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Community Perspectives on the On-Farm Diversity of Six Major Cereals and Climate Change in Bhutan
Tirtha Bdr. Katwal,Singay Dorji,Rinchen Dorji,Lhab Tshering,Mahesh Ghimiray,Ganesh B. Chhetri,Tashi Yangzome Dorji,Asta Maya Tamang
Agriculture , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture5010002
Abstract: Subsistence Bhutanese farmers spread across different agro-ecological zones maintain large species and varietal diversity of different crops in their farm. However, no studies have been undertaken yet to assess why farmers conserve and maintain large agro-biodiversity, the extent of agro-ecological richness, species richness, estimated loss of traditional varieties and threats to the loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. Information on the number of varieties cultivated by the farmers for six important staple crops were collected from nine districts and twenty sub-districts spread across six different agro-ecological zones of the country to understand farmers reasons for maintaining on-farm crop diversity, estimate agro-ecological richness, species richness and the overall loss of traditional varieties, to know the famers’ level of awareness on climate change and the different threats to crop diversity. The results from this study indicated that an overwhelming 93% of the respondents manage and use agro-biodiversity for household food security and livelihood. The average agro-ecological richness ranged from 1.17 to 2.26 while the average species richness ranged from 0.50 to 2.66. The average agro-ecological richness indicates a large agro-ecological heterogeneity in terms of the different species of staple crops cultivated. The average species richness on the other hand shows that agro-ecological heterogeneity determines the type and extent of the cultivation of the six different staple cereals under consideration. The overall loss of traditional varieties in a time period of 20 years stands at 28.57%. On climate change, 94% of the farmers recognize that local climate is changing while 86% responded that they are aware of the potential impacts of climate change on their livelihoods. Climate change and associated factors was considered the most imminent threat to the management and loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. The results from this study indicate that on-farm agro-biodiversity conservation, development and utilization programs have to be more specific to the different agro-ecological zones considering the agro-ecological heterogeneity. Attention has to be given to individual crops that have low average species richness and high percentage of loss of traditional varieties. The impact of climate change could offset the traditional seed system which primarily supports the persistence of on-farm agro-biodiversity in several ways.
Assessment of Sediment Load of Langtang River in Rasuwa District, Nepal  [PDF]
Aastha Chhetri, Rijan B. Kayastha, Ahuti Shrestha
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.81007
Abstract: This paper assesses the sediment load of the glacier fed Langtang River, Nepal from April 2014 to March 2015. Water samples were collected from the centre of the river with a frequency of two samples per each sampling day using the Depth Integration Technique (DIT) on daily basis in the monsoon season, weekly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons and bi-monthly in the winter season. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is calculated from the water samples using filtration followed by oven-drying, and a rating curve is used to calculate daily discharge of the Langtang River. The annual sediment yield is 109,276.75 tons and 37.69, 11.52 and 5.54 tons of sediment is transported per day in the pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons, respectively. There is a very high value of 872.86 tons per day in the monsoon season, which contributes the highest sediment load among all of the seasons comprising 83% of the total sediment transport. Diurnal cycle of sediment discharge is clearly seen with higher sediment discharge during the evening than the morning and reaching maximum values of 41.1 kg·s-1 and 61.5 kg·s-1, respectively. A clock-wise hysteresis loop has been obtained for discharge and sediment discharge where sediment flux is higher in the early monsoon than in the late monsoon for a corresponding discharge.
From Protection to Poverty Reduction: A Review of Forestry Policies and Practices in Nepal
Ram B. Chhetri
Journal of Forest and Livelihood , 2006, DOI: 10.3126/jfl.v5i1.1982
Abstract: This paper examines the evolution of the policy and legislation in Nepal's forestry sector. The analysis reveals that there is a congenial environment for participatory forestry to contribute to the goal of poverty reduction in the country. While forestry in Nepal has mostly benefited the state authorities and the elite and did not give much consideration to the needs of the poor in the past, the policy and legislation in the country from the 1970s has evolved from being restrictive for public use, alienating the local people from the resources, to being open for improved utilization, increased participation of people and stakeholders, ensuring benefits to the local users, and regarding forestry as a potential vehicle for poverty reduction. The paper concludes that participatory forestry also stands out as a good example of Nepal's commitment towards decentralization and democratic principles. Keywords: poverty reduction, forest policy, forestry sector, participatory forestry doi: 10.3126/jfl.v5i1.1982 Journal of Forest and Livelihood 5(1) February, 2006 pp.66-77
Automatic detection of pulse morphology patterns & cardiac risks  [PDF]
Rajani R. Joshi, Ganesh B. Nawsupe, Smita P. Wangikar
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.56041
Abstract: Analysis of arterial pulse waveforms is important for non-invasive diagnosis of cardiovascular functions. Large samples of IPG signal records of radial arterial pulse show presence of eight different types of shapes (morphological patterns) in the pulse waveforms. In this paper we present an efficient computational method for automatic identification of these morphological patterns. Our algorithm uses likelihood ratio of cumulative periodogram of pulse signals and some geometrical criteria. The algorithm is presented with necessary details on signal processing aspects. Results for a large sample of pulse records of adult Indian subjects show high accuracy of our algorithm in detecting pulse-morphology patterns. Variation of pulse-morphology with respect to time is also analyzed using this algorithm. We have identified some characteristic features of pulse-morphology variation in patients of certain cardiac problems, hypertension, and diabetes. These are found relevant and significant in terms of physiological interpretation of the associated shapes of pulse waveforms. Importance of these findings is highlighted along with discussion on overall scope of our study in automatic analysis of heart rate variability and in other applications for non-invasive prognosis/diagnosis.
In Silico Mining of EST-SSRs in Jatropha curcas L. towards Assessing Genetic Polymorphism and Marker Development for Selection of High Oil Yielding Clones  [PDF]
Neeraj Jain, Ganesh B. Patil, Poonam Bhargava, Rajani S. Nadgauda
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511167
Abstract:



In recent years, Jatropha curcas L. has gained popularity as a potential biodiesel plant. The varying oil content, reported between accessions belonging to different agroclimatic zones, has necessitated the assessment of the existing genetic variability to generate reliable molecular markers for selection of high oil yielding variety. EST derived SSR markers are more useful than genomic markers as they represent the transcriptome, thus, directly linked to functional genes. The present report describes the in silico mining of the microsatellites (SSRs) using J. curcas ESTs from various tissues viz. embryo, root, leaf and seed available in the public domain of NCBI. A total of 13,513 ESTs were downloaded. From these ESTs, 7552 unigenes were obtained and 395 SSRs were generated from 377 SSR-ESTs. These EST-SSRs can be used as potential microsatellite markers for diversity analysis, MAS etc. Since the Jatropha genes carrying SSRs have been identified in this study, thus, EST-SSRs directly linked to genes will be useful for developing trait linked markers.



Effect of Surface Treatment on Tribological Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Implant Alloy  [PDF]
B. K. C. Ganesh, N. Ramanaiah, P. V. Chandrasekhar Rao
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.117061
Abstract: Titanium alloys are extensively used in various fields of engineering, medicine, aerospace, marine due to its excellent mechanical properties. Its usage is more pronounced today in the field of biomedical implants due to its superior bio-compatibility, corrosive resistance and high strength to weight ratio. It has poor abrasive wear resistance due to high coefficient of friction and low thermal conductivity. Poor abrasive wear resistance results in the formation of wear debris at the implant area causing toxicity, inflammation and pain .Surface treatment of the implant alloy through heat treatment, application of protective coatings, introduction of compressive residual stresses by shotpeening and shot blasting are some of the methods to mitigate wear of the implant alloy. In this work Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy is treated under various conditions of heat treatment, shotpeening and shot blasting operations on a pin on disc wear testing machine. Shotpeening and Shot blasting are the operations usually performed on this alloy to improve fatigue strength and surface roughness. In this work the effect of above surface treatments were studied on the wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V implant alloy and an improvement in the wear resistance of the alloy is reported. Scanning Electron micrograph (SEM) along with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry analysis (EDS) is done to authenticate the experimental results obtained during the wear testing procedure.
Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
Arjun B. Chhetri,K. Chris Watts,M. Rafiqul Islam
Energies , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/en1010003
Abstract: As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm 2/sec at 40 oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C) was 72 mm 2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 oC and pour point was -16 oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.
Interacting scalar fields in de Sitter space
Ganesh Devaraj,Martin B. Einhorn
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: We investigate the massless $\lambda \phi^4$ theory in de~Sitter space. It is unnatural to assume a minimally coupled interacting scalar field, since $\xi=0$ is not a fixed point of the renormalization group once interactions are included. In fact, the only case where perturbation theory can be trusted is when the field is non-minimally coupled at the minimum of the effective potential. Thus, in perturbation theory, there is no infrared divergence associated with this scalar field.
Left-Right Asymetry From Supersymmetry in Polarized M?ller Scattering
Ganesh Devaraj,Martin B. Einhorn
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: We calculate the leading contribution to the left-right asymmetry in polarized M{\o}ller scattering from the superpartners in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), using an effective lagrangian approach. We determine the maximum asymmetry that can result from the superpartners in the MSSM under different scenarios, and discuss the feasibility of a high-precision, low-energy ($\sqrt{s}\approx 200~{\rm MeV}$) M{\o}ller scattering experiment to see supersymmetry.
Ethnobotany of Moraceae in Meghalaya North-East India
RB Chhetri
Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v6i1.3301
Abstract: Indigenous people of Meghalaya have ethnobotanical utility of 19 species of plants belonging to 3 genera; Artocarpus , Ficus and Morus under the family Moraceae. Fruits of all these plants are eaten raw or cooked or pickled. Young vegetative shoot of Ficus virens sre eaten as vegetable. Woods are used as fuel woods and timber. Leaves and young shoots are lopped as fodder for stallfed cattle to supplement paddy straw during winter. Young leaves of Morus australis and M. serrata are used for rearing silkworms. Children in the village use latex from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus to make sticky gum for hunting birds. Keywords: Ethnobotany; Moraceae; Meghalaya DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v6i1.3301 Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.6(1) 2010, pp 5-10
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