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Susceptibilidad de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Colectada en Primula obconica Hance y Convolvulus arvensis L. a Acaricidas
Flores F,Alberto; Silva A,Gonzalo; Tapia V,Maritza; Casals B,Pedro;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200014
Abstract: the use of acaricides of high toxicity in the production and handling of ornamental plants should be a matter of consumer concern. the susceptibility of two populations of tetranychus urticae was assessed: one collected from primula obconica hance and the other from convolvulus arvenis l as susceptible reference strain to the acaricides dicofol, abamectin alone and mixed with the surfactant phosphatidylcholine, azadirachtin, sulfur, pyridaben and fenazaquin. the evaluated parameters were mortality, lethal concentration 50% (lc50) and 90% (lc90), lethal time 50% (lt50) and 90% (lt90), effectiveness and index of resistance (ir). the experimental design was completely at random. each treatment had ?, ?, 1, 2 and 4x of the doses indicated by the manufacturer, five replicates and were sprayed with a potter spray tower. the results showed that the lc50 for azadirachtin and sulfur was significantly high. regarding the population from p. obconica, abamectin alone and in mixture with phosphatidylcholine and fenazaquin showed the highest efficiency. azadirachtin and sulfur were the acaricides showing the slowest activity and the resistance index indicated that the population collected in p. obconica should be considered susceptible to all the evaluated acaricides
Polvos de Especias Aromáticas para el Control del Gorgojo del Maiz, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, en Trigo Almacenado
Salvadores U,Yessica; Silva A,Gonzalo; Tapia V,Maritza; Hepp G,Ruperto;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200004
Abstract: the maize weevil, sitophilus zeamais motschulsky, is considered one of the most important pests of stored grains. plant powders from nine seasoning spices were tested in the laboratory to control s. zeamais at 0,5, 1, 2 and 4% (w/w). the variables evaluated were mortality and emergence (f1) of adult insects, grain weight loss and grain germination. the repellent and fumigant effects were evaluated at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4%; the experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates, and the group of treatments was repeated three times. the highest mortality percentages were obtained with piper nigrum l. at 1% (83.4%), 2% (97.6%) and 4% (100%). the lowest adult insect emergence was obtained with the same treatments more capsicum annuum var. longum sendtn., cinnamomum zeylanicum blume and pimpinella anisum l. at 4% (w/w). no significant differences were recorded as regards grain weight loss and germination. all the plant powders tested had a repellent effect on sitophilus zeamais and no fumigant effect was recorded
Polvos de Especias Aromáticas para el Control del Gorgojo del Maiz, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, en Trigo Almacenado Spices Powders for the Control of Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, in Stored Wheat
Yessica Salvadores U,Gonzalo Silva A,Maritza Tapia V,Ruperto Hepp G
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: El gorgojo del maíz Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, es considerado una de las plagas mas importantes de productos almacenados. Se evaluaron, en laboratorio, polvos vegetales provenientes de nueve especias condimentarias para el control de S. zeamais en concentraciones de 0,5; 1; 2 y 4%. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia (F1) de adultos y pérdida de peso y germinación del grano. También se evaluó el efecto repelente y fumigante a las concentraciones de 0,5; 1 y 2%. El dise o experimental fue completamente al azar, los tratamientos tuvieron cuatro repeticiones y el grupo de tratamientos fue repetido tres veces. Las mayores mortalidades se obtuvieron con Piper nigrum L. a 1% (83,4%), 2% (97,6%) y 4% (100%). Las menores emergencias de insectos adultos se obtuvieron en los mismos tratamientos más Capsicum annuum var. Longum Sendtn., Cinnamomun zeylanicum Blime y Pimpinella anisum L. al 4% (p/p). La pérdida de peso y germinación de granos no registraron diferencia significativa. Todos los polvos vegetales fueron repelentes para Sitophilus zeamais y ninguno tuvo efecto fumigante The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, is considered one of the most important pests of stored grains. Plant powders from nine seasoning spices were tested in the laboratory to control S. zeamais at 0,5, 1, 2 and 4% (w/w). The variables evaluated were mortality and emergence (F1) of adult insects, grain weight loss and grain germination. The repellent and fumigant effects were evaluated at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4%; the experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates, and the group of treatments was repeated three times. The highest mortality percentages were obtained with Piper nigrum L. at 1% (83.4%), 2% (97.6%) and 4% (100%). The lowest adult insect emergence was obtained with the same treatments more Capsicum annuum var. longum Sendtn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Pimpinella anisum L. at 4% (w/w). No significant differences were recorded as regards grain weight loss and germination. All the plant powders tested had a repellent effect on Sitophilus zeamais and no fumigant effect was recorded
Susceptibilidad de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Colectada en Primula obconica Hance y Convolvulus arvensis L. a Acaricidas Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) collected in Primula obconica Hance and Convolvulus arvensis L. to acaricides
Alberto Flores F,Gonzalo Silva A,Maritza Tapia V,Pedro Casals B
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: El uso de acaricidas de alta toxicidad en la producción y manejo de plantas ornamentales es un tema que debería preocupar a los consumidores. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad en laboratorio de dos poblaciones de Tetranychus urticae colectadas una en Primula obconica Hance y la otra en Convolvulus arvenis L, que se usó como raza sensible de referencia, a dicofol, abamectina, sola y en mezcla con el surfactante fosfatidilcolina, azadirachtina, azufre, pyridaben y fenazaquin. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad, concentración letal 50% (CL50) y 90% (CL90), tiempo letal 50% (TL50) y 90% (TL90), eficacia e índice de resistencia (IR). El dise o experimental fue completamente al azar. Cada acaricida se evaluó en , , 1, 2 y 4 veces la dosis recomendada según el fabricante, y cada tratamiento tuvo cinco repeticiones y se aplicaron con una torre de Potter. Los resultados muestran que para azadirachtina y azufre la CL50 fue mayor. En la población proveniente de P. obconica, abamectina sola y en mezcla con fosfatidilcolina y fenazaquin propiciaron la mayor eficiencia. Azadirachtina y azufre demostraron ser los acaricidas de más lenta acción y el índice de resistencia indica que la población colectada en P. obconica debe ser considerada como sensible a todos los acaricidas evaluados. The use of acaricides of high toxicity in the production and handling of ornamental plants should be a matter of consumer concern. The susceptibility of two populations of Tetranychus urticae was assessed: one collected from Primula obconica Hance and the other from Convolvulus arvenis L as susceptible reference strain to the acaricides dicofol, abamectin alone and mixed with the surfactant phosphatidylcholine, azadirachtin, sulfur, pyridaben and fenazaquin. The evaluated parameters were mortality, lethal concentration 50% (LC50) and 90% (LC90), lethal time 50% (LT50) and 90% (LT90), effectiveness and index of resistance (IR). The experimental design was completely at random. Each treatment had , , 1, 2 and 4X of the doses indicated by the manufacturer, five replicates and were sprayed with a Potter spray tower. The results showed that the LC50 for azadirachtin and sulfur was significantly high. Regarding the population from P. obconica, abamectin alone and in mixture with phosphatidylcholine and fenazaquin showed the highest efficiency. Azadirachtin and sulfur were the acaricides showing the slowest activity and the resistance index indicated that the population collected in P. obconica should be considered susceptible to all the evaluated acaricides
Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst
Margarita Ortiz U,Gonzalo Silva A,Maritza Tapia V,J. Concepción Rodriguez M
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2012,
Abstract: The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1), and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w), whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was < 0.08%. For T. castaneum, only 8 and 16% w/w powder concentrations reached 100% mortality. The liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts caused 100% mortality of S. zeamais, whereas only the ethanolic extract reached this value for T. castaneum. Therefore, the powder and the evaluated extracts of P. boldus were toxic for S. zeamais and T. castaneum and are promising against these and other stored-grain pests. El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) y el gorgojo casta o de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1) y pérdida de peso de los granos con un dise o experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p) mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.
Territorial Planning for Coastal Zones in Chile: The Need for Geographical-Environmental and Natural Risk Indicators for Spatial Decision Support Systems  [PDF]
Fernando Pe?a-Cortés, Daniel Rozas-Vásquez, Gonzalo Rebolledo, Jimmy Pincheira-Ulbrich, Miguel Escalona, Enrique Hauenstein, Luis Vargas-Chacoff, Carlos Bertrán, Jaime Tapia, Marco Cisternas
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.46A2003
Abstract:

Coastal zones are very dynamic and fragile environments, constituting a landscape ever more heterogeneous, fragmented and with increasing levels of complexity due to the changing relationship between man and nature. Integrated coastal zone management therefore requires detailed knowledge of the system and its components, based—to a large extent—on technical and scientific information. However, the information generated must be in line with the political requirements necessary for decision-making and planning. Thus the use of indicators to give a simplified view of the many components of the territory, and at the same time to provide important information about patterns or trends, becomes a tool of the utmost importance. These indicators can be understood as measurable characteristics of the environment, which facilitate comprehension of the processes occurring at different scales and serve as a reference to inform the population and support decision-making. The aim of the present note is to demonstrate briefly the need to develop geographical-environmental and natural risk indicators to facilitate comprehension of the dynamic of spatial and temporal landscape patterns, particularly in coastal environments. This approach offers an historical summary of the natural, socio-economic and political processes which currently make up the territory, and which without doubt will continue to influence it in the future. At the same time, it is proposed that information should be integrated on the basis of this framework with a view to generating spatial decision support systems in a context of planning and integrated management of the coastal zones of Chile.

Actualización en pruebas de susceptibilidad antifúngica
Tapia P,Cecilia V;
Revista chilena de infectología , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-10182009000200005
Abstract: due to increasing of invasive fungal infections and emergeney of antifungal drugs resistant fungi, standardized methods of antifungal susceptibility testing (ast) have been developed. the clinical laboratory standards instutute (clsi) and the european for committee antimicrobial susceptibility testing (eucast) have guidelines for susceptibility of yeasts by broth microdilution (m27-a2 and e. dis. 7.1 documents, respectively). both are equivalent, although they present methodological and interpretative breakpoints differences. in addition, the clsi have the m38-a (for filamentous fungi) and m44-a (disk diffusion) documents, whereas eucast is developing a document for aspergillus spp. furthermore, commercial methods are available that display good correlation with the methods of reference such as e-test?, sensititre? and vitek2?. the interpretation of the results must be careful because the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (cim) is difficult for fungi, there are host factors involved and not always there is a correlation between mic and clinical outeome. due to these methods are laborious and require trained personnel, to ask for ast to a reference laboratory is recommendable.
Evolution of curvature tensors under mean curvature flow
TAPIA,VíCTOR;
Revista Colombiana de Matemáticas , 2009,
Abstract: we obtain the evolution equations for the riemann tensor, the ricci tensor and the scalar curvature induced by the mean curvature flow. the evolution of the scalar curvature is similar to the ricci flow, however, negative, rather than positive, curvature is preserved. our results are valid in any dimension.
Evolution of curvature tensors under mean curvature flow Evolución de los tensores de curvatura bajo el flujo de curvatura media
VíCTOR TAPIA
Revista Colombiana de Matemáticas , 2009,
Abstract: We obtain the evolution equations for the Riemann tensor, the Ricci tensor and the scalar curvature induced by the mean curvature flow. The evolution of the scalar curvature is similar to the Ricci flow, however, negative, rather than positive, curvature is preserved. Our results are valid in any dimension. Se obtienen las ecuaciones de evolución para el tensor de Riemann, el tensor de Ricci y el escalar de curvatura inducidas por el flujo de curvatura media. La evolución de la curvatura escalar es similar al flujo de Ricci, sin embargo, la curvatura negativa, en vez de la positiva, es favorecida. Nuestros resultados son válidos en cualquier dimensión.
Actualización en pruebas de susceptibilidad antifúngica An update on antifungal susceptibility testing
Cecilia V Tapia P
Revista chilena de infectología , 2009,
Abstract: Debido al aumento en las infecciones fúngicas invasores y a la emergencia de hongos resistentes a los antifúngicos, ha sido necesario desarrollar métodos estandarizados de susceptibilidad antifúngica. El Clinical Laboratory Standards Instutute (CLSI) y el European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) han elaborado guías para susceptibilidad de levaduras por microdilución en caldo (documentos M27-A2 y E. Dis. 7.1, respectivamente). Ambos son equivalentes, aunque presentan diferencias metodológicas y en sus puntos de corte. El CLSI ha desarrollado los documentos M38-A (hongos filamentosos) y M44-A (difusión en disco), mientras que EUCAST trabaja en un documento para Aspergillus sp. Por otra parte, existen métodos comerciales que presentan buena correlación con los métodos de referencia como E-test , Sensititre y Vitek2 . La interpretación de los resultados debe ser cuidadosa pues la determinación de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) es muy dificultosa para hongos, hay factores del hospedero involucrados y no siempre hay una correlación entre la CIM y la respuesta a tratamiento. Como estas técnicas, en general, son laboriosas y requieren de personal entrenado, es recomendable derivar los estudios de susceptibilidad a un laboratorio de referencia. Due to increasing of invasive fungal infections and emergeney of antifungal drugs resistant fungi, standardized methods of antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) have been developed. The Clinical Laboratory Standards Instutute (CLSI) and the European for Committee Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) have guidelines for susceptibility of yeasts by broth microdilution (M27-A2 and E. Dis. 7.1 documents, respectively). Both are equivalent, although they present methodological and interpretative breakpoints differences. In addition, the CLSI have the M38-A (for filamentous fungi) and M44-A (disk diffusion) documents, whereas EUCAST is developing a document for Aspergillus spp. Furthermore, commercial methods are available that display good correlation with the methods of reference such as E-test , Sensititre and Vitek2 . The interpretation of the results must be careful because the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) is difficult for fungi, there are host factors involved and not always there is a correlation between MIC and clinical outeome. Due to these methods are laborious and require trained personnel, to ask for AST to a reference laboratory is recommendable.
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