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Hydrothermal Carbonization of Spent Osmotic Solution (SOS) Generated from Osmotic Dehydration of Blueberries
Kaushlendra Singh,Litha Sivanandan
Agriculture , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture4030239
Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization of spent osmotic solution (SOS), a waste generated from osmotic dehydration of fruits, has the potential of transformation into hydrochars, a value-added product, while reducing cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste disposal. Osmotic solution (OS) and spent osmotic solution (SOS) generated from the osmotic dehydration of blueberries were compared for their thermo-chemical decomposition behavior and hydrothermal carbonization. OS and SOS samples were characterized for total solids, elemental composition, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, hydrothermal carbonization was performed at 250 °C and for 30 min to produce hydrochars. The hydrochars were characterized for elemental composition, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle shape and surface morphology. TGA results show that the SOS sample loses more weight in the lower temperature range than the OS sample. Both samples produced, approximately, 40%–42% (wet-feed basis) hydrochar during hydrothermal carbonization but with different properties. The OS sample produced hydrochar, which had spherical particles of 1.79 ± 1.30 μm diameter with a very smooth surface. In contrast, the SOS sample produced hydrochar with no definite particle shape but with a raspberry-like surface.
Molecular Docking Studies of Alpinia galanga Phytoconstituents for Psychostimulant Activity  [PDF]
Santhy Sivanandan, Surekha Pimple
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2018.84006
Abstract: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for sending signals from the central nervous system. It allows human beings to stay attentive and focused. Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is known to improve alertness by enhancing dopamine signaling in the brain. EnXtra?, an Alpinia galanga extract has been clinically proven to promote alertness however the mechanism for such action required elucidation. The current study was designed to explore the mechanism for the neurocognitive enhancing property of EnXtra? by the in-silico interaction of its potential compounds with various targets involved in such process namely Dopamine and Acetylcholinesterase (AchE). As evident by the outcomes of the study, active compounds of EnXtra? can block the dopamine reuptake thereby increasing the dopamine levels which further can enhance the visuospatial performance and mental clarity, leading to improved mental alertness. At the same time, its strong effect on Acetylcholinesterase receptors is indicative of its nootropic potential.
Fail Fast - Fail Often: Enhancing Agile Methodology using Dynamic Regression, Code Bisector and Code Quality in Continuous Integration (CI)
Sandeep Sivanandan
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Agile practices are receiving considerable attention from industry as an alternative to traditional software development approaches. However, there are a number of challenges in combining Agile [2] with Test-driven development (TDD) [10] practices, cloud deployments, continuous integration (CI), non-stop performance, load, security and accessibly testing. From these challenges; Continuous Integration is a relatively an approach widely discussed and practiced in software testing. This paper describes an approach for improved Agile Methodology using Code Quality, Code Bisector and Dynamic Regression in Continuous Integration. The set of tools used for this analysis, design and development are Jenkins, Robot Framework [4], Perforce and Git.
A Disorder-Induced Domino-Like Destabilization Mechanism Governs the Folding and Functional Dynamics of the Repeat Protein IκBα
Srinivasan Sivanandan,Athi N. Naganathan
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003403
Abstract: The stability of the repeat protein IκBα, a transcriptional inhibitor in mammalian cells, is critical in the functioning of the NF-κB signaling module implicated in an array of cellular processes, including cell growth, disease, immunity and apoptosis. Structurally, IκBα is complex, with both ordered and disordered regions, thus posing a challenge to the available computational protocols to model its conformational behavior. Here, we introduce a simple procedure to model disorder in systems that undergo binding-induced folding that involves modulation of the contact map guided by equilibrium experimental observables in combination with an Ising-like Wako-Sait?-Mu?oz-Eaton model. This one-step procedure alone is able to reproduce a variety of experimental observables, including ensemble thermodynamics (scanning calorimetry, pre-transitions, m-values) and kinetics (roll-over in chevron plot, intermediates and their identity), and is consistent with hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements. We further capture the intricate distance-dynamics between the domains as measured by single-molecule FRET by combining the model predictions with simple polymer physics arguments. Our results reveal a unique mechanism at work in IκBα folding, wherein disorder in one domain initiates a domino-like effect partially destabilizing neighboring domains, thus highlighting the effect of symmetry-breaking at the level of primary sequences. The offshoot is a multi-state and a dynamic conformational landscape that is populated by increasingly partially folded ensembles upon destabilization. Our results provide, in a straightforward fashion, a rationale to the promiscuous binding and short intracellular half-life of IκBα evolutionarily engineered into it through repeats with variable stabilities and expand the functional repertoire of disordered regions in proteins.
Choice and Duration of Antimicrobial Therapy for Neonatal Sepsis and Meningitis
Sindhu Sivanandan,Amuchou S. Soraisham,Kamala Swarnam
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/712150
Abstract: Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are nonspecific, and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated after obtaining appropriate cultures. However, many preterm and low birth weight infants who do not have infection receive antimicrobial agents during hospital stay. Prolonged and unnecessary use of antimicrobial agents is associated with deleterious effects on the host and the environment. Traditionally, the choice of antimicrobial agents is based on the local policy, and the duration of therapy is decided by the treating physician based on clinical symptoms and blood culture results. In this paper, we discuss briefly the causative organism of neonatal sepsis in both the developed and developing countries. We review the evidence for appropriate choice of empiric antimicrobial agents and optimal duration of therapy in neonates with suspected sepsis, culture-proven sepsis, and meningitis. Moreover, there is significant similarity between the causative organisms for early- and late-onset sepsis in developing countries. The choice of antibiotic described in this paper may be more applicable in developed countries.
Advances in the Management of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Kamala Swarnam,Amuchou S. Soraisham,Sindhu Sivanandan
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/359571
Abstract: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common cause of severe respiratory distress in term infants, with an associated highly variable morbidity and mortality. MAS results from aspiration of meconium during intrauterine gasping or during the first few breaths. The pathophysiology of MAS is multifactorial and includes acute airway obstruction, surfactant dysfunction or inactivation, chemical pneumonitis with release of vasoconstrictive and inflammatory mediators, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN). This disorder can be life threatening, often complicated by respiratory failure, pulmonary air leaks, and PPHN. Approaches to the prevention of MAS have changed over time with collaboration between obstetricians and pediatricians forming the foundations for care. The use of surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has led to the decreased mortality and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and management of MAS.
Image Registration in Digital Images for Variability in VEP
N Sivanandan,N J R Muniraj
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: The visually evoked potential (VEP) is the measure of cortically evoked electrical activity that provides information about the integrity of the optic nerve and the primary visual cortex. The analysis of P-100 latency and amplitude measurement variability based on visual pathway conduction in VEP has been shown to have clinical utility. The reliable measurement of VEP techniques to do are less well developed. This work presents a technique for a reliable extraction P-100 latency and amplitude using a wavelet based technique. The challenge of image registration (the process of correctly aligning two or more images accounting for all possible source of distortion) is of general interest in image processing. Several types of VEPs are routinely used in a clinical setting. These primarily differ in a mode of stimulus presentation.. This registration can be carried out for VEP waveforms of the same subject taken at different times, waves taken under different modalities, and wave pattern which have only a partial overlap area. This research focused on investigating potential registration algorithms for transforming partially overlapping VEP waves which have only a partially overlapping waveform of the retina into a single overlapping composite waveform to aid physicians in assessment of retinal health, and on registering vectors from known common points in the images to be registered. All potential transforms between waveforms are generated, with the correct registration producing a tight cluster of data points in the space of transform coefficients. The technique has been applied to different types of retinal waveforms - B/W checker board (pattern reversal),B/W checker board (flash),LED Goggles (pattern reversal) and LED Goggles(flash) stimulations and the technique can be readily used to provide cross - modal.
Choice and Duration of Antimicrobial Therapy for Neonatal Sepsis and Meningitis
Sindhu Sivanandan,Amuchou S. Soraisham,Kamala Swarnam
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/712150
Abstract: Neonatal sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are nonspecific, and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated after obtaining appropriate cultures. However, many preterm and low birth weight infants who do not have infection receive antimicrobial agents during hospital stay. Prolonged and unnecessary use of antimicrobial agents is associated with deleterious effects on the host and the environment. Traditionally, the choice of antimicrobial agents is based on the local policy, and the duration of therapy is decided by the treating physician based on clinical symptoms and blood culture results. In this paper, we discuss briefly the causative organism of neonatal sepsis in both the developed and developing countries. We review the evidence for appropriate choice of empiric antimicrobial agents and optimal duration of therapy in neonates with suspected sepsis, culture-proven sepsis, and meningitis. Moreover, there is significant similarity between the causative organisms for early- and late-onset sepsis in developing countries. The choice of antibiotic described in this paper may be more applicable in developed countries. 1. Introduction Neonatal sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterized by systemic signs of infection and accompanied by bacteremia in the first month of life [1]. Sepsis occurring in the first 72 hours of life is defined as early-onset sepsis (EOS) [2] and that occurring beyond 72 hours as late-onset sepsis (LOS). Neonatal sepsis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality justifying prompt initiation of appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy. Knowledge of both the common pathogens causing septicemia in neonates and their antimicrobial susceptibility is essential in order to select appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens vary geographically and are temporally dependent on local pathogens and patterns of antibiotic use. The aim of this paper is to review the literature regarding the appropriate choice and duration of antimicrobial therapy for suspected sepsis, culture-proven sepsis, and meningitis during neonatal period. We would like to focus mainly on the treatment of bacterial infection. 2. Microbiology of Neonatal Sepsis The majority of cases of EOS result from vertical transmission of bacteria from mother to the neonate during the intrapartum period. LOS is due to the horizontal transmission of pathogens from the environment or the hands of the
Advances in the Management of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Kamala Swarnam,Amuchou S. Soraisham,Sindhu Sivanandan
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/359571
Abstract: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common cause of severe respiratory distress in term infants, with an associated highly variable morbidity and mortality. MAS results from aspiration of meconium during intrauterine gasping or during the first few breaths. The pathophysiology of MAS is multifactorial and includes acute airway obstruction, surfactant dysfunction or inactivation, chemical pneumonitis with release of vasoconstrictive and inflammatory mediators, and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN). This disorder can be life threatening, often complicated by respiratory failure, pulmonary air leaks, and PPHN. Approaches to the prevention of MAS have changed over time with collaboration between obstetricians and pediatricians forming the foundations for care. The use of surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has led to the decreased mortality and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use. In this paper, we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and management of MAS. 1. Introduction Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is defined as respiratory distress in an infant born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) with characteristic radiological changes and whose symptoms cannot be otherwise explained [1]. Because meconium is rarely found in the amniotic fluid prior to 34 weeks’ gestation, MAS is often a disease of the term and near-term infant and is associated with significant respiratory morbidity and mortality. Cleary and Wiswell [2] have proposed a severity criteria to define MAS: (a) mild MAS is a disease that requires less than 40% oxygen for less than 48 hours, (b) moderate MAS is a disease that requires more than 40% oxygen for more than 48 hours with no air leak, and (c) severe MAS is a disease that requires assisted ventilation for more than 48 hours and is often associated with PPHN. In this paper, we look at the current understanding of the pathogenesis and management of MAS. 2. Epidemiology of MAS Meconium is a viscous sticky dark green substance containing gastrointestinal secretions, bile, bile acids, mucus, pancreatic juice, blood, swallowed vernix caseosa, lanugo, and cellular debris. Intrauterine hypoxia may cause passage of meconium in the amniotic fluid. MSAF is present in 8–20% of all deliveries [1–4], increasing to 23–52% after 42 weeks of gestation [5, 6]. Meconium aspiration may occur before birth, or during the birth process. About 2–9% of infants born through MSAF develop MAS [7–9]. About one-third of infants with MAS require intubation and mechanical ventilation [9].
Corona mortis – a case report with surgical implications
Sakthivelavan S,Sendiladibban SD,Aristotle S,Sivanandan AV
International Journal of Anatomical Variations , 2010,
Abstract: Corona mortis is a Latin terminology which means “crown of death”. It indicates the presence of both the normal and variant obturator artery with extensive anastomoses. One such finding was observed in a female cadaver where the obturator artery was arising from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and also the abnormal obturator artery from the inferior epigastric artery. These two vessels anastomosed at the upper border of the obturator foramen. This is referred to as the origin of the obturator artery by 2 roots in some studies and the abnormal obturator artery is in fact considered as a normal variant due to its common occurrence. Some studies have included such anastomosis between the veins also as corona mortis. The variant vessels are at risk of injury not only in groin surgery but also in orthopedic surgery and pelvic fractures, and are to be dealt with care during surgical procedures.
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