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Caracteriza o de solos em uma topossequência sob terra os aluviais na regi o do médio rio Madeira (AM) / Characterization of soils in a toposequence under alluvial terraces in the middle rio Madeira (AM)
Luís Antnio Coutrim dos Santos,Milton César Costa Campos,Heron Salazar Costa,Anne Relvas Pereira
Ambiência , 2012,
Abstract: ResumoVários estudos preocuparam-se em investigar as rela es existentes entre os atributos do solo e as paisagens em diferentes locais, neste contexto o objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a caracteriza o de solos em uma topossequência sob terra os aluviais na regi o do médio rio Madeira (AM). Estabeleceu-se um caminhamento e com base na vegeta o e no relevo, a paisagem foi subdividida em quatro segmentos de vertente: a) campo natural; b) cerrad o; c) floresta; e d) floresta de galeria. Foi aberta uma trincheira em cada unidade de vertente e realizado a sua caracteriza o morfológica, realizou-se as analises físicas (análise granulométrica, Ds, Dp e Pt) e químicas (pH em água e KCl, Ca, Mg, K, P disponivel, Al trocável, H+ Al e C organico). A textura do solo foi semelhante (franco argila siltosa, franco siltosa e argilo siltosa), a fra o silte foi dominante em todos os solos analisados, a Pt do solo foi maior nos horizontes superficiais devido o menor valor de densidade do solo. Verificou-se que a topografia exprime solos completamente diferentes ao longo do relevo e que as mudan as deste interferem na capacidade de uso destes. Os solos foram classificados como Gleissolo Háplico, Cambissolo Háplico alítico e Cambissolo Háplico aluminico e Gleissolo Háplico. Observou-se que os solos apresentaram predominancia de silte como a fra o dominante. A satura o por bases e a soma de bases foram baixas, já a satura o por alumínio foi elevada em todos os solos, o que confere um caráter distrófico e álico respectivamente aos solos estudados.
Caracteriza o física e química de terras pretas arqueológicas e de solos n o antropogênicos na regi o de Manicoré, Amazonas = Physical and chemical characterization of archaeological dark earths and nonanthropogenic soils the Manicore region, Amazon.
Milton César Costa Campos,Luís Antnio Coutrim dos Santos,Douglas Marcelo Pinheiro da Silva,Bruno Campos Mantovanelli
Agro@mbiente On-line , 2012,
Abstract: Os solos predominantes na regi o Amaz nica pertencem à classe dos Latossolos e Argissolos, caracterizado por seu alto grau de intemperismo e baixa fertilidade natural, em contraste, ocorrem às terras pretas arqueológicas com elevada fertilidade natural e alto teor de matéria organica. Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar quanto aos atributos físicos e químicos as terras pretas arqueológicas e os solos n o antropogênicos da regi o de Manicoré, AM. Foram amostrados quatro sítios de Terras Pretas Arqueológicas e quatro solos n o antropogênicos distribuídos na regi o de Manicoré, sul do Amazonas. Nesses locais foram abertas trincheiras e os perfis foram caracterizados morfologicamente e coletados por horizonte. Foramrealizadas análises físicas (textura e densidade do solo) e químicas (pH em água, Ca, Mg, K, e Al trocáveis, P disponível, e C organico). Os valores de pH, carbono organico, soma de bases e V% das terras pretas arqueológicas foram superiores aos observados para solos n o antropogênicos da regi o de Manicoré, AM. Os solos n o antropogênicos apresentaram maiores valores de densidade do solo quando comparados às áreas de terra preta arqueológica. Os maiores teores de matéria organica do solo foram encontrados nas áreas de terra preta arqueológica. As terras pretas arqueológicas deste estudo apresentam atributos químicos e físico-químicos superiores aos solos n o antropogênicos, conferindo-lhes maior fertilidade.The predominant soils in the Amazon region belong to the class of Oxisols and Ultisols, characterized by its high degree of weathering and low natural fertility, in contrast, occur at Archaeological Dark Earths soils with high fertility and high organic matter content. The aim of this study was the physical and chemical characterization of archaeological dark earths and non-anthropogenic soils in the southern Amazon. Four archaeological sites with dark earths and four non-anthropogenic soils distributed in the Manicoré region, souther Amazon, were sampled. In these locations, open trenches and profiles were characterized morphologically and collected by horizon. Physical (texture and bulk density) and chemical (pH, Ca, Mg, K,and Al, P, and organic C) analyses were realized. The values of pH, organic carbon, total bases and V% in archaeological dark earths were higher than those observed in the non-anthropogenic soils the Manicore, Amazon region. The non-anthropogenic soils showed higher bulk density compared to areas of archaeological dark earths. The highest levels of soil organic matter were found in areas of archaeological dark earth
Spatial variability of soil resistance to penetration and humidity in areas cultivated with cassava in the region of Humaitá, AM = Variabilidade espacial da resistência do solo à penetra o e umidade em áreas cultivadas com mandioca na regi o de Humaitá, AM
Milton César Costa Campos,Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira,Luís Antnio Coutrim dos Santos,Renato Eleotério de Aquino
Agro@mbiente On-line , 2012,
Abstract: Cassava is a regional culture of great importance because of their adaptability and excellent source of protein, on the other hand, the management system is critical to the success of cultivation. Thus, soil preparation is one of the primary steps for planting is done improperly, preventing compaction and loss of physical quality. The resistance to penetration (RSP)has been an important indicator of soil physical quality, to be directly related to plant growth and easy determination. The objective of this work to investigate the spatial variability of soil resistance to penetration (RSP) and the moisture content of soil at different depths in area planted to cassava. The experiment was conducted in a Cambisol. The sample collection points were established by means of a grid of 70 mx 70 m, sampling at the crossing points of the grid with regular spacing of 10 to 10 meters. The RSP and the humidity was measured at depths from 0.0 to 0.15, 0.15 to 0.30 and from 0.30 to 0.45 m. Analyzes were performed exploratory data and geostatistics. The resistance to penetration (RSP) and moisture content showed spatial dependence at all depths studied, except at a depth of 0.30 to 0.45 m of RSP which showed pure nugget effect. The moisture in the soil and the RSP had values with ranges greater than the spacing of the grid, ranging from 15.10 to 67.76 m. = A mandioca é uma cultura de grande importancia regional devido à sua adaptabilidade e excelente fonte de proteína, por outro lado, o sistema de manejo é fundamental para o sucesso do cultivo. Assim, o preparo do solo é uma das etapas primordiais para o plantio seja realizado de forma inadequada, evitando a compacta o e perda da qualidade física. A resistência do solo a penetra o (RSP) tem sido um importante indicador da qualidade física do solo, por ser diretamente relacionado ao crescimento das plantas e de fácil determina o. Objetivou-se com este trabalho investigar a variabilidade espacial da resistência do solo a penetra o (RSP) e do teor de umidade do solo em diferentes profundidades em área cultivada com mandioca. O experimento foi instalado em um Cambissolo Háplico Alítico plíntico. Os pontos de coleta das amostras foram estabelecidos por meio de uma malha de 70 x 70 m, amostrando-se nos pontos de cruzamento da malha, com espa amentos regulares de 10 em 10 m. A RSP e umidade foram avaliadas nas profundidades 0,0–0,15, 0,15–0,30 e 0,30–0,45 m. Foram realizadas análises exploratória dos dados e geoestatística. A resistência do solo a penetra o (RSP) e o teor de umidade apresentaram dependência espacial em to
Carga da doen?a atribuível ao tabagismo em Portugal
Borges,Margarida; Gouveia,Miguel; Costa,Jo?o; Pinheiro,Luís dos Santos; Paulo,Sérgio; Carneiro,António Vaz;
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia , 2009,
Abstract: the world health organization?s (who) 2002 annual report estimated that about 14% of the burden of disease in wealthier countries is attributable to smoking. smoking related diseases include cardiovascular diseases, cancer and respiratory diseases. this paper presents an estimate of the burden of disease attributable to smoking in portugal. the estimates are based on the portuguese demographic and health statistics available for 2005. the most important conclusion of the analysis is that 11.7% of deaths in portugal are attributable to smoking. if we use disability adjusted life years (dalys) to measure the burden of disease, we find that 11.2% of death dalys in portugal is attributable to smoking. the gender distribution of this amount is very unequal; 15.4% of the male burden of disease and 17.7% of all male deaths can be attributed to smoking, but only 4.9% of the female burden of disease and 5.2% of all female deaths. these estimates are higher than death estimates previously available (peto et al. 2006); 14% in men and only 0.9% in women. this paper also presents estimates of the burden of reducible disease, that is, the reduction in mortality and dalys that would occur if all current smokers quit and thus experienced the mean risk of ex-smo kers, which is lower than for current smokers but typically not as low as for never-smokers. our estimates are that the burden of disease would decrease by 5.8% (7.8% in men and 2.8% in women), and that deaths would decrease by 5.8% as well (with an 8.5% and 2.9% decrease in men and women, respectively). the paper also includes estimates of the burden of disease generated by smoking related disability. smoking related illnesses generated 121,643 dalys, 72,126 (59%) of which are attributable to smoking and 12,417 would be reducible if all smokers were to quit.
Método da adsor??o de césio para determina??o da carga estrutural em solos altamente intemperizados
Weber, Oscarlina Lúcia dos Santos;Chitolina, José Carlos;Camargo, Otávio Antnio de;Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú;
Bragantia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052005000100012
Abstract: the knowledge of permanent and variable charge is of high importance to a better understanding of the fate of chemical elements in soil. four brazilian oxisols presenting acric character were investigated by an ion adsorption method that measures the structural charge density (so) and were compared to an alfisol (nv), which had predominantly permanent charge. the method is based on the preference of siloxane surface sites for cesium over lithium and on the lower selectivity of ionizable surface group for the ion cesium. in the acrudoxes, the permanent charge decreased as the weathering index (ki) decreased. the cesium adsorption method quantified significant amounts of structural charge, even in highly weathered soils.
Impactos do crescimento do consumo de cafés especiais na competitividade inter-regional da atividade cafeeira
Pires, M?nica de Moura;Campos, Antnio Carvalho;Braga, Marcelo José;Rufino, José Luís dos Santos;
Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-20032003000300003
Abstract: este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os impactos da expans?o do consumo de cafés especiais no crescimento da competitividade inter-regional da atividade cafeeira e na distribui??o funcional da renda. os fluxos de bens e servi?os contidos na matriz de contabilidade social - mcs constituíram a base de dados para a constru??o do modelo aplicado de equilíbrio geral - mceg. um aumento de 1% no consumo mundial de café foi distribuído de forma diferenciada por regi?o produtora: 30% para o oeste baiano, 25% para o cerrado mineiro, 25% para o sul de minas e 20% para a zona da mata mineira. os resultados indicam que a expans?o da demanda internacional revela efeito positivo sobre as regi?es produtoras com maior potencial de crescimento para a oferta de cafés especiais. o choque na demanda de café n?o foi acompanhado por choques de demanda em outros setores, o que provocou eleva??o nos pre?os dos fatores e, conseqüentemente, diminui??o nos níveis do emprego dos fatores produtivos. a reestrutura??o espacial da atividade produtiva, para atender à demanda de nichos de mercados, apresenta-se, assim, potencialmente promissora para o produtor como forma de manuten??o da competitividade do café brasileiro no mercado internacional.
RESIDUAL CONCENTRATION OF COPPER, IRON, MANGANESE AND ZINC IN EUTROPHIC 'LATOSSOLO ROXO’ UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENTS CONCENTRA ES RESIDUAIS DE COBRE, FERRO, MANGANêS E ZINCO EM LATOSSOLO ROXO EUTRóFICO SOB DIFERENTES TIPOS DE MANEJO
Itamar Pereira de Oliveira,Jo?o Kluthcouski,Renato Sérgio Mota dos Santos,Antnio Luíz Fancelli Fancelli
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2007, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v31i2.2468
Abstract: The removal of micronutrients from soil by grains and burning of cultural remains constitute the main means of soilexhaustion. The correction of soil fertility and the adapted soilmanagement have been the means used to maintain the grainproduction. The soybean, corn, rice and common bean crops were developed in an eutrophic ‘latossolo roxo’, submitted to fourmanagement systems: 1) no-till, 2) deep moldboard plowing, 3)shallow harrow plowing and 4) deep stirring, using a chiseling plower and three level of fertilization: 1) Check (natural soil fertility), 2) Goiás State recommendation and 3) Fertilizers to cover the nutrients extracted by grain exportation. Larger values of the pH were observed in the superficial layer of soil submitted to deep moldboard plowing in relation to no-till, shallow harrow plowing and deep stirring. Uniform distributions of iron, manganese and zinc were observed in areas submitted to deep moldboard plowing. The 40-60 cm layer presented similar concentrations in all types of soil management. Copper tried in the superficial layer and at deepest layers can be explained by the larger concentration of organic matter and origin of the soil. No variation was observed in relation to fertilizers application. KEY-WORDS: Micronutrients; no till system; cerrado soil. A exporta o dos micronutrientes do solo pelos gr os e a queima dos restos culturais constituem os principais meios de esgotamento do solo. A corre o da fertilidade e o manejo adequado do solo têm sido os meios usados para manter a produ o de gr os. Desenvolveram-se culturas de soja, milho, arroz e feij o em um latossolo roxo eutrófico, submetidas a quatro sistemas de manejo: 1) plantio direto; 2) escarifica o profunda; 3) grade aradora; e 4) ara o profunda, e a três níveis de aduba o: 1) fertilidade natural; 2) recomenda o oficial para o Estado de Goiás; e 3) quantidade para cobrir a exporta o de nutrientes pelos gr os. Os maiores valores do pH observados na camada superficial das áreas submetidas a ara o profunda foram atribuídos à distribui o de bases, devido ao revolvimento do solo pelo arado de aiveca. Concentra es mais uniformes de manganês, ferro e zinco foram observadas onde se realizou a ara o profunda. A camada entre 40-60 cm apresentou concentra es semelhantes em todos os tipos de manejo. As maiores concentra es de cobre na camada superficial e na camada mais profunda podem ser atribuídas à maior concentra o de matéria organica e à origem do solo. Nenhuma diferen a foi observada em rela o à aplica o de fertilizantes. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Micronutrientes;
Distribui??o de Leptasthenura setaria (Temminck, 1824) (Aves: Furnariidae) no Estado de S?o Paulo
Antunes, Alexsander Zamorano;Alvarenga, Herculano;Silveira, Luís Fábio;Eston, Marilda Rapp de;Menezes, Gisela Vianna;Santos, Antnio Silveira Ribeiro dos;
Biota Neotropica , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032007000100022
Abstract: the araucaria tit-spinetail leptasthenura setaria is found exclusively in parana-pine araucaria angustifolia, being classified as near-threatened by iucn. we present seven new localities to araucaria tit-spinetail from s?o paulo, including the first state specimens. this species was recorded in native or planted parana-pine, in five reserves.
Treinamento em nata??o com baixa intensidade n?o protege músculo esquelético contra les?es induzidas por exercício exaustivo em ratos
Silva, Edson da;Maldonado, Izabel Regina dos Santos Costa;Matta, Sérgio Luís Pinto da;Maia, Giselle Carvalho;Bozi, Luíz Henrique Marchesi;Silva, Karina Ana da;Castro, Cynthia Aparecida;Natali, Antnio José;
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922011000300012
Abstract: while regular aerobic exercise promotes beneficial adaptations to the skeletal muscle, acute exhaustive exercise causes structural damage to the skeletal muscle cells. the aim of this study was to verify whether a low-intensity swimming program protects the skeletal muscles against damage induced by exhaustive exercise. male wistar rats (weight: 376.50 4.36g; age: 90 days) were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (sc, n=8); sedentary submitted to exhaustive test (se, n=7); swimming trained (tn, n=7); swimming trained submitted to exhaustive test (tne, n=7). animals of tn and tne groups were submitted to a swimming regimen without overload for 90 min/day, 5 days/wk, during 17 weeks. forty-eight hours after the last training session, animals from se and tne groups were submitted to an exhaustive exercise protocol. at sacrifice, fragments of soleus and rectus femoris muscles were collected and submitted to histological analysis and heat shock protein (hsp70) expression measurement. the results showed that the time until exhaustion was greater in the ste than in se group (125.0 6.00 vs. 90.0 8.48 min, respectively, p<0.05). the levels of blood lactate during exhaustive exercise were lower in animals from tne than se (5.31 ± 0.22 vs. 876 ± 0.59 mmol/l, respectively, p<0.05)the frequency of damaged fibers in the muscles was greater in se (soleus: 34.86±0.04; rectus femoris: 37.57 ± 0.07) and ste (soleus: 41.57±0.08; rectus femoris: 39.57 ± 0.05), compared to groups sc (soleus: 13.88±0.81; rectus femoris: 16.75 ± 0.79) and st (soleus: 24.14±0.06; rectus femoris: 24.0 ± 0.05), respectively (p<0.05). there was no significant difference at the hsp70 levels of the analyzed muscles among the four groups (p>0.05). in conclusion, although a low-intensity swimming training increased the animals' performance in the exhaustive exercise test, it did not protect their skeletal muscles against damage induced by exhaustive exercise
Replacement of corn silage with cassava foliage silage in the diet of lactating dairy cows: milk composition and economic evaluation
Santos, Geraldo Tadeu dos;Modesto, Elisa Cristina;Souza, Nilson Evelázio de;ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas;Jobim, Clóves Cabreira;Kazama, Daniele Cristina da Silva;Valloto, Altair Antnio;Massuda, Ely Mitie;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132009000700033
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the effect of corn silage (cs) replacement by cassava's foliage silage (cfs) on the production and quality of milk. twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and three repetitions per block. cs was replaced by cfs at the levels of 0, 20, 40, and 60%. the replacement of cs by different levels of cfs had very low effect on the variables studied. milk density decreased when the replacement level was increased. fatty acids 4:0 and 6:0 presented a quadratic behavior, while fat acids 8:0, 10:0, and 15:0 presented a linear behavior as their concentrations fell when cfs diet content was increased. the cs replacement by 20% until 60% cfs resulted a significant decrease in the feeding costs. the results suggested that cfs was a good replacement of cs for dairy cows.
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