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Characterization of Dairy Slurry in Sourthern Chile Farms Caracterización de purines de lecherías en el Sur de Chile
Francisco Salazar,Juan Carlos Dumont,David Chadwick,Rodolfo Salda?a
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: In this study 50 slurry samples were collected from commercial dairy farms located in the South of Chile during 1995-1997. Samples were analyzed for dry matter, pH, organic matter, available and total macro nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium), available and total micro nutrients (zinc, iron, manganese and copper) and total aluminum. Results showed that the dry matter content in dairy effluents was low, with 62% of the samples being < 4% DM. This reflected the large volumes of water that the storage received. A great variation in nutrient content was observed in the analyzed samples, probably reflecting differences in feeding regimes, use of wash water, rainfall and age of slurry at the time of sampling. In general, the concentration of macro and micronutrients was low. In the present study, the dry matter in the slurry proved to be a good indicator of some nutrients in the samples analyzed. Positive correlations (p < 0.001) were obtained between dry matter content and total phosphorus (r2 = 89%), total calcium (r2 = 87%), total magnesium (r2 = 82%), available phosphorus (r2 = 75%), ammonium nitrogen (r2 = 68%), total potassium (r2 = 64%), available potassium (r2 = 60%), total nitrogen (r2 = 55%), total zinc (r2 = 74%), total manganese (r2 = 64%) and total iron (r2 = 62%). Data from this study could be used as a guideline to estimate nutrient contribution from dairy slurry when applied to farmland. En este estudio se colectaron 50 muestras de purines de predios lecheros ubicados en el Sur de Chile (X Región). Las muestras fueron analizadas para determinar materia seca, pH, materia orgánica, macro nutrientes totales y disponibles (nitrógeno, fósforo, potasio, calcio, magnesio y sodio). También se analizaron micro nutrientes disponibles y totales (zinc, hierro, manganeso y cobre) y aluminio total. Los resultados permitieron determinar que los purines tenían un bajo contenido de materia seca, ya que 62% de las muestras tenían menos de 4%. Esto refleja la gran cantidad de agua que reciben los pozos de almacenamiento. Se observó una gran variabilidad entre las muestras colectadas, lo que puede ser explicado por diferencias en la alimentación, uso de agua de lavado, aguas lluvia y tiempo de almacenamiento del purín. En general, la concentración de macro y micro nutrientes fue baja. En el presente estudio, la materia seca del purín mostró ser un buen indicador de algunos nutrientes analizados. Correlaciones positivas (p < 0.001) fueron obtenidas entre la materia seca y el fósforo total (r2 = 89%), calcio total (r2 = 87%),
Characterization of Dairy Slurry in Sourthern Chile Farms
Salazar,Francisco; Dumont,Juan Carlos; Chadwick,David; Salda?a,Rodolfo; Santana,Mabel;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200005
Abstract: in this study 50 slurry samples were collected from commercial dairy farms located in the south of chile during 1995-1997. samples were analyzed for dry matter, ph, organic matter, available and total macro nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium), available and total micro nutrients (zinc, iron, manganese and copper) and total aluminum. results showed that the dry matter content in dairy effluents was low, with 62% of the samples being < 4% dm. this reflected the large volumes of water that the storage received. a great variation in nutrient content was observed in the analyzed samples, probably reflecting differences in feeding regimes, use of wash water, rainfall and age of slurry at the time of sampling. in general, the concentration of macro and micronutrients was low. in the present study, the dry matter in the slurry proved to be a good indicator of some nutrients in the samples analyzed. positive correlations (p < 0.001) were obtained between dry matter content and total phosphorus (r2 = 89%), total calcium (r2 = 87%), total magnesium (r2 = 82%), available phosphorus (r2 = 75%), ammonium nitrogen (r2 = 68%), total potassium (r2 = 64%), available potassium (r2 = 60%), total nitrogen (r2 = 55%), total zinc (r2 = 74%), total manganese (r2 = 64%) and total iron (r2 = 62%). data from this study could be used as a guideline to estimate nutrient contribution from dairy slurry when applied to farmland.
An Approach to the Understanding of Pictorial Space: A Methodological Proposal Based on Three Case Studies  [PDF]
Juan Carlos Meana
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714191
Abstract: Space and time coordinates are two key parameters in our construction as cultural and social beings. They provide us with reference points in the creation of artistic images with full symbolic significance. With the aim of reflecting on pictorial space, an exercise was designed for second year undergraduate students at the Faculty of Fine Arts in the University of Vigo (Spain). This exercise, conducted under the subject Space-Time Processes, consisted in the student’s election of a single pictorial artwork from the history of art in order to subsequently carry out a pictorial intervention involving a dialogue with the space portrayed in the original artwork. From a qualitative methodological approach, an analysis of three cases was undertaken. This proposal promotes a type of active learning that lets the students take centre stage on the teaching-learning process, where they confront image comprehension as a group of visual and constructive codes loaded with meaning.
A Wave Function for the Spin of the Early Universe Derived from the Wheeler-DeWitt Equation  [PDF]
Juan Carlos Echaurren
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2017.72006
Abstract: The wave function for the spin the early universe is obtained through the adaption of the quantum formalism to one solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt’s equation [1], associated with the wave function of the universe. In addition, some observations performed by Stephen Hawking in relation to the vorticity of the universe [2] are used. This wave function for the spin could be used for indirectly to demonstrate the presence of dark matter in the universe.
Analysing Economic and Financial Power of Different Countries at the End of the Twentieth Century  [PDF]
Juan Carlos Molero, Francesc Pujol
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.32028
Abstract: This paper offers further evidence to “The Economist” index of economic power developed by Pujol (2002, 2003, and 2009). The original index is composite by construction and it gives information about year 2000, comparing the results with year 1990. Testing the robustness of the ranking of selected countries obtained by Pujol’s index; this paper applies the same methodology to two specific years: 1995 and 2001. The research tries to ascertain if the evolution of the rank- ing of countries among years 1990 and 2000 is not merely a chance. The number of times each country appears in tables and graphs of the different “The Economist” issues for year 1995 confirms the evolution of the index between 1990 and 2000. Data for year 2001 gives continuity and support to the ranking developed in year 2000. The data analyzed from this magazine make sense, because at the end it gives the same information that the one obtained from other more tradi- tional and sophisticated ways. Empirical results tend to confirm that unconventional composite index can produce relevant data sets for scientists and practitioners.
GENOMICS, PUBLIC HEALTH AND IDENTITY
Chadwick,Ruth;
Acta bioethica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2003000200007
Abstract: this paper questions the utility of the ethical principles that are usually invoked to deal with genomic issues, particularly genetic databases. concepts such as solidarity, benefit sharing, equity, public participation, and collective identity are discussed. the author argues that genetic banks are precipitating new concern over group interest, as opposed to concern over issues arising from individualistic medical ethics. genomics era needs new paradigms in ethics. an individualistic approach based on choice and autonomy is not useful, because we make choices not only as individuals but also as members of different groups. the doctrine of informed consent evolved in different historical conditions from the ones we face in the era of genomics. this is complicated by the global context of genetic research, in addition to powerful commercial interests. this suggests that it is not sufficient to move from an individual-centred ethic approach to a more community-centred one; an approach of renegotiating the relationship between individual and community. we need also to be clear about what the interests at stake are, which may mean reconceiving the terms 'individual' and 'community' in this context and the ways in which their interests are affected, identifying the sources of collective identity that are at stake
GENOMICS, PUBLIC HEALTH AND IDENTITY GENóMICA, SALUD PúBLICA E IDENTIDAD GENOMICA, SAUDE PúBLICA E IDENTIDADE
Ruth Chadwick
Acta Bioethica , 2003,
Abstract: This paper questions the utility of the ethical principles that are usually invoked to deal with genomic issues, particularly genetic databases. Concepts such as solidarity, benefit sharing, equity, public participation, and collective identity are discussed. The author argues that genetic banks are precipitating new concern over group interest, as opposed to concern over issues arising from individualistic medical ethics. Genomics era needs new paradigms in ethics. An individualistic approach based on choice and autonomy is not useful, because we make choices not only as individuals but also as members of different groups. The doctrine of informed consent evolved in different historical conditions from the ones we face in the era of genomics. This is complicated by the global context of genetic research, in addition to powerful commercial interests. This suggests that it is not sufficient to move from an individual-centred ethic approach to a more community-centred one; an approach of renegotiating the relationship between individual and community. We need also to be clear about what the interests at stake are, which may mean reconceiving the terms 'individual' and 'community' in this context and the ways in which their interests are affected, identifying the sources of collective identity that are at stake Este artículo cuestiona la utilidad de los principios éticos que son generalmente aludidos para abordar problemas de genómica, particularmente los de bancos de datos genéticos. Conceptos como solidaridad, compartir los beneficios, equidad, participación pública e identidad colectiva son discutidos. La autora sugiere que los bancos de datos genéticos están generando nuevas preocupaciones sobre los intereses del grupo, preocupaciones opuestas a los temas de una ética médica individualista. La era de la genómica necesita nuevos paradigmas éticos. Un enfoque individualista basado en la elección y la autonomía no es útil, puesto que tomamos decisiones no sólo como individuos sino también como miembros de diferentes grupos. La doctrina del consentimiento informado surgió en condiciones históricas diferentes de las que enfrentamos en la era de la genómica. Esto se complica por el contexto global de la investigación genómica y la presencia de poderosos intereses comerciales. Ello sugiere que no es suficiente moverse desde un enfoque centrado en el individuo a un enfoque más centrado en la comunidad; uno de renegociación de la relación entre individuo y comunidad. Necesitamos también tener claro cuáles son los intereses en riesgo, lo que puede significar rede
Una revolución verde en la educación: las estrategias de aprendizaje
Clifton Chadwick
Revista de Psicología , 1991,
Abstract: Una "revolución verde", es propuesta para el área de la Educación, a través del desarrollo y uso de estrategias de aprendizaje. Aprender a aprender es promovido a través de estrategias cognitivas que llevan al auto-aprendizaje, estrategias afectivas detonan el uso de estrategias cognitivas de procesamiento y ejecución. Se enfatiza la meta-cognición como parte de las estrategias de aprendizaje, las cuales deben integrarse en el aula y el currículum, cambiando metodología y contenido. Esto reduciría la deserción y repetición escolar y capacitaría al estudiante para funcionar mejor en la vida.
Gender And The Human Genome
Chadwick Ruth
Mens Sana Monographs , 2009,
Abstract: Gender issues arise in relation to the human genome across a number of dimensions: the level of attention given to the nuclear genome as opposed to the mitochondrial; the level of basic scientific research; decision-making in the clinic related to both reproductive decision-making on the one hand, and diagnostic and predictive testing on the other; and wider societal implications. Feminist bioethics offers a useful perspective for addressing these issues.
Stop That Subversive Spreadsheet!
David Chadwick
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: This paper documents the formation of the European Spreadsheet Risks Interest Group (EuSpRIG www.eusprig.org) and outlines some of the research undertaken and reported upon by interested parties in EuSpRIG publications
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