in the past in many developed countries. Future birth rate is however very uncertain. Plausible future birth rates lower than the expected rates lead to much smaller reductions in surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land (0.7% as opposed to 5.4%), and a reduction in the biodiverse land without major extinctions of about 5.6% (as opposed to 10.5%). This indicates that birth rate is an important factor influencing the quality and quantity of wilderness remaining in the future.
Denis Collin : la philosophie comme engagement politique.
Marc Dumont
EspacesTemps.net , 2009,
Abstract: Penser, penser , oui, mais par la technique ? Un des reproches communément adressés à l’irruption de la blogosphère liée au tournant du Web 2.0 serait celui de la médiocre qualité de ses contenus, à la fois plus cités, mais aussi considérés comme anecdotiques, insuffisamment étayés. Le blog menace-t-il pour autant, derrière ses vertigineuses capacités, le savoir et les classiques entreprises et instruments de la science ? La question n’est pas si absurde si on considère ...
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