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The effect of moxidectin 0,1% vs ivermectin 0,08% on milk production in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes
Giuseppe Cringoli, Vincenzo Veneziano, Laura Mezzino, Mariaelena Morgoglione, Saverio Pennacchio, Laura Rinaldi, Vincenzo Salamina
BMC Veterinary Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-5-41
Abstract: The treatment with moxidectin was highly effective (> 98%) from day 7 until day 75, and effective (90-98%) until day 105. The treatment with ivermectin was highly effective (> 98%) from day 7 until day 14, effective (90-98%) at day 28 and moderately effective (80-89%) on day 45. The milk productions in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the control group.In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that moxidectin and ivermectin adminstered per os according to the manufacturer's instructions were both effective and safe anthelmintics in sheep. The total milk production was higher in the treated groups than the control group. Overall, animals treated with moxidectin had a milk production 40.8% higher than control group; whereas animals treated with ivermectin had a milk production 32.2% higher than control group.Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection (caused by different genera of nematodes, e.g. Teladorsagia, Haemonchus, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Trichostrongylus, Chabertia and Oesophagostomum) is one of the main constraints to livestock production both in temperate and tropical countries. In many cases, GIN parasitism can be attributed to a nutritional disease, because the presence of worms usually induces a decrease in appetite, a decreased digestibility of the food and a diversion of nutrients from production sites towards the repair of tissue-damage caused by the parasites. Therefore, economic losses caused by GIN are related to decreased production, treatment costs and even animal death.Control of these parasitic infections in ruminants relies almost exclusively on multiple and regular dosing with anthelmintics. Besides the parasitological efficacy of an anthelmintic treatment, it is very important to consider its strategic and economic benefits. Indeed, for producers the two primary aims of anthelmintic treatment strategies are firstly to maintain or improve animal performance and secondly to reduce pasture c
Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy)
Laura Rinaldi, Annibale Biggeri, Sabrina Carbone, Vincenzo Musella, Dolores Catelan, Vincenzo Veneziano, Giuseppe Cringoli
BMC Veterinary Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-29
Abstract: Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6%) contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9%) canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between positivity to parasitic elements and the number of canine faeces. Eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis.In conclusion, the results of the present study, conducted using GIS both for planning and sampling and for evaluation and presentation of findings, showed the presence of canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples, and the presence of canine parasitic elements, some of which are potential agents of zoonosis.Public-health problems caused by the impact of dogs on humans are both direct and indirect, e.g. environmental pollution, contact injuries, and zoonosis [1]. Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases [2] among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide [3-5]. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts) by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both, a perennial nuisance and an important health issue [6]. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares, sandpits may be an important source of human infection [5,7,8].Our aim was to evaluate the extent of both, canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements (determined by coprological examinations), with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was used in orde
Survey of co-infection by Salmonella and oxyurids in tortoises
Ludovico Dipineto, Michele Capasso, Maria Maurelli, Tamara Russo, Paola Pepe, Giovanni Capone, Alessandro Fioretti, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-69
Abstract: Salmonella spp. and oxyurids were detected with a prevalence of 49.1 and 81.1%, respectively. A significant positive correlation between Salmonella spp. and oxyurids was demonstrated. However, confounding factors related to husbandry could have been involved in determining this correlation.Our results suggest that caution should be exercised in translocation, husbandry, and human contact with tortoises and other exotic pets. Further studies on the epidemiology, molecular characterization and pathogenesis of Salmonella and oxyurids are needed to assess the actual impact of these organisms, as single or associated infections, on tortoises and on other exotic pets.It is estimated that about 640 000 live reptiles are traded annually worldwide [1]. Although some species of tortoises are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and thus subjected to strict trade regulations [2], there is a high demand for these reptiles to be kept as pets. Since the enactment of regulations implementing the CITES convention in the European Union (EU), several applications have been submitted for the CITES registration of privately owned tortoises in Italy; however, there are no official figures on the number of tortoises raised as pets in Italy [3]. The illegal introduction of reptiles raises public health concerns because these animals can be infected by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, protozoa, helminthes and arthropoda) and some of them are zoonotic [4].Among bacteria, Salmonella spp. [5,6] is frequently reported in tortoises [6-8]. It is considered to be part of the intestinal flora and does not cause significant clinical sign, except in stressed or immunocompromised animals, where it may cause salmonellosis, an important reptilian zoonosis [8,9].Several species of oxyurids commonly inhabit the colon of tortoises but are rarely considered pathogenic or zoonotic [10,11]. Heavy infections might be one cause of anorexia in tortoises
Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys
Benjamin Speich, Stefanie Knopp, Khalfan A Mohammed, I Simba Khamis, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, David Rollinson, Jürg Utzinger
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-71
Abstract: We measured the time for the collection of a single stool specimen in the field, transfer to a laboratory, preparation and microscopic examination using standard protocols for the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques. Salaries of health workers, life expectancy and asset costs of materials, and infrastructure costs were determined. The average cost for a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC dual or double technique were calculated.The average time needed to collect a stool specimen and perform a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears or the FLOTAC dual or double technique was 20 min and 34 sec (20:34 min), 27:21 min, 28:14 min and 36:44 min, respectively. The total costs for a single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were US$ 1.73 and US$ 2.06, respectively, and for the FLOTAC double and dual technique US$ 2.35 and US$ 2.83, respectively. Salaries impacted most on the total costs of either method.The time and cost for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis using either the Kato-Katz or FLOTAC method in epidemiological surveys are considerable. Our results can help to guide healthcare decision makers and scientists in budget planning and funding for epidemiological surveys, anthelminthic drug efficacy trials and monitoring of control interventions.Chronic infections with one or several of the common soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), might account for a global burden of 39 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost annually [1,2]. School-aged children in the developing world are at highest risk of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminthiasis.In the current era of 'preventive chemotherapy', that is the large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children and other populations at risk of morbidity [3], diagnosis is often neglected and cost-effectiveness considerations are necessary. Yet, diagnosis is of paramount impo
Mini-FLOTAC, an Innovative Direct Diagnostic Technique for Intestinal Parasitic Infections: Experience from the Field
Beatrice Divina Barda ,Laura Rinaldi,Davide Ianniello,Henry Zepherine,Fulvio Salvo,Tsetan Sadutshang,Giuseppe Cringoli,Massimo Clementi,Marco Albonico
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002344
Abstract: Background Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini–FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). Conclusion/Significance We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings — particularly for helminth diagnosis.
Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz and FLOTAC for Assessing Anthelmintic Drug Efficacy
Stefanie Knopp,Benjamin Speich,Jan Hattendorf,Laura Rinaldi,Khalfan A. Mohammed,I. Simba Khamis,Alisa S. Mohammed,Marco Albonico,David Rollinson,Hanspeter Marti,Giuseppe Cringoli,Jürg Utzinger
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001036
Abstract: Background Sensitive diagnostic tools are required for an accurate assessment of prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in areas undergoing regular deworming, and for monitoring anthelmintic drug efficacy. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in the frame of a drug efficacy trial. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples from 343 Zanzibari children were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC basic technique in a baseline screening in early 2009. The FLOTAC showed a higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of Trichuris trichiura (95% vs. 88%, p = 0.012) and Ascaris lumbricoides (88% vs. 68%, p = 0.098), but a lower sensitivity for hookworm diagnosis (54% vs. 81%, p = 0.006). Considering the combined results from both methods as ‘gold’ standard, the prevalences of T. trichiura, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were 71% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66–75%), 22% (95% CI: 17–26%) and 12% (95% CI: 8–15%), respectively. At follow-up, 3–5 weeks after 174 among the 269 re-examined children were administered anthelmintic drugs, we observed cure rates (CRs) against A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura of 91% (95% CI: 80–100%), 61% (95% CI: 48–75%) and 41% (95% CI: 34–49%), respectively, when using the Kato-Katz method. FLOTAC revealed lower CRs against A. lumbricoides (83%, 95% CI: 67–98%) and T. trichiura (36%, 95% CI: 29–43%), but a higher CR against hookworm (69%, 95% CI: 57–82%). These differences, however, lacked statistical significance. Considerable differences were observed in the geometric mean fecal egg counts between the two methods with lower egg reduction rates (ERRs) determined by FLOTAC. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that the FLOTAC technique, following further optimization, might become a viable alternative to the Kato-Katz method for anthelmintic drug efficacy studies and for monitoring and evaluation of deworming programs. The lower CRs and ERRs determined by FLOTAC warrant consideration and could strategically impact future helminth control programs.
Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga Agar Plate, Ether-Concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosoma mansoni and Soil-Transmitted Helminths
Dominik Glinz,Kigbafori D. Silué,Stefanie Knopp,Laurent K. Lohourignon,Kouassi P. Yao,Peter Steinmann,Laura Rinaldi,Giuseppe Cringoli,Eliézer K. N'Goran,Jürg Utzinger
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000754
Abstract: Background Infections with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths exert a considerable yet underappreciated economic and public health burden on afflicted populations. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for patient management, drug efficacy evaluations, and monitoring of large-scale community-based control programs. Methods/Principal Findings The diagnostic accuracy of four copromicroscopic techniques (i.e., Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate, ether-concentration, and FLOTAC) for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth eggs was compared using stool samples from 112 school children in C?te d'Ivoire. Combined results of all four methods served as a diagnostic ‘gold’ standard and revealed prevalences of S. mansoni, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ascaris lumbricoides of 83.0%, 55.4%, 40.2%, 33.9% and 28.6%, respectively. A single FLOTAC from stool samples preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin for 30 or 83 days showed a higher sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (91.4%) than the ether-concentration method on stool samples preserved for 40 days (85.0%) or triplicate Kato-Katz using fresh stool samples (77.4%). Moreover, a single FLOTAC detected hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections with a higher sensitivity than any of the other methods used, but resulted in lower egg counts. The Koga agar plate method was the most accurate diagnostic assay for S. stercoralis. Conclusion/Significance We have shown that the FLOTAC method holds promise for the diagnosis of S. mansoni. Moreover, our study confirms that FLOTAC is a sensitive technique for detection of common soil-transmitted helminths. For the diagnosis of S. stercoralis, the Koga agar plate method remains the method of choice.
Discrimination of Gastrointestinal Nematode Eggs from Crude Fecal Egg Preparations by Inhibitor-Resistant Conventional and Real-Time PCR
Janina Demeler, Sabrina Ramünke, Sonja Wolken, Davide Ianiello, Laura Rinaldi, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Giuseppe Cringoli, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Jürgen Krücken
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061285
Abstract: Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g). A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg) and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles – only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many different post PCR methods can be used such as RFLP, reverse-line-blot, Sanger sequencing and HRM.
How Long Can Stool Samples Be Fixed for an Accurate Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection Using Mini-FLOTAC?
Beatrice Barda?,Marco Albonico?,Davide Ianniello?,Shaali M. Ame?,Jennifer Keiser?,Benjamin Speich?,Laura Rinaldi?,Giuseppe Cringoli,Roberto Burioni?,Antonio Montresor
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003698
Abstract: Background Kato-Katz is a widely used method for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection. Fecal samples cannot be preserved, and hence, should be processed on the day of collection and examined under a microscope within 60 min of slide preparation. Mini-FLOTAC is a technique that allows examining fixed fecal samples. We assessed the performance of Mini-FLOTAC using formalin-fixed stool samples compared to Kato-Katz and determined the dynamics of prevalence and intensity estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infection over a 31-day time period. Methodology The study was carried out in late 2013 on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Forty-one children were enrolled and stool samples were subjected on the day of collection to a single Kato-Katz thick smear and Mini-FLOTAC examination; 12 aliquots of stool were fixed in 5% formalin and subsequently examined by Mini-FLOTAC up to 31 days after collection. Principal Findings The combined results from Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC revealed that 100% of children were positive for Trichuris trichiura, 85% for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 54% for hookworm. Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC techniques found similar prevalence estimates for A. lumbricoides (85% versus 76%), T. trichiura (98% versus 100%), and hookworm (42% versus 51%). The mean eggs per gram of stool (EPG) according to Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC was 12,075 and 11,679 for A. lumbricoides, 1,074 and 1,592 for T. trichiura, and 255 and 220 for hookworm, respectively. The mean EPG from day 1 to 31 of fixation was stable for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, but gradually declined for hookworm, starting at day 15. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our study suggest that for a qualitative diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection, stool samples can be fixed in 5% formalin for at least 30 days. However, for an accurate quantitative diagnosis of hookworm, we suggest a limit of 15 days of preservation. Our results have direct implication for integrating soil-transmitted helminthiasis into transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis.
Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions
Eric R. Morgan,Johannes Charlier,Guy Hendrickx,Annibale Biggeri,Dolores Catalan,Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna,Janina Demeler,Elizabeth Müller,Jan van Dijk,Fiona Kenyon,Philip Skuce,Johan H?glund,Padraig O'Kiely,Bonny van Ranst,Theo de Waal,Laura Rinaldi,Giuseppe Cringoli,Hubertus Hertzberg,Paul Torgerson,Adrian Wolstenholme,Jozef Vercruysse
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030484
Abstract: Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes) represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use) and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.
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