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Silencing of Mg-pat-10 and Mg-unc-87 in the Plant Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne graminicola Using siRNAs
Joseph Nsengimana,Lander Bauters,Annelies Haegeman,Godelieve Gheysen
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030567
Abstract: Until recently, the standard method for RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) was based on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This increased the chance of off-target gene silencing through interactions between different short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and non-cognate mRNA targets. In this work, we applied gene-specific knockdown of Mg-pat-10 and Mg-unc-87 of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, using discrete 21 bp siRNAs. The homologue of Mg-pat-10 in C. elegans encodes body wall troponin C, which is essential for muscle contraction, whereas the homologue of Mg-unc-87 encodes two proteins involved in maintenance of the structure of myofilaments in the body wall muscle of C. elegans. The knockdown at the transcript level, as seen by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, indicates that the Mg-pat-10 gene was silenced after soaking the nematodes in a specific siRNA for 48 h. At 72 h post-soaking, the Mg-pat-10 mRNA level was similar to the control, indicating the recovery of expression between 48 h and 72 h post-soaking. For Mg-unc-87 the nematodes started to recover from siRNA silencing 24 h after thorough washing. A migration assay showed that for the nematodes that were soaked in the control (siRNA of β-1,4-endoglucanase), 77% of the nematodes completed migration through the column in a 12 h period. By comparison with the control, nematodes incubated in the siRNA of pat-10 or unc-87 were significantly inhibited in their motility. After 12 h, only 6.3% of the juveniles incubated in the Mg-pat-10 siRNA and 9.3% of those incubated in Mg-unc-87 siRNA had migrated through the column, representing 91.8% and 87.9% inhibition respectively compared to the control. In the present work, we demonstrated that M. graminicola is readily susceptible to siRNAs of two genes involved in nematode motility. This is an important contribution to the progressive use of siRNA for functional analysis. Moreover, the application of RNAi in PPNs opens the way for environmentally friendly control of M. graminicola.
Toolkits for Real Time Digital Audio Signal Processing Teaching Laboratory  [PDF]
Kizito Nkurikiyeyezu, Faustin Ahishakiye, Cyprien Nsengimana, Etienne Ntagwirumugara
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2015.62009
Abstract: This paper describes an audio digital signal-processing toolkit that the authors develop to supplement a lecture course on digital signal processing (DSP) taught at the department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at the University of Rwanda. In engineering education, laboratory work is a very important component for a holistic learning experience. However, even though today there is an increasing availability of programmable DSP hardware that students can largely benefit from, many poorly endowed universities cannot afford a costly full-fledged DSP laboratory. To help remedy this problem, the authors have developed C#.NET toolkits, which can be used for real-time digital audio signal processing laboratory. These toolkits can be used with any managed languages, like Visual Basic, C#, F# and managed C++. They provide frequently used modules for digital audio processing such as filtering, equalization, spectrum analysis, audio playback, and sound effects. It is anticipated that by creating a flexible and reusable components, students will not only learn fundamentals of DSP but also get an insight into the practicability of what they have learned in the classroom.
Linkage disequilibrium and the genetic distance in livestock populations: the impact of inbreeding
Jérémie Nsengimana, Philippe V Baret
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-36-3-281
Abstract: (To access the full article, please see PDF)
Impact of Air Pollution on Community’s Health, Evidence of Industrial Zone in Masoro, Ndera Sector, Rwanda  [PDF]
Kagame Tonny, Nsanzumukiza Martin Vincent, Mucyo Jean Claude, Maniragaba Abias, Akimanizanye Victoire, Nsengimana Janvier
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2020.86005
Abstract: Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of industrial zone air pollution on Masoro community and identify some health problems which are experienced in the communities. The key informants were selected using a purposive sampling technique and random sampling based on polluted areas. During this research, Kibagabaga hospital was consulted to identify different illness associated with air pollution in Ndera industrial zone. Respondents illustrated that a great part of emission came from industry, related activities and vehicles. The findings from the hospital illustrated that the respiratory, hypertension and diabetes dominated the illness in community due to air pollution from industrial zone, which was confirmed in this research with reference to the survey results. Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental threats and has been implicated for several adverse cardiovascular effects including arterial hypertension and diabetes. Air contamination provokes oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and autonomic nervous system imbalance that subsequently induce endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction leading to increased blood pressure. The respondents confirmed that the communities are aware of pollution and experienced the consequences of pollution such as cancer and other complicated illness.
Stationary Super-Gravitational States  [PDF]
Joseph Towe
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.21007
Abstract: The string background AdS7XS4 is adopted and the early universe is modeled in the eleven dimensional SUGRA theory that is dual to this background. Specifically the ground state of the vacuum is associated with an arbitrary distribution of closed, spin-2 strings, and excited states are modeled as geometric combinations of individual strings. Combinations or combining iterations are, by hypothesis, admissible or geometric if each iteration intrinsically incorporates the metrical scale that is assigned to the individual spin-2 string. It is demonstrated that a generalization of this process, if appropriately calibrated, establishes theoretical fermionic masses that correspond approximately to observed values. The proposed model also predicts a new quark of mass .
Using Multimedia Case Development as a Critical Reflective Tool for Revitalizing School Stakeholders’ Organizational Learning  [PDF]
Joseph Claudet
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.23028
Abstract: This article reports design and development efforts associated with one school-university collaborative partnership project focused on assisting K-12 school community stakeholders struggling with difficult school improvement challenges learn how to reinvent themselves as organizational teams to engage effectively in positive school change and renewal. The project employs an alternative, immersive organizational learning design in conjunction with available multimedia technology to leverage stakeholders’ own lived experiences and leadership challenges as opportunities to engage school community participants in a unique organizational case development and team learning adventure. Multimedia case development and production activities involving school community stakeholders in one elementary school are highlighted. Insights derived from the use of multimedia case development as an organizational leading and learning tool for educators and other stakeholders in school communities are discussed.
The Photon Wave Function  [PDF]
Joseph Cugnon
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2011.13008
Abstract: The properties of a wave equation for a six-component wave function of a photon are re-analyzed. It is shown that the wave equation presents all the properties required by quantum mechanics, except for the ones that are linked with the definition of the position operator. The situation is contrasted with the three-component formulation based on the Riemann-Silberstein wave function. The inconsistency of the latter with the principles of quantum mechanics is shown to arise from the usual interpretation of the wave function. Finally, the Lorentz invariance of the six-component wave equation is demonstrated explicitly for Lorentz boosts and space inversion.
Redesigning Staff Development as Organizational Case Learning: Tapping into School Stakeholders’ Collaborative Potential for Critical Reflection and Transformative Leadership Action  [PDF]
Joseph Claudet
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2012.14005
Abstract: This article reports on activities associated with one school-university partnership project focused on providing multimedia-integrated organizational learning and development opportunities to stakeholders in K-12 school communities struggling with real-world school change and improvement challenges. A central feature of the project’s organizational case learning design is the use of multimedia case production technology in conjunction with context-specific school situational data to immerse school stakeholders in the theatrical portrayal and analysis of their own school dilemma challenges as a means to jumpstart collaborative teaming and data-driven problem solving. Multimedia case development and analysis efforts involving stakeholders in one middle school community who are confronting a difficult, politically charged set of school improvement challenges are highlighted. Project findings associated with the use of multimedia technology and data-driven organizational case learning as tools to inform an alternative staff development approach for promoting positive school leadership teaming and real-world problem solving among education stakeholders in K-12 school communities are discussed.
On Approximating Fermion Masses in Terms of Stationary Super-String States  [PDF]
Joseph Towe
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44076
Abstract:

AdS/CFT correspondence is adopted and fermion masses are modeled as analogues of Weyl curvature states, which occur by hypothesis when closed spin-2 strings sweep out closed world tubes. Admissible curvature states are established by gauge invariance and fundamental mass is attributed to admissible curvature. A consequent spectrum of masses forms an SU(3) symmetry that is invariant under appropriate realizations of the SUGRA GUT interaction. Finally the spin-h/2 nature of the masses that are attributed to curvature emerges as a necessary condition for the relevant SUGRA GUT realizations. Calibration of the proposed model reveals a spectrum of fermion masses that corresponds approximately to observation. Moreover, the proposed model predicts a new quark that is characterized by I3 = -1/2 and by a mass of about 30 GeV/c2.

Instructional Leadership and the Sociopolitics of School Turnarounds: Changing Stakeholder Beliefs through Immersive Collaborative Learning  [PDF]
Joseph Claudet
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.37035
Abstract: This article highlights case production and analysis efforts associated with a multi-year, multimedia case development project focused on providing alternative organizational learning opportunities to regional K-12 schools and school districts. The School Leadership Case Simulation (SLCS) Project utilizes a unique multi-entity partnership and school-based collaborative learning design in which teams of university-based education researchers, multimedia production specialists, and regional education service center school improvement consultants work in tandem with K-12 school educators and community members to help these school stakeholders develop and produce multimedia organizational learning cases about their own real-world, context-specific school dilemma challenges. Collaborative team learning efforts of one group of school educators and community stakeholders grappling with an organizationally entrenched set of instructional leadership and school improvement challenges in one regional high school community are presented. Project findings relating to the viability and usefulness of the project’s multi-entity, immersive collaborative teaming design and multimedia-integrated case learning tools for helping groups of K-12 school community stakeholders learn how to adopt a team-centered organizational learning approach to reframing their real-world school leadership dilemma challenges and engage directly in data-informed, collaborative decision-making are presented and discussed.
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