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Modeling Plume-Rise of Air Emissions from Animal Housing Systems: Inverse AERMOD  [PDF]
Manqing Ying, Lingjuan Wang-Li, Larry F. Stikeleather, Jack Edwards
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.811078
Abstract: As fate and transport of air emissions from animal housing systems is of increasing concern, dispersion models have become commonly used tools to estimate the downwind concentrations of pollutants at certain locations surrounding the animal production farms. In application of Gaussian dispersion model for downwind concentration predictions of animal housing emissions, unknown plume rise (△h) and plume shape of the horizontally emitted plumes from animal housing systems have been vital weak points challenging the accuracy of the model predictions. This paper reports an inverse AERMOD modeling study to derive the plum rises of PM10 emissions from mechanically ventilated egg production houses based upon field measurements of PM10 emission rate, downwind concentrations, and meteorological conditions. In total, 87 hourly plume rises were found for 20 days (five days per season for four seasons, from fall 2008 to summer 2009). The mean plume rises for fall 2008, winter 2008, spring 2009 and summer 2009 were 16.2 m (SE = 11.2 m), 7.9 m (SE = 9.5 m), 16.5 m (SE = 12.4 m), and 14.3 m (SE = 10.0 m), respectively. The relationships between plume rises and various factors were tested. While the diurnal patterns of the plume rises were not consistent among different selective days, they generally followed the diurnal patterns of house ventilation rates. Plume rise for weekends were significantly higher than those for weekdays in fall. Multiple linear regression showed a significant positive relationship (p = 0.0134) between wind speed and the plume rises. Ambient relative humidity and total volume flow were also found to be slightly (p = 0.171 and 0.217, respectively) related to the plume rises.
Measurements and Visualization of the Fluid Field of the Plume from an Animal Housing Ventilation Fan  [PDF]
Manqing Ying, Lingjuan Wang-Li, Larry F. Stikeleather, Jack Edwards
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.811080
Abstract: Various dispersion models have been developed to simulate the fate and transport of air emissions from animal housing systems to meet the increasing need for knowledge in this area. However, the accuracy of the models may be challenged due to the unknown plume rise and plume shape. This paper reports a combination of theoretical and field study of the plum rise and shape of air flow from a ventilation fan commonly used in mechanically ventilated animal houses. The theoretical modeling of the plume shape was conducted using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package named FloEFD; the field measurements of the plume field was conducted using five 3D ultrasonic anemometers to simultaneously measure the air flow in the plume at various locations (four heights and five downwind distances). The TECPLOT package was used to visualize the plume flow field based upon anemometer measurements. While the plume shapes were found to be left-shifted by the CFD model and TECPLOT visualization, the magnitudes of the 3D wind velocities from field measurement were found to be significantly larger than those from CFD model. The plume field measurements indicated that the plume of a 0.6 m (24-inch) ventilation fan had a depth about 9 m, a width about ±6 m, and a rise (lifting) beyond the highest measurement point, 4.88 m (16 ft).
Evaluation of CO2 Application Requirements for On-Farm Mass Depopulation of Swine in a Disease Emergency
Larry Stikeleather,William Morrow,Robert Meyer,Craig Baird,Burt Halbert
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3040599
Abstract: When an emergency swine disease outbreak, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), occurs, it will be necessary to rapidly and humanely depopulate and dispose of infected and susceptible pigs to limit viral replications and disease spread. Methods other than handling individual pigs will be required to achieve the necessary rapidity. Suitable and practical on-farm methods will require depopulating large numbers of pigs at a time outside confinement buildings. The process must be easily implemented with readily available materials and equipment, while providing for the safety and well-being of personnel. Carbon dioxide gas (CO 2) is the means of choice, and this study analyzed the methods and requirements for delivering the gas into large volume truck bodies, corrals, dumpsters or other such chambers that may be used. The issues studied included: How the gas should be introduced to achieve the needed spatial distribution; whether plenums are required in the chambers; and the importance of sealing all chamber cracks and edges except around the top cover to limit CO 2 dilution and leakage. Analysis was done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and primary results were verified experimentally. The CFD findings and experimental results are compared, and recommendations are discussed.
Yukio Mishima, the Unambiguous, and Myself: Living through a Writer’s Legacy*  [PDF]
Larry Johnson
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/als.2013.14012
Abstract:

The recent release by Criterion on DVD of Paul Schrader’s film Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters(1985) and Mishima’s own film Patriotism(1965) has caused the author of this essay to reconsider his relationship with the late Japanese writers’ books and literary legacy. Believing that these fine films’ presence on DVD will stimulate much renewed discussion of Mishima both in the US and Japan, the author recalls his first discovery of Mishima’s existence shortly after his famous suicide in 1970, reading and responding to his literary output, and prodding famous authors such as Tennessee Williams and Cormac McCarthy for their thoughts on Mishima’s influence. The author’s two poems about Mishima are included to illustrate his changing inner perceptions of the internationally famous writer and the (now-fading) adverse reaction to his work in Japan caused by his politics and his virtually public suicide.

The Most Persuasive Frankfurt Example, and What It Shows: Or Why Determinism Is Not the Greatest Threat to Moral Responsibility  [PDF]
Larry Alexander
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.42019
Abstract:

In this paper I argue that even if the Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP) is satisfied, moral responsibility is more seriously threatened if the Principle of Alternative Possible Reasons (PAPR) is not satisfied. Nor, I argue, is it clear how it could be satisfied. Finally, I suggest that not only moral responsibility, but also normativity itself, is threatened by the failure to satisfy PAPR.


The Misconceived Search for the Meaning of “Speech” in Freedom of Speech  [PDF]
Larry Alexander
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.51005
Abstract: In this (very) short essay, I establish these points: All speech is symbolic; any conduct can be used to communicate a message (i.e., symbolically); government’s purpose in regulating, and not a speaker’s intention to communicate, defines the realm of freedom of expression; and determining the value of speech has a denominator problem.
Capitalist Reform, the Dismantling of the Iron Rice Bowl and Land Expropriation in China: A Theory of Primitive Accumulation and State Power  [PDF]
Larry Liu
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.51006
Abstract: Chinese economic reforms since 1980 were accompanied by the systematic privatization and devolution of state-owned enterprises, the removal of the social welfare system in the form of the “iron rice bowl”, and the land expropriation of farmers. This paper uses Marx’ theory of primitive accumulation and Weber's theory of state power to argue that these socio-economic measures are needed in order to create a class of wage laborers, who are needed to fuel capitalist development in contemporary China. The central, provincial, and local states in China are playing a crucial role in enforcing the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the removal of the social welfare system and land expropriation.
Students’ Estimates of Others’ Mental Health Demonstrate a Cognitive Bias  [PDF]
Larry D. Reid
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25067
Abstract: Students of five USA-campuses were surveyed concerning their use of prescription drugs to improve mental health. They were asked whether they had ever been prescribed medicines to treat various disorders and if they were currently taking the prescribed medicines and to estimate the percent of the students on their campus responding similarly. The incidence of being prescribed and currently taking medicines for the disorders was not markedly different than what might be expected from knowing published incidence rates. The students’ estimates of their fellow students’ rates of being prescribed and currently taking the medicines was considerably, sometimes dramatically, larger than the actual rates. Further testing rejected some potential explanations of the tendency to make overestimations. The conclusion was eventually drawn that the tendency to overestimate the mental distress of fellow students was a special case of superiority bias and had features of an implicit social cognition enhancing their own self-esteem.
Portfolio Risk Management Implications of Mutual Fund Investment Objective Classifications  [PDF]
Larry J. Prather
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2012.13006
Abstract: I examine portfolio risk management implications of using hypothetical investment returns from a sample of mutual funds in a variety of investment objective classifications to select mutual funds. While early research supported this practice by showing that risk is homogeneous within investment objective groups and heterogeneous between groups, more recent research suggests that earlier findings are no longer true. Research also suggests that load and no-load funds may exhibit risk differences. I examine whether risk is homogeneous within investment classification and heterogeneous between classes after controlling for potential load effects. Results reveal that significant risk differences exist even after controlling for the load structure of the fund and that those risk differences can have significant implications for portfolio risk management.
Chronology of Bioactive Glass Development and Clinical Applications  [PDF]
Larry L. Hench
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2013.32011
Abstract:


The key research and development steps for bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass) are documented from the date of discovery in 1969 through FDA approvals of the first dental, ENT, maxillo-facial and orthopedic clinical products. Understanding the mechanisms and quantifying the rapid surface reactions to form a bone-bonding hydroxyl-carbonate apatite (HCA) layer on the bioactive glass in contact with living bone was a vital part of the early development of this class of biomaterials. A key later discovery was enhanced osteogenesis and in situ bone regeneration by controlled release of ionic dissolution products from the bioactive glass particulates that leads to up-regulation and activation of seven families of genes, a process called osteostimulation.


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