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Evaluation of Insecticide Activity of Two Agricultural Detergents against the Long-Tailed Mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in the Laboratory
Curkovic,Tomislav; Burett,Gary; Araya,Jaime E;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000400010
Abstract: the insecticide effect of agricultural detergents su 120 and tecsa fruta was evaluated on females and nymphs ii of pseudococcus longispinus (targioni & tozzetti) in the laboratory. mortality at 24 h was subjected to probit analysis to obtain the lc50. for tecsa fruta, a volume of 9.5 ml solution was sprayed, while for su 120, volumes of 2, 4, and 8 ml 100 ml-1 solution were evaluated. mortality was directly related to the concentration used. nymphs ii were more susceptible than females to both detergents. lc50 for tecsa fruta were 17.9 ml 100 ml-1 for females, and 5.4 ml 100 ml-1 for nymphs ii, whereas for su 120 they were 3.1, 1.6, and 1.9 ml 100 ml-1 on females, and 0.8, 0.5, and 0.5 ml 100 ml-1 (with 2, 4, and 8 ml, respectively) on nymphs ii. for the latter, there were no significant differences among volumes, and for females, the lc50 with 4 and 8 ml solution were not statistically different, although these two volumes were statistically smaller than in the treatment with 2 ml. for the same su 120 concentration, mortality of females increased with greater volumes sprayed. su 120 had a significantly greater insecticide effect than tecsa fruta on p. longispinus nymphs ii and females. nymphs ii were the most susceptible stage. results suggest that it would be possible to reduce detergent concentration using greater spray volumen to achieve similar mortality.
Evaluation of Insecticide Activity of Two Agricultural Detergents against the Long-Tailed Mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in the Laboratory Evaluación de la Acción Insecticida de Dos Detergentes Agrícolas Contra el Chanchito Blanco de Cola Larga, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), en Laboratorio
Tomislav Curkovic,Gary Burett,Jaime E Araya
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: The insecticide effect of agricultural detergents SU 120 and Tecsa Fruta was evaluated on females and nymphs II of Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) in the laboratory. Mortality at 24 h was subjected to Probit analysis to obtain the LC50. For Tecsa Fruta, a volume of 9.5 mL solution was sprayed, while for SU 120, volumes of 2, 4, and 8 mL 100 mL-1 solution were evaluated. Mortality was directly related to the concentration used. Nymphs II were more susceptible than females to both detergents. LC50 for Tecsa Fruta were 17.9 mL 100 mL-1 for females, and 5.4 mL 100 mL-1 for nymphs II, whereas for SU 120 they were 3.1, 1.6, and 1.9 mL 100 mL-1 on females, and 0.8, 0.5, and 0.5 mL 100 mL-1 (with 2, 4, and 8 mL, respectively) on nymphs II. For the latter, there were no significant differences among volumes, and for females, the LC50 with 4 and 8 mL solution were not statistically different, although these two volumes were statistically smaller than in the treatment with 2 mL. For the same SU 120 concentration, mortality of females increased with greater volumes sprayed. SU 120 had a significantly greater insecticide effect than Tecsa Fruta on P. longispinus nymphs II and females. Nymphs II were the most susceptible stage. Results suggest that it would be possible to reduce detergent concentration using greater spray volumen to achieve similar mortality. Se evaluó el efecto insecticida de los detergentes agrícolas SU 120 y Tecsa Fruta sobre hembras y ninfas II de Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) en laboratorio. La mortalidad a las 24 h se sometió a análisis Probit para obtener las concentraciones letales medias (CL50). Para Tecsa Fruta se asperjó un volumen de 9,5 mL de solución, mientras que para SU 120 se evaluaron 2, 4 y 8 mL 100 mL-1 de solución. La mortalidad fue directamente proporcional a la concentración utilizada. Las ninfas II fueron más susceptibles que las hembras a ambos detergentes. Las CL50 para Tecsa Fruta fueron 17,9 mL 100 mL-1 para hembras y 5,4 mL 100 mL-1 para ninfas II, mientras que para SU 120 fueron 3,1; 1,6 y 1,9 mL 100 mL-1 en hembras, y 0,8; 0,5 y 0,5 mL 100 mL-1 (para 2, 4 y 8 mL, respectivamente) en ninfas II. Para éstas no hubo diferencias significativas entre volúmenes, y para hembras las CL50 con 4 y 8 mL de solución no fueron estadísticamente diferentes entre sí, aunque estos dos volúmenes fueron estadísticamente inferiores al tratamiento con 2 mL. Para una misma concentración de SU 120, la mortalidad de hembras aumentó con volúmenes mayores de aspersión. SU 120 presentó un efecto insecticida signific
A Review of Effective Waste Management from an EU, National, and Local Perspective and Its Influence: The Management of Biowaste and Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Solid Waste  [PDF]
Mebrahtom Negash Araya
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96041
Abstract: The waste management industry across the European Union (EU) has undergone radical change following the recognition that a move towards a sustainable society is essential for humankind. To this end, the EU has targeted household recycling targets of 50% by 2020 and 70% by 2030 in a bid to move towards a more sustainable and resource efficient society. Despite such targets and a number of relevant progresses in technology (such as incineration, composting, and anaerobic digestion), there are several challenges facing the municipal solid waste sector. The purpose of this review is to assess the EU, UK and local policies that are affecting the way waste is treated, Greater Manchester (GM) in the United Kingdom (UK), will be used as an example. The review focuses upon anaerobic digestion as a choice technology for waste management and assesses the influences of policies upon the application of anaerobic digestion at the EU and local level, finding that at current rates of recycling, local and national targets will be missed by approximately 7.3% in the year 2030, even in the best case scenario where the maximum amount of biowaste is managed under the current operational capacity. The review concludes that in order to improve the recycling bio-waste capacity on a local, national, and EU level, the introduction of the AD must be increased tremendously.
Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation
Gary An
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-5-11
Abstract: ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systemsA series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior in the intensive care setting. The ABMs all utilize cell-level agents that encapsulate specific mechanistic knowledge extracted from in vitro experiments. The execution of the ABMs results in a dynamic representation of the multi-scale conceptual models derived from those experiments. These models represent a qualitative means of integrating basic scientific information on acute inflammation in a multi-scale, modular architecture as a means of conceptual model verification that can potentially be used to concatenate, communicate and advance community-wide knowledge.The sheer volume of biomedical research threatens to overwhelm the capacity of individuals to process this information
Teaching materials: a critical position about the role they play in the language classroom
Araya Araya, Karla
Revista Electrónica Actualidades Investigativas en Educación , 2007,
Abstract: Resumen: Este artículo se propone esclarecer la importancia y la función que juegan los materiales didácticos –desde los planteamientos de la pedagogía crítica– en la conformación y desarrollo del proceso de la ense anza-aprendizaje de una lengua. Más allá de la función instrumentalista que suele asignarse a los materiales didácticos, en el presente trabajo éstos se visualizan como construcciones discursivas que pueden facultar la apropiación del pensamiento basada en el desarrollo de habilidades lingüísticas que reflejen un discurso crítico ante los diferentes reclamos (problemas) históricos a los que estudiantes se ven expuestos dentro y fuera del aula. Para tal propósito, se realiza una revisión conceptual-teórica sobre la importancia y la función que los materiales tienen en el proceso de ense anza-aprendizaje de una lengua. Bajo una perspectiva crítica, se aborda el tema de los materiales didácticos y la construcción de la motivación así como el tema de ideología y materiales didácticos. Finalmente, se concluye que en el proceso de ense anza-aprendizaje de una lengua, los materiales didácticos son reproductores y reproducciones discursivas e ideológicas de ciertas realidades que pueden ofrecer visiones de mundo basadas en los intereses de clases dominantes si no se abordan desde posturas críticas.Abstract: The aim of this article is to state the importance teaching materials have in developing a language teaching-learning process based on the principles of the critical thinking pedagogy. From this perspective, this work questions the traditional conceptions and notions related to instruments of access assigned to materials. They are conceived as discursive constructions that can, or cannot, help to empower students with a critical discourse in order to promote a significant change in their attitudes towards the social, political and economical problems they face every day. To support this position, a conceptual study about theoretical assumptions related to the importance and the role teaching materials have in the language teaching-learning process has been carried out. Also, there is a general analysis regarding the relationship among teaching materials, motivation and ideology. Finally, it can be concluded that materials are reproductions and constructors of certain discursive and ideological realities that usually favor the interests of the dominant classes. That is why a critical position about the role teaching materials have is necessary to prevent the reproduction of prejudices and common sense assumptions about language and society.
Elevated Mercury in Ambient Air and Soils Impacts of Historical Air Emissions (1897-1991) from a Chlor-Alkali Plant (CAP)  [PDF]
Gary Hunt
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.73038
Abstract:

Mercury contamination was found to be widespread in soils at a property in Upstate New York. Historical site use suggested that the mercury did not result from prior industrial use of the property. Soil contamination may have resulted from atmospheric deposition of mercury released from properties in close proximity to the contaminated property. The purpose of this forensics investigation was to examine to what extent atmospheric deposition of elemental mercury may have influenced mercury levels found in surficial soils on the contaminated property and further to identify the source(s) of the mercury. Work efforts included an examination of historical records available for a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) upwind of the contaminated property to establish historical use and disposal practices for elemental mercury. Mercury emissions test data from the Upstate New York chlor-alkali facility were modeled (USEPA ISC3) as a means of estimating impacts on ambient air and soils vicinal to the facility. Mercury emissions from the facility were modeled as both a point source and volume source. For example, at a location 305 meters to the east and 30 meters to the north of the modeled source centerline elemental mercury concentrations in ambient air were estimated at 270 ng/m3 (average results based upon 5 years of meteorological data). This value is contrasted to a background concentration of 1.6 ng/m3 (USEPA Report to Congress 1997). As a result of the modeling data in combination with findings related to mercury use and disposal practices at the NY CAP documented from the records review, it was concluded that emissions from the CAP facility during the period of operation (1897-1991) most likely accounted for the concentrations of elemental mercury found in surficial soils at properties situated downwind of the CAP. These findings were further corroborated by information available in the open literature for CAPs world-wide.


A Note on a Natural Correspondence of a Determinant and Pfaffian  [PDF]
Gary Miller
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2016.71001
Abstract: A familiar and natural decomposition of square matrices leads to the construction of a Pfaffian with the same value as the determinant of the square matrix.
Las aguas ocultas de Valparaíso
Araya,Marcelo;
ARQ (Santiago) , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-69962009000300007
Abstract: the topography forces the modification of the regular urban weave and generates variations, such as the folds leading the waterways. valparaiso is understood in its crevices, in the relationships between the hills, the waters and the sea. it is in this way that its inhabitants adapt to the geography and benefit from it.
CUERPO, TRATO INTERIOR Y ARTES DE LA MEMORIA: AUTOCONOCIMIENTO E INDIVIDUO MODERNO EN EL TEXTO DE úRSULA SAN DIEGO CONVENTO ESPIRITUAL
Araya,Alejandra;
Revista chilena de literatura , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-22952008000200001
Abstract: the book convento espiritual (spiritual convent) ofthe spanish nun ursula de san diego, possibly written during the sixteenth century in granada, spain, is part of a tradition of womens' writing as an exercise in mystical-ascetic and devout religious life on both sides of the atlantic. this essay proposes a reading this text within the frame of a textual genre originated in those practices of knowledge organization derived from the arts of memory; as a textual genre, it can also be understood as aform of subject construction. these are remarkable features to be foundin this text, and though they are not exclusive to it, they are important because the convento espiritual belongs to the history of the early books printed in chile after the independence; this points out to the recognition of the educational value ?of this type of writing women in those societies belonging to the old regime.
De las últimas cosas, De novissimis, desde la perspectiva evangélica
Araya,Eugenio;
Teología y vida , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0049-34492000000100009
Abstract: the doctrine of eschatology, or the last things, was kept by the lutheran theology within the traditional eschatology of the old church without much enthusiasm until the coming of the early 20th century european wars. after the slaughter, the german lutheran theologians faced a different reality, which has made them reformulate and discuss the position of man before the last things. are the last times already taking place now or will they como in the future? or rather, the time has already como for those who believe and it is today when we have to face the word of god. does this end take place in history? who absorbs who; the eschatology to history or history to the eschatology? what do we understand by death? there is the old greek myth of the soul which separates from the body, which seems to contradict the resurreection of the body according to the nicene-apostolic creed. man today does not believe in the end of the times as he used to centuries age, but has constructed a new way to understand his own end. an existential way which deals with himself in desacralized way.
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