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Knowledge about Tuberculosis in outpatients who visited College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal
N Manandhar,G Krishna
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v34i1.9120
Abstract: Background: Now a days Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in the world. Number of deaths due to tuberculosis is highest among the infectious diseases. Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out from May 2008 to July 2008 in the different out patient departments of College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital. A total of 500 patients belong to age > 15 years who visited various departments of College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital were randomly selected for the present study. Interview technique was used to collect information on a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Out of total patient’s interview, 59% and 41% were male and female respectively. Majority of the outpatients had heard about the Tuberculosis disease. 73.3% of the respondents opinioned that T.B. can be acquired by infection. Conclusion: The study population has satisfactory knowledge about the etiology and transmission of the disease. There was poor knowledge about proper disposal of sputum which is an important aspect in regard to transmission of disease. There is need of imparting knowledge to the people about proper disposal of sputum to reduce the spread of disease and mortality due to T.B DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/joim.v34i1.9120 Journal of Institute of Medicine, April, 2012; 34:1 33-36
Clinico-histopathological correlation of skin biopsies in leprosy
U Manandhar,RC Adhikari,G Sayami
Journal of Pathology of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8992
Abstract: Background: In leprosy, there is a range of varied clinicopathologic manifestations and the diagnosis is made from adequate clinical information combined with bacilloscopy and histopathology which helps in diagnosing different types of leprosy and separating it from other granulomatous lesions. Aim of the study was to classify leprosy according to Ridley Jopling classification and perform the clinicopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional comparative study of skin biopsies of newly diagnosed leprosy recieved over a period of 18 months from January 2009 to June 2010 and clinicopathologic correlation was done along with special stain. Results: This study included 75 patients diagnosed clinically as leprosy. Skin biopsy revealed evidence of leprosy in 72 cases. Maximum number of patient clinically belonged to tuberculoid leprosy which constituted 25 (33%) cases followed by borderline tuberculoid 19 (25.33%). On the contrary, histologically borderline tuberculoid was the most common type (40%, n=30) cases and tuberculoid leprosy constituted (13.33%, n=10) cases. Three cases of clinically diagnosed tuberculoid leprosy showed no features of leprosy histologically. Clinical and histopathological correlation was seen in 34 cases (45.33%). The correlation was highest in borderline tuberculoid (63.15%) followed by borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy. Slit skin smear was positive in 31 cases (43.05%). Fite Farraco stain was positive in 18 cases (25%). Conclusion: The classification of leprosy requires attention to the histopathological criteria and correlation with clinicalinformationand bacteriological examination so as to facilitate accurate therapy to prevent undesirable complication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8992 ? Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013) Vol. 3 , 452-458
Obstetric Hysterectomy and Maternal Survival
J Baral,G Gurung,A Rana,B Manandhar,R Manandhar,J Sharma
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/njog.v9i2.11759
Abstract: Aims: This study was done to analyze the cases of obstetric hysterectomy and maternal complications and survival after that. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out from the review of records ??of the near miss, maternal mortality, cesarean audit and operation theater record of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu from 2057-2071 BS. Results: Fourteen maternal survival resulted following total of 19 obstetric hysterectomy, subtotal hysterectomy being the procedure of choice in 11 cases, emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) being performed in abundance (18/19) in comparison to an elective peripartum hysterectomy, which was undertaken in a single case of placenta percreta, and inclusive of latter were four cases of morbid placental adhesion, a placenta increta and two placenta accreta. Eight out of 19 cases had vaginal delivery and rest had cesarean section. Among seven cases of cesarean hysterectomy 3 were done for placenta previa with accreta one case each done for abruptio placentae? and placenta accreta and two cases were done for extra placental causes. Among four cases of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH), which were relaparotomy followed by hysterectomy, three cases were done for complication of cesarean section and one done for uterine atonicity. Four cases of spontaneous vaginal deliveries needed peripartum hysterectomy two of them were complicated by morbid placental adhesion placenta increta (1), placental percreta (1), two cases were vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Seven cases of uterine rupture had undergone peripartum hysterectomy.?? Conclusions : Obstetric hysterectomy is a lifesaving surgical procedure for maternal survival whenever necessary and mandates a quick decision making process, however in consideration of younger age and low parity or nulliparity, the best obstetric governance and services must foresee not to let mothers meet such situation necessitating organ removal and to enjoy potential reproductive life cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njog.v9i2.11759 ? ?
Sympathetic ophthalmia: Enucleation or evisceration?
A Manandhar
Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v3i2.5274
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to find out the risk of sympathetic ophthalmia after evisceration and enucleation particularly in a case of penetrating ocular (non-surgical or surgical) injury and to know about the cosmetic outcome of evisceration and enucleation. Ophthalmologists around the world, whenever dealing with a case of penetrating ocular (non-surgical or surgical) injury, might thus be helped in deciding whether to keep the traumatized eye or remove it. And if they finally decide to remove it, they will be able to choose between evisceration and enucleation for the best cosmetic outcome, and to minimize the risk of sympathetic ophthalmia. The results of the review are the following. Enucleation is not found to be the best protective measure against development of sympathetic ophthalmia, as it was thought to be, since there are ample reports of sympathetic ophthalmia occurring not just after evisceration but also after enucleation. The cosmetic outcome of evisceration as opposed to enucleation is found to be better. Key words : sympathetic ophthalmia, enucleation, evisceration DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/nepjoph.v3i2.5274 Ne pal J Ophthalmol 2011; 3(2): 181-187
Forest Monitoring, Measurement, Reporting and Verification: from Principle to Practice
Ugan Manandhar
Journal of Forest and Livelihood , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jfl.v11i2.8621
Abstract: Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many tropical developing countries have agreed to participate in the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation as well as conservation and enhancement of carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests (REDD+) programme so as to receive payments for their contribution in reducing emissions from forestry sector. The emission reduction is measured in terms of quantifications of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent, upon which payments are made. To quantify emissions in terms of CO 2 equivalent, a process called measurement/monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) has been developed, which forms the backbone of performance-based payment under the REDD+ mechanism. This paper primarily reviews the principles and methods of MRV. By taking the case of the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) of Nepal, a sub-national level proposed project, the paper demonstrates how an institutional mechanism for MRV can be designed and practiced at national level considering national circumstances and existing institutions. Also, the cost effectiveness and transparency of the MRV process are identified as important elements. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfl.v11i2.8621 ? Journal of Forestry and Livelihood Vol.11(2) 2013 46-54
Shallow soil slope instability analysis at horticultural farm, Daman, Central Nepal
Suman Manandhar
Bulletin of the Department of Geology , 2007, DOI: 10.3126/bdg.v10i0.1422
Abstract: Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable{mso-style-name:"Table Normal";mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;mso-style-noshow:yes;mso-style-parent:"";mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-para-margin:0cm;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination:widow-orphan;font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:#0400;mso-fareast-language:#0400;mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Slope stability analyses were carried out for slopes around the horticultural farm at Daman, Central Mahabharat Region of Nepal. Daman lies in the Mahabharat zone with intruded granite as the basement rock. These granites are highly to completely weathered and decomposed to few metres depth from the exposed surfaces. The horticultural farm is situated over these decomposed rocks with some colluvium along the hill slopes. The rainstorm of 19-21 July 1993 devasted the horticultural farm with numerous landslides and gully erosions. Based on the limit equilibrium analysis theory and computed index as well as strength properties of the soil, analyses of three of the failed slopes were carried out. The analyses revealed that slides were unstable only during fully saturated conditions. ? doi: 10.3126/bdg.v10i0.1422 Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 71-78
Deterministic Consistency Checking of LP Constraints
Suresh Manandhar
Computer Science , 1995,
Abstract: We provide a constraint based computational model of linear precedence as employed in the HPSG grammar formalism. An extended feature logic which adds a wide range of constraints involving precedence is described. A sound, complete and terminating deterministic constraint solving procedure is given. Deterministic computational model is achieved by weakening the logic such that it is sufficient for linguistic applications involving word-order.
An Attributive Logic of Set Descriptions and Set Operations
Suresh Manandhar
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: This paper provides a model theoretic semantics to feature terms augmented with set descriptions. We provide constraints to specify HPSG style set descriptions, fixed cardinality set descriptions, set-membership constraints, restricted universal role quantifications, set union, intersection, subset and disjointness. A sound, complete and terminating consistency checking procedure is provided to determine the consistency of any given term in the logic. It is shown that determining consistency of terms is a NP-complete problem.
Response of maize genotypes to gray leaf spot disease (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in the hills of Nepal
G Manandhar, GO Ferrara, TP Tiwari, S Baidya, ASR Bajracharya, BR Khadge, L Narro
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7524
Abstract: Gray leaf spot (GLS) is an important and destructive disease of maize in the hills of Nepal. The occurrence of this disease is recorded for the first time in the country in 2006. Several genotypes of maize supposed to be resistant to gray leaf spot in SARMP Zimbabwe and CIAT Colombia were evaluated together with other varieties in observation nursery conducted at farmer’s fields as well as at Khumaltar (NARC research station in the Kathmandu Valley) during 2008 and 2009. Ten out of 28 genotypes of maize were identified as resistant to moderately resistant to GLS. The disease incidence was higher on the open pollinated varieties of maize. The severity of GLS on genotypes of maize observed as 3.0 and 2.2, respectively at Baluwapati and Dhungkharka in Kavrepalanchwok and 2.0 at Khumaltar in Lalitpur during 2008. The severity of GLS was observed as high as 2.4 at Pakhribas in Dhankuta and 1.7 at Khumaltar in 2009. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7524 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.93-101
High-Performance, Hysteresis-Free Carbon Nanotube FETs via Directed Assembly
S. A. McGill,S. G. Rao,P. Manandhar,S. Hong,P. Xiong
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1063/1.2364461
Abstract: High-performance single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs) are fabricated using directed assembly and mass-produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These FETs exhibit operating characteristics comparable to state-of-the-art devices, and the process provides a route to large-scale functional CNT circuit assembly that circumvents problems inherent in processes relying on chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Furthermore, the integration of hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in the device structure eliminates the primary source of gating hysteresis in SWNT-FETs, which leads to hysteresis-free FET operation while exposing unmodified nanotube surfaces to ambient air.
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