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The effect of moxidectin 0,1% vs ivermectin 0,08% on milk production in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes
Giuseppe Cringoli, Vincenzo Veneziano, Laura Mezzino, Mariaelena Morgoglione, Saverio Pennacchio, Laura Rinaldi, Vincenzo Salamina
BMC Veterinary Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-5-41
Abstract: The treatment with moxidectin was highly effective (> 98%) from day 7 until day 75, and effective (90-98%) until day 105. The treatment with ivermectin was highly effective (> 98%) from day 7 until day 14, effective (90-98%) at day 28 and moderately effective (80-89%) on day 45. The milk productions in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the control group.In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that moxidectin and ivermectin adminstered per os according to the manufacturer's instructions were both effective and safe anthelmintics in sheep. The total milk production was higher in the treated groups than the control group. Overall, animals treated with moxidectin had a milk production 40.8% higher than control group; whereas animals treated with ivermectin had a milk production 32.2% higher than control group.Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection (caused by different genera of nematodes, e.g. Teladorsagia, Haemonchus, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Trichostrongylus, Chabertia and Oesophagostomum) is one of the main constraints to livestock production both in temperate and tropical countries. In many cases, GIN parasitism can be attributed to a nutritional disease, because the presence of worms usually induces a decrease in appetite, a decreased digestibility of the food and a diversion of nutrients from production sites towards the repair of tissue-damage caused by the parasites. Therefore, economic losses caused by GIN are related to decreased production, treatment costs and even animal death.Control of these parasitic infections in ruminants relies almost exclusively on multiple and regular dosing with anthelmintics. Besides the parasitological efficacy of an anthelmintic treatment, it is very important to consider its strategic and economic benefits. Indeed, for producers the two primary aims of anthelmintic treatment strategies are firstly to maintain or improve animal performance and secondly to reduce pasture c
Canine faecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy)
Laura Rinaldi, Annibale Biggeri, Sabrina Carbone, Vincenzo Musella, Dolores Catelan, Vincenzo Veneziano, Giuseppe Cringoli
BMC Veterinary Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-29
Abstract: Out of the 143 studied sub-areas, 141 (98.6%) contained canine faeces. There was a strong spatial gradient with 48% of the total variability accounted by between neighbourhood variability; a positive association between the number of faeces and the human population density was found. Seventy (over 415, 16.9%) canine faecal samples were positive for parasitic elements. There was no association between positivity to parasitic elements and the number of canine faeces. Eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis were found, as well as oocysts of Isospora canis.In conclusion, the results of the present study, conducted using GIS both for planning and sampling and for evaluation and presentation of findings, showed the presence of canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples, and the presence of canine parasitic elements, some of which are potential agents of zoonosis.Public-health problems caused by the impact of dogs on humans are both direct and indirect, e.g. environmental pollution, contact injuries, and zoonosis [1]. Dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases [2] among which, parasitosis and, in particular, helminthosis, can pose serious public-health concerns worldwide [3-5]. Many canine gastrointestinal parasites eliminate their dispersion elements (eggs, larvae, oocysts) by the faecal route. The quantity of canine faeces deposited on public and private property in cities worldwide is both, a perennial nuisance and an important health issue [6]. Public sites such as playgrounds, parks, gardens, public squares, sandpits may be an important source of human infection [5,7,8].Our aim was to evaluate the extent of both, canine faecal contamination in the city of Naples (southern Italy), and the consequent presence of canine parasitic elements (determined by coprological examinations), with particular regard to those which are potential agents of zoonosis. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was used in orde
Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode
Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo, Marianna Castrataro, Pasquale Rinaldi, Maria Cristina Caselli
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059080
Abstract: Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects.
Treatises and Ars construendi: Teaching’s Method Theory and Practice of Critical History’s Application Based on Teacher-Student Relationships  [PDF]
Carlos Alberto Cacciavillani, Simona Rinaldi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.49016
Abstract: The topic of this lecture is the results’ description obtained during many years of teaching. We shall illustrate how students use the same analytical techniques to study two different aspects: 1) Architectural Treatises are first studied separately and then in a comparative way. The purpose of this graphic analysis is to reach a new interpretation of them through the realization of original graphics; 2) The Roman Ars construendi: architectural techniques and buildings’ typologies used by the Romans are investigated in the archaeological sites, where the reading of buildings’ stratification in different historical periods becomes an important teaching tool.
Survey of co-infection by Salmonella and oxyurids in tortoises
Ludovico Dipineto, Michele Capasso, Maria Maurelli, Tamara Russo, Paola Pepe, Giovanni Capone, Alessandro Fioretti, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-69
Abstract: Salmonella spp. and oxyurids were detected with a prevalence of 49.1 and 81.1%, respectively. A significant positive correlation between Salmonella spp. and oxyurids was demonstrated. However, confounding factors related to husbandry could have been involved in determining this correlation.Our results suggest that caution should be exercised in translocation, husbandry, and human contact with tortoises and other exotic pets. Further studies on the epidemiology, molecular characterization and pathogenesis of Salmonella and oxyurids are needed to assess the actual impact of these organisms, as single or associated infections, on tortoises and on other exotic pets.It is estimated that about 640 000 live reptiles are traded annually worldwide [1]. Although some species of tortoises are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and thus subjected to strict trade regulations [2], there is a high demand for these reptiles to be kept as pets. Since the enactment of regulations implementing the CITES convention in the European Union (EU), several applications have been submitted for the CITES registration of privately owned tortoises in Italy; however, there are no official figures on the number of tortoises raised as pets in Italy [3]. The illegal introduction of reptiles raises public health concerns because these animals can be infected by various pathogens (virus, bacteria, protozoa, helminthes and arthropoda) and some of them are zoonotic [4].Among bacteria, Salmonella spp. [5,6] is frequently reported in tortoises [6-8]. It is considered to be part of the intestinal flora and does not cause significant clinical sign, except in stressed or immunocompromised animals, where it may cause salmonellosis, an important reptilian zoonosis [8,9].Several species of oxyurids commonly inhabit the colon of tortoises but are rarely considered pathogenic or zoonotic [10,11]. Heavy infections might be one cause of anorexia in tortoises
Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys
Benjamin Speich, Stefanie Knopp, Khalfan A Mohammed, I Simba Khamis, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, David Rollinson, Jürg Utzinger
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-71
Abstract: We measured the time for the collection of a single stool specimen in the field, transfer to a laboratory, preparation and microscopic examination using standard protocols for the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques. Salaries of health workers, life expectancy and asset costs of materials, and infrastructure costs were determined. The average cost for a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC dual or double technique were calculated.The average time needed to collect a stool specimen and perform a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears or the FLOTAC dual or double technique was 20 min and 34 sec (20:34 min), 27:21 min, 28:14 min and 36:44 min, respectively. The total costs for a single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were US$ 1.73 and US$ 2.06, respectively, and for the FLOTAC double and dual technique US$ 2.35 and US$ 2.83, respectively. Salaries impacted most on the total costs of either method.The time and cost for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis using either the Kato-Katz or FLOTAC method in epidemiological surveys are considerable. Our results can help to guide healthcare decision makers and scientists in budget planning and funding for epidemiological surveys, anthelminthic drug efficacy trials and monitoring of control interventions.Chronic infections with one or several of the common soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), might account for a global burden of 39 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost annually [1,2]. School-aged children in the developing world are at highest risk of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminthiasis.In the current era of 'preventive chemotherapy', that is the large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children and other populations at risk of morbidity [3], diagnosis is often neglected and cost-effectiveness considerations are necessary. Yet, diagnosis is of paramount impo
Endoscopic Saphenous harvesting with an Open CO2 System (ESOS) trial for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Antonio Campanella, Laura Bergamasco, Luigia Macri, Sofia Asioli, Roger Devotini, Serenella Scipioni, Silvana Barbaro, Pietro Rispoli, Mauro Rinaldi
Trials , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-243
Abstract: Endoscopic Saphenous harvesting with an Open CO2 System trial includes two parallel vein harvesting arms in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. It is an interventional, single centre, prospective, randomized, safety/efficacy, cost/effectiveness study, in adult patients with elective planned and first isolated coronary artery disease. A simple size of 100 patients for each arm will be required to achieve 80% statistical power, with a significant level of 0.05, for detecting most of the formulated hypotheses. A six-weeks leg wound complications rate was assumed to be 20% in the conventional arm and less of 4% in the endoscopic arm. Previously quoted studies suggest a first-year vein-graft failure rate of about 20% with an annual occlusion rate of 1% to 2% in the first six years, with practically no difference between the endoscopic and conventional approaches. Similarly, the results on event-free survival rates for the two arms have barely a 2-3% gap. Assuming a 10% drop-out rate and a 5% cross-over rate, the goal is to enrol 230 patients from a single Italian cardiac surgery centre.The goal of this prospective randomized trial is to compare and to test improvement in wound healing, quality of life, safety/efficacy, cost-effectiveness, short and long-term outcomes and vein-graft patency after endoscopic open CO2 harvesting system versus conventional vein harvesting.The expected results are of high clinical relevance and will show the safety/efficacy or non-inferiority of one treatment approach in terms of vein harvesting for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.www.clinicalTrials.gov NCT01121341.Since the introduction of saphenous vein grafting by René Favaloro in the 1968, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed [1]. Although approximately 15% to 20% of vein grafts occlude in the first year with an annual occlusion rate of 1% to 2% in the first six years and 4% to 5% from 6 to 10 years, th
Mini-FLOTAC, an Innovative Direct Diagnostic Technique for Intestinal Parasitic Infections: Experience from the Field
Beatrice Divina Barda ,Laura Rinaldi,Davide Ianniello,Henry Zepherine,Fulvio Salvo,Tsetan Sadutshang,Giuseppe Cringoli,Massimo Clementi,Marco Albonico
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002344
Abstract: Background Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini–FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). Conclusion/Significance We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings — particularly for helminth diagnosis.
Yaws: A Second (and Maybe Last?) Chance for Eradication
Andrea Rinaldi
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000275
Abstract:
The Global Campaign to Eliminate Leprosy
Andrea Rinaldi
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020341
Abstract:
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