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Soil water retention and s index after crop rotation and chiseling
Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Rosolem, Ciro Antonio;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832011000600009
Abstract: soil compaction can be minimized either mechanically or biologically, using plant species with vigorous root systems. an experiment was carried out with soybean (glycine max) in rotation with triticale (x triticosecale) and sunflower (helianthus annuus) in fall-winter associated with pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum), grain sorghum (sorghum bicolor) or sunn hemp (crotalaria juncea) in spring. crop rotation under no-till was compared with mechanical chiseling. the experiment was carried out in botucatu, s?o paulo state, brazil. soil quality was estimated using the s index and soil water retention curves (in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.075-0.125, 0.15-0.20, 0.275-0.325, and 0.475-0.525 m deep). crop rotation and chiseling improved soil quality, increasing the s index to over 0.035 to a depth of 20 cm in the soil profile. the improved soil quality, as shown by the s index, makes the use of mechanical chiseling unnecessary, since after 3 years the soil physical quality under no-tilled crop rotation and chiseling was similar.
Least limiting water range in soil under crop rotations and chiseling
Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Rosolem, Ciro Antonio;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832011000300012
Abstract: soil water availability to plants is affected by soil compaction and other variables. the least limiting water range (llwr) comprises soil physical variables affecting root growth and soil water availability, and can be managed by either mechanical or biological methods. there is evidence that effects of crop rotations could last longer than chiseling, so the objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil chiseling or growing cover crops under no-till (nt) on the llwr. crop rotations involving triticale (x triticosecale) and sunflower (helianthus annuus) in the fall-winter associated with millet (pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and sunn hemp (crotalaria juncea) as cover crops preceding soybean (glycine max) were repeated for three consecutive years. in the treatment with chiseling (performed only in the first year), the area was left fallow between the fall-winter and summer crops. the experiment was carried out in botucatu, s?o paulo state, brazil, from 2003 to 2006 on a typic rhodudalf. the llwr was determined in soil samples taken from the layers 0-20 cm and 20- 40 cm, after chemical desiccation of the cover crops in december of the first and third year of the experiment. chiseling decreases soil bulk density in the 0-20 cm soil layer, increasing the llwr magnitude by lowering the soil water content at which penetration resistance reaches 2.0 mpa; this effect is present up to the third year after chiseling and can reach to a depth of 0.40 m. crop rotations involving sunflower + sunn hemp, triticale + millet and triticale + sunn hemp for three years prevented soil bulk density from exceeding the critical soil bulk density in the 0- 0.20 m layer. this effect was observed to a depth of 0.40 m after three years of chiseling under crop rotations involving forage sorghum. hence, chiseling and some crop rotations under no tillage are effective in increasing soil quality assessed by the llwr.
Estabilidade de agregados do solo após manejo com rota??es de culturas e escarifica??o
Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Rosolem, Ciro Antonio;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832008000400004
Abstract: the objective of this study was to compare, in compacted soil condition, the aggregate stability after different crops rotations under no-tillage system and chiseling. the following crop rotations were repeated for three consecutive years under no-tillage: triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) and sunflower (helianthus annus) as autumn-winter crops, together with pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum), forage sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and sunn hemp (crotalaria juncea) in spring, preceeding soybean (summer crop). in the chiseling treatment the area was kept bare between the autumn-winter and the summer crops. the study was carried out in three growing seasons (2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006), in botucatu, state of s?o paulo, brazil. the experiment had a complete randomized block design with split-plot and four replications. the samples for aggregate stability analysis were collected in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm after cover crop desiccation, in the first and third year of the experiment. in the first year of the experiment, triticale resulted in a higher percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm, higher mean geometric diameter and mean weight diameter (mwd) of aggregates at the depth of 0-5 cm, and higher mwd at 5-10 cm. chiseling and absence of cover crops reduced the percentage of aggregates larger than 2 mm and mwd values at 5-10 cm. aggregate stability is influenced by crop rotation, and was highest in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm when triticale was used as autumn-winter species.
Intervalo hídrico ótimo e compacta??o do solo com cultivo consorciado de milho e braquiária
Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Borghi, Emerson;Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832011000600033
Abstract: intercropping of a forage and main grain crop ensures forage production in the autumn-winter, and straw for mulching in the no-tillage system. the contribution of dry root matter in the soil profile allows the improvement of soil structural quality. the objective of this research was to evaluate changes in soil physical and physico-hydric properties with the cultivation of maize grown alone and intercropped with brachiaria brizantha. the study was carried out on the experimental farm lageado (unesp, botucatu-sp) in the growing seasons 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. undisturbed soil was sampled from the layers 0-20 and 20-40 cm by volumetric rings in plots growing maize and left fallow between harvest and in plots intercropped with maize and b. brizantha in the row, where the grass was maintained for grazing after maize harvest. the least limiting water range (llwr) of these samples was evaluated, based on curves of penetration resistance and water retention in soil samples with different bulk densities. maize grown alone is sufficient to improve the physical and structural characteristics of the soil in the 0-20 cm layer. brachiaria intercropped with maize for two years improves the soil physical and structural properties in the layer 20-40 cm as well, reducing penetration resistance and increasing bulk density.
EFEITO DA CALAGEM E ADUBA O POTáSSICA NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRI O DA CULTURA DA MAMONA (Ricinus communis L.)
Carlos Sérgio Tiritan,Juliano Carlos Calonego,Diego Henriques Santos
Colloquium Agrariae , 2010, DOI: 10.5747/ca.2010.v06.n2.a055
Abstract: The castor bean is an oilseed crop of outstanding importance in Brazil and worldwide. Besides the wide application in chemical industry, is important due to its tolerance to drought, making it a viable crop for the semi-arid region of Brazil, where there are few agricultural alternatives. However, this culture is not unique to semi-arid region and is also planted with excellent results in various regions of the country. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming and potassium fertilization on the crop of castor bean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized complete block randomized in a factorial 3 x 2, where the first factor consisted of potassium (0, 30 and 60 kg ha-1) and in the presence or absence lime to raise the base saturation to 60%. It was found that liming in combination with an intermediate dose of K2O (30 kg ha-1) elevates the production of dry mass of the area, however not change the concentration nutrients in the castor bean.
Lixivia??o de potássio da palha de plantas de cobertura em diferentes estádios de senescência após a desseca??o química
Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Foloni, José Salvador Simoneti;Rosolem, Ciro Antonio;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832005000100011
Abstract: chemical control of green cover crops is common in no-till systems and nutrient mineralization of the residues left on the soil surface can be intensified by rainfall over time after the plant desiccation. potassium leaching from six green cover crops was evaluated as affected by rainfall simulated at different stages after the herbicide application. pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum), guinea sorghum (sorghum vulgare), black oat (avena strigosa), triticale (triticum secale), indian hemp (crotalaria juncea), and brachiaria (brachiaria decumbens) were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots with soil in botucatu, s?o paulo, brazil. the plants were sprayed with non-selective post-emergence herbicide fifty days after emergence. after the desiccation (2, 4, 8, and 16 days) the plants were cut and subjected to 30 mm of simulated rainfall, simulating an amount of 8 t ha-1 of straw. the amount of k leached from the straw increased as plants died off after herbicide application. regarding the k supply to the subsequent crop, triticale straw was the best alternative, as it made over 9 kg ha-1 of k until 16 days after herbicide application available.
Utilization of the Mucuna aterrima plants in phytoremediation of soil contaminated by lead = Utiliza o da mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy) para a fitorremedia o de solo contaminado por chumbo
Carlos Henrique dos Santos,Andre Luis de Oliveira Garcia,Juliano Carlos Calonego,,Carlos Sergio Tiritan
Agro@mbiente On-line , 2012,
Abstract: The work was to evaluate the accumulation of Pb in plant tissue of velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy.) in contaminated soil for this element and investigate the potential for soil remediation. Plants were grown in pots with a capacity of 9 dm3 of soil. The treatments were in addition to the vessels: 18.8, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600 and 1200 mg kg-1 in the form of Pb (Pb (NO3)2). The treatments were distributed according to statistical design DIC with three replications. Samples of soil and plant tissue were collected ninety days after sowing for the quantification of mass of dry matter of shoots and roots for the determination of Pb accumulation. The results obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and regression. The plants showed greater accumulation of Pb in shoots, depending on the weight of dry matter produced; with the gradual increase in Pb concentrations in soil there was no decrease of the dry weight of roots and shoots. = O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o acúmulo de chumbo (Pb) no tecido vegetal de mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy.) em solo contaminado por este elemento e verificar o potencial de fitorremedia o desta planta. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade para 9 dm3 de solo. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de Pb nos recipientes: 18,8; 37,5; 75; 150; 300; 600 e 1.200 mg kg-1 de Pb na forma de (Pb(NO3)2). Os tratamentos foram distribuídos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repeti es. Amostras do solo e do tecido vegetal foram coletadas noventa dias após a semeadura para a quantifica o das massas das matérias secas da parte aérea e das raízes para a determina o do acúmulo de chumbo. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variancia e regress o. As plantas demucuna preta apresentaram maior acúmulo de Pb em sua parte aérea, em fun o da massa de matéria seca produzida; n o houve altera o significativa na produ o da massa de matéria seca das raízes e da parte aérea em fun o das doses de Pb no solo.
Propriedades físicas do solo em sistemas de rota??o de culturas conforme o uso de corretivos da acidez
Castro, Gustavo Spadotti Amaral;Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2011001200015
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of crop rotation systems and liming materials on soil physical properties. the experiment was carried out from october 2006 to july 2008, in botucatu, sp, brazil, in a completely randomized block design in a split-plot arrangement with eight replicates. main plots consisted of four crop rotation systems: soybean/fallow/maize/fallow, soybean/white-oat/maize/bean, soybean/millet/maize/pigeon pea and soybean/signal grass/maize/signal grass. subplots consisted of the control treatment, without soil correction, and of the application of 3.8 mg ha-1 of dolomitic lime (ecc = 90%) or 4.1 mg ha-1 of calcium-magnesium silicate (ecc = 80%), on the surface of a clayed rhodic ferralsol. aggregate stability, soil bulk density, total porosity, macro and microporosity, soil penetration resistance and moisture content were evaluated. superficial application of the lime materials does not reduce soil aggregation and increases macroporosity down to 0.20 m, with calcium-magnesium silicate application, and to 0.10 m, when lime is applied. soil under fallow in off-season decreases aggregate stability and increases soil penetration resistance in upper layers. the cultivation of congo signal grass, between summer crops, increases aggregate stability down to 0.10-m depth.
Aplica??o de fosfato natural e reciclagem de fósforo por milheto, braquiária, milho e soja
Foloni, José Salvador Simoneti;Tiritan, Carlos Sergio;Calonego, Juliano Carlos;Alves Junior, Jaime;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832008000300023
Abstract: the objective of this experiment was to compare the ability of soybean (glycine max), corn (zea mays), brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu and pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum) for p-uptake, at different levels of the alvorada natural rock phosphate, under controlled conditions. the soil used was a dystrophic hapludalf (180 g kg-1 clay), which was limed and fertilized with n, k and micronutrients. the crops were grown in 18 dm3 pots for 50 days in a greenhouse, at different p2o5 rates (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1). the amount of rock phosphate was calculated based on the total p2o5 content. contrasting to soybean, there was a positive response of maize to higher p2o5 doses. the dry matter production by brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu was lower than that observed for pearl millet, but it still was highly efficient in p uptake despite the low solubility of the rock phosphate. pearl millet is an important cover crop because of the high dry matter production and the capacity for recycling p in a relatively short period (50 days).
ADUBA O BORATADA FOLIAR NA CULTURA DA SOJA
Juliano Carlos Calonego,Kaio Ocani,Maicon Ocani,Carlos Henrique dos Santos
Colloquium Agrariae , 2010, DOI: 10.5747/ca.2010.v06.n2.a054
Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate soybean response to boron (B) fertilization leaf at different times and rates of application. The experiment was conducted in Borrazópolis (PR) in the 2008/2009 season. We used the experimental design in blocks with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments were: 1 kg ha-1 of B in the V4 stage, 1 kg ha-1 of B in the R2 stage, 0.5 kg ha-1 of B in the V4 stage and 0.5 of B in the V4 stage, 2 kg ha-1 of B in the V4 stage, 2 kg ha-1 of B in the R2 stage, 1 kg ha-1 of B in the V4 stage and 1 kg ha-1 of B in the R2 stage, beyond the control treatment. We analyzed the content of macro and micronutrients in the leaves, as well as yield, weight of 100 grains, grain number per pod and nutrient content in grains. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (F test) and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was response from Leaf spray fertilization of B on the concentrations of N and K in the grains. The boron fertilization did not affect the grain yield of soybean.
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