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Efecto de Sustratos Foliares Sobre la Sigatoka Negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) en Banano (Musa × paradisiacaL.) y Plátano (Musa acuminata Colla)
Pati?o H,Luis Fernando; Bustamante R,Elkin; Salazar P,Lina María;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000400012
Abstract: the black sigatoka caused by the fungus mycosphaerella fijiensis morelet, is the most destructive foliar disease in the banana (musa × paradisiaca l.) and plantain (musa acuminata colla) production around the world. chemical fungicides are the main control tactics; however, fungicide resistance had increased control costs, besides environmental contamination and consumers demands for a fruit free of pesticide residues. the enhancement of populations of native bacteria through selective substrates, with lytic activity on m. fijiensis, looks as a management alternative. application of two foliar substrates, that had a mineral solution plus urea, barley flour and colloidal chitin known to built-up biocontrol bacteria, allowed to decrease fungicide applications in from 43 to 46%, when sprayed in rotation with conventional fungicides.
Utilidad diagnóstica de un Cuestionario de Sue o y de la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth en el Síndrome de Apneas/Hipopneas Obstructivas del Sue o (SAHOS) The usefulness of a Sleep Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleep Scale in the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)
José Luis Castillo C,Fernando Araya D,Gonzalo Bustamante F,Lorena Montecino R
Revista Chilena de Neuro-Psiquiatría , 2009,
Abstract: Introducción: El SAHOS presenta una alta prevalencia en estudios internacionales, con importantes repercusiones en los sistemas cardio, cerebrovascular y en la calidad de vida de las personas. Método: Estudiamos prospectivamente a los pacientes enviados para Polisomnografia (PSG) a nuestro laboratorio de sue o, en un período de 6 meses. Previo consentimiento informado, se les aplicó la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth (EE) y un Cuestionario de Sue o. Fueron entrevistados 100 pacientes, excluyéndose 3 por no haberse realizado PSG y 2 que no completaron la EE. Resultados: Se analizaron 95 pacientes, 89,5% hombres, edad promedio 47,4± 12,5 a os, obesidad en 49,5%, EE mayor de 11 en 56,8%, ronquido en 93,7%, pausas respiratorias en 68,4%, somnolencia diurna excesiva en 57,9%, cansancio al despertar en 86,3%o. La PSG no demostró SAHOS en 14,7%, hubo 27,4% con SAHOS leve, 21 %> moderado y 36,8%> severo. Las variables presencia de pausas respiratorias observadas por la pareja e índice de masa corporal (IMC) predicen la ausencia de SAHOS severo, con una sensibilidad de 87% y especificidad de 50%. Conclusión: En la evaluación de pacientes con sospecha de SAHOS, la no observación de pausas respiratorias durante el sue o por parte de la pareja y el IMC menor de 30 Kg/m2 hacen menos probable que exista un SAHOS severo. Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, including excessive daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Method: We studied prospectively the patients sent to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography (PSG) during 6 months. One-hundred patients were interviewed with a sleep questionnaire, 3 of them were ruled out because the lacking of PSG and 2 who no completed the Epworth sleep scale (ESS). Results: Out of the 95 patients, there were 85 men and 10 women, with a mean age of 47.4 ± 12.5 years, obesity was found in 42.5%, an ESS greater than 11 points was found in 56.8%, loud snoring in 93.7%, breathing cessation in 68.4%, excessive daytime somnolence in 57.9%. PSG revealed no OSAS in 14.7%, slight OSAS in 27.4%, moderate OSAS in 21% y severe OSAS in 36.8%. Body mass index and breathing cessation reported by the couple had the highest discriminative power with a sensibility of 87% and specificity of 50% for ruled out severe OSAS. Conclusion: A severe OSAS is less probable when there is absence of breathing cessation during sleep reported by the couple and an IMC <30 Kg/m2.
Efecto de Sustratos Foliares Sobre la Sigatoka Negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) en Banano (Musa × paradisiacaL.) y Plátano (Musa acuminata Colla) Effect of Foliar Substrates on Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) and Plantain (Musa acuminata Colla)
Luis Fernando Pati?o H,Elkin Bustamante R,Lina María Salazar P
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: La Sigatoka Negra, causada por el hongo Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, es la enfermedad foliar más destructora para la producción de los cultivos de banano (Musa × paradisiaca L.) y plátano (Musa acuminata Colla) en el mundo. Actualmente el control de esta enfermedad se centra en la aplicación de fungicidas químicos, a los cuales el patógeno ha desarrollado resistencia, aumentando los costos de control, el impacto negativo sobre el ambiente y la exigencia de los consumidores por una fruta cada vez más libre del uso de plaguicidas. Se ha desarrollado investigación para promover el incremento de poblaciones nativas de bacterias con actividad lítica sobre M. fijiensis a través de sustratos foliares selectivos de esta microbiota. La aplicación de sustratos foliares con base en quitina coloidal, harina de cebada como fuente de glucano, urea y una solución mineral base, dise ados para fomentar poblaciones de bacterias quitinolíticas y glucanolíticas de ocurrencia natural, mostró una reducción entre un 43 y 46% en el número de ciclos de fungicidas convencionales, al ser aplicados en rotación con estos últimos, con relación al sistema convencional basado en la aplicación de fungicidas. The Black Sigatoka caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, is the most destructive foliar disease in the banana (Musa × paradisiaca L.) and plantain (Musa acuminata Colla) production around the world. Chemical fungicides are the main control tactics; however, fungicide resistance had increased control costs, besides environmental contamination and consumers demands for a fruit free of pesticide residues. The enhancement of populations of native bacteria through selective substrates, with lytic activity on M. fijiensis, looks as a management alternative. Application of two foliar substrates, that had a mineral solution plus urea, barley flour and colloidal chitin known to built-up biocontrol bacteria, allowed to decrease fungicide applications in from 43 to 46%, when sprayed in rotation with conventional fungicides.
Utilidad diagnóstica de un Cuestionario de Sue?o y de la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth en el Síndrome de Apneas/Hipopneas Obstructivas del Sue?o (SAHOS)
Castillo C,José Luis; Araya D,Fernando; Bustamante F,Gonzalo; Montecino R,Lorena; Torres M,Catalina; Oporto S,Sabrina; Segovia S,Luis; Reyes S,Pablo;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272009000300006
Abstract: introduction: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (osas) is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, including excessive daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular disease and stroke. method: we studied prospectively the patients sent to our sleep laboratory for polysomnography (psg) during 6 months. one-hundred patients were interviewed with a sleep questionnaire, 3 of them were ruled out because the lacking of psg and 2 who no completed the epworth sleep scale (ess). results: out of the 95 patients, there were 85 men and 10 women, with a mean age of 47.4 ± 12.5 years, obesity was found in 42.5%, an ess greater than 11 points was found in 56.8%, loud snoring in 93.7%, breathing cessation in 68.4%, excessive daytime somnolence in 57.9%. psg revealed no osas in 14.7%, slight osas in 27.4%, moderate osas in 21% y severe osas in 36.8%. body mass index and breathing cessation reported by the couple had the highest discriminative power with a sensibility of 87% and specificity of 50% for ruled out severe osas. conclusion: a severe osas is less probable when there is absence of breathing cessation during sleep reported by the couple and an imc <30 kg/m2.
Aplicación de un cuestionario de sue?o y la escala de somnolencia de Epworth en un centro de salud familiar
Castillo C,José Luis; Araya D,Fernando; Montecino R,Lorena; Torres M,Catalina; Oporto S,Sabrina; Bustamante F,Gonzalo; Aranda Ch,Waldo;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272008000300003
Abstract: introduction: sleep disorders, especially sleep breathing disorders, have not been well studied in the patients attending a family health center in chile. sleep breathing disorders have been linked to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are important causes ofmorbidity and mortality. method: we studied a randomized sample of 180 adult patients (135 women and 45 men, with a mean age of 45.6 years) consulting a public family health center with the epworth sleepiness scale and a sleep questionnaire which include assessment ofobesity medical conditions, medications and smoking habit, blood pressure, sleep habits, snoring, breathing cessation, insomnia, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptomatology results: hypertension wasfound in 37.2%, diabetes in 11.1%, dislipidemia in 19.4%, smoking in 34.4%. body mass index > of30 kg/m2 wasfound in 38.3%). twentyfivepatients (13.9%>) had an epworth score >ofl5. loud snoring was reported in 56.7%>. breathing cessation was reported by the spouses in 21.7%>. difficulty for sleep initiation was present in 21.7% and to maintain sleep in 21.7%. daytime sleepiness was present in 29.4%. twelve patients (6.7%) had the highest score in a visual analog scale for daytime somnolence. an affirmative answer for persistent sadness or low mood and loss ofinterest or pleasure in the last month was reported by 43.8% ofthe patients. conclusión: it is noteworthy the high frequency of undiagnosed sleep disorders found in a population consulting by others pathologies. these results would be useful for the planning of public health programs which should include sleep disorders.
Atrofia cerebelosa por el virus JC en un paciente con SIDA
Bustamante F,Gonzalo; Cartier R,Luis; Lavados M,Manuel;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272009000300007
Abstract: the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) is a demyelinating cns disease, characterized by lysis of injected oligodendrocytes by jc virus (jcv). immunodeficiency is a predisposing factor for acquiring the disease and at least 5% of aids patients may develop pml. among patients infected with hiv has also been described the lysis of the granullar cells of the cerebellum and cerebellar atrophy, attributed to a variant of the jcv. we present 37 years old hiv infected men, with postural dizziness, followed by gait disturbances, and a cerebellar syndrome, scanned speech, hyperreflexia, pendular reflexes, babinski sign and mild cognitive impairment were present. brain mri showed hyperintense areas of the white matter in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus and brainstem, associated with incipient atrophy of the cerebellum. the csf was normal except for the pcr positive for the jcv. the patient received antiretroviral therapy. a second mri, eight months later, showed a slightly increase in lesions of the cerebral hemispheres, and the left cerebellar hemisphere, but had developed a marked cerebellar atrophy. after two years, the patient remained with a serious cerebellar syndrome. that in association with the slow course of the disease and the particular cerebellar lesions, are suggestive of a mixed jcv infection of both, the typical and mutant type, in this patient. this is the first case of cerebellar atrophy by the jcv reported in the chilean literature.
Espontánea reversibilidad de un síndrome de Parkinson tardío y de alteraciones cognitivas frontales, después de una intoxicación aguda con órganofosforados
Toledo L,Paola; Bustamante F,Gonzalo; Cartier R,Luis;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272010000400005
Abstract: acute organophosphate poisoning usually produces a cholinergic crisis followed by muscular weakness or intermediate syndrome. the basis for these clinical manifestations is inactivation of acetylcholinesterase at the nicotinic and muscarinic nerve terminals and junctions. different mechanism might lead to polyneuropathy and late extrapyramidal syndromes. we report a case of a male patient who ingested organophosphate with suicidal intentions. he developed a typical cholinergic crisis and required invasive mechanical ventilation. three weeks later, frontal cognitive impairment was noticed and masklike face, generalized rigidity, bradykinesia and tremor progressively developed until a parkinson syndrome was established. after his clinical condition had remained stable for at least two weeks, overt spontaneous improvement in motor and cognitive functions was observed. similar reports in literature are infrequent. although the pathophysiology that underlies extrapyramidal manifestations due organophosphate poisoning remains unclear, experimental evidence demostróte that organophosphate compounds impair dopamine transport and uptake. this case report suggests that organophosphate might act through a double pathogenic action i.e an initial acute cholinergic syndrome and a delayed disfunction in dopaminergic pathways. complete spontaneous resolution of both effects allow us to classify organophosphate substances as a cause of functional impairment in the basal ganglia.
Persistencia de movimientos en espejo congénitos en una hemiplejía por infarto cerebral
Cartier R,Luis; Bustamante F,Gonzalo; Grandjean B,Marcela;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272010000200006
Abstract: the simultaneous and involuntary displacement of the opposite limb during a volitional movement is called mirror movements. they mimic the gesture, partly or wholly. they can be congenital, familiar or installed in various cns pathologies. we present a 64 years old woman with familiar history of mirror movements that affect their hands, since childhood. at admission presented confused with left hemiplegia and homolateral sensory involvement. the brain ct defined a right ischemic stroke affecting the posterior limb of the internal capsule, lenticular nucleus, sub insular region and par ventricular white matter. the paretic left hand, unable to perform voluntary movements, presented mirror movements during volitional movements of the contra lateral hand. neurophysiologic studies have suggested that mirror movements are due the activation of the direct corticospinal pathway or simultaneous discharge of both motor cortexes due inhibitory pathways failures. cortical origin seems unlikely for the movements in this patient, due to the injury of the internal capsule. our case could be interpreted by the simultaneously brain innervations on both anterior horns, together with a congenital deregulation of the central pattern generator networks.
Atrofia cerebelosa por el virus JC en un paciente con SIDA Cerebellar atrophy by the JC virus in a patient with AIDS
Gonzalo Bustamante F,Luis Cartier R,Manuel Lavados M
Revista Chilena de Neuro-Psiquiatría , 2009,
Abstract: La leucoencefalopatía multifocal progresiva es un proceso desmielinizante del SNC, que se caracteriza por la lisis de los oligodendrocitos infectados por el virus JC. La inmunodeficiencia es un factor predisponente para adquirir la enfermedad y al menos el 5% de los pacientes con SIDA pueden desarrollar una LMP. Entre pacientes infectados con VIH también se ha descrito una lisis de las células granulosas del cerebelo y atrofia cerebelosa, atribuida a una variante del virus JC. Se presenta un hombre de 37 a os portador de VIH, que consulta por vértigos posturales, seguidos de alteraciones de la marcha y un síndrome cerebeloso, palabra escandida, hiperreflexia, reflejos pendulares, Babinski y un leve deterioro cognitivo. La RM cerebral mostró áreas de hiperintensidad en T2 de la substancia blanca en los hemisferios cerebrales, en los tálamos y en estructuras bulbo-protuberanciales, asociadas a una atrofia incipiente del cerebelo. El LCR era normal, salvo la PCR positiva para el VJC. El paciente estaba con terapia antiretroviral que se mantuvo. Una segunda RM, ocho meses después, mostró leve aumento de las lesiones de los hemisferios cerebrales, de la protuberancia y del hemisferio cerebeloso izquierdo, pero se había incrementado la atrofia de la corteza cerebelosa. Después de dos a os, el paciente ha mantenido el síndrome cerebeloso, que unido a la detención clínica de la enfermedad y ala atrofia del cerebelo, sugieren que este paciente pudiera tener una doble infección por VJC tanto de la variedad típica como de la mutante. Este sería el primer caso de atrofia cerebelosa por el VJC pesquisado en Chile. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating CNS disease, characterized by lysis of injected oligodendrocytes by JC virus (JCV). Immunodeficiency is a predisposing factor for acquiring the disease and at least 5% of AIDS patients may develop PML. Among patients infected with HIV has also been described the lysis of the granullar cells of the cerebellum and cerebellar atrophy, attributed to a variant of the JCV. We present 37 years old HIV infected men, with postural dizziness, followed by gait disturbances, and a cerebellar syndrome, scanned speech, hyperreflexia, pendular reflexes, Babinski sign and mild cognitive impairment were present. Brain MRI showed hyperintense areas of the white matter in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus and brainstem, associated with incipient atrophy of the cerebellum. The CSF was normal except for the PCR positive for the JCV. The patient received antiretroviral therapy. A second MRI, eight months l
Persistencia de movimientos en espejo congénitos en una hemiplejía por infarto cerebral Persistance of congenital mirror movements in the hemiplejic side after ischemic stroke
Luis Cartier R,Gonzalo Bustamante F,Marcela Grandjean B
Revista Chilena de Neuro-Psiquiatría , 2010,
Abstract: Se denomina movimiento en espejo (ME) el desplazamiento involuntario, imitativo y simultáneo de la extremidad opuesta al de un movimiento volitivo. Los ME pueden tener un origen congénito y familiar o generarse por patologías diversas del sistema nervioso central. Se presenta una mujer de 64 a os con el antecedente de ME desde la infancia de carácter familiar. Ingresa en estado confusional y presentando una hemiplejía y hemihipoestesia faciobraquicrural izquierda. La tomografía cerebral mostraba compromiso del brazo posterior de la cápsula interna, núcleo lenticular, región subinsulary de la sustancia blanca paraventricular. La mano izquierda pléjica que era incapaz de realizar movimientos voluntarios, se movía en espejo al mover la mano derecha. Esta curiosa manifestación hace necesario una más ajustada interpretación neurofisiológica de los movimientos en espejo. Se ha postulado una activación de la vía corticoespinal directa, o la descarga simultánea de ambas cortezas motoras por fallas en la natural inhibición transcortical. En este caso parece improbable un origen cortical contralateral de los movimientos, debido a la lesión de la cápsula. Tal vez podrían comprenderse los ME de esta paciente, si se demostrara una doble inervación de ambas astas anteriores, asociada a una falla en la inhibición normal por desregulación congénita de los Circuitos Generadores Centrales. The simultaneous and involuntary displacement of the opposite limb during a volitional movement is called mirror movements. They mimic the gesture, partly or wholly. They can be congenital, familiar or installed in various CNS pathologies. We present a 64 years old woman with familiar history of mirror movements that affect their hands, since childhood. At admission presented confused with left hemiplegia and homolateral sensory involvement. The brain CT defined a right ischemic stroke affecting the posterior limb of the internal capsule, lenticular nucleus, sub insular region and par ventricular white matter. The paretic left hand, unable to perform voluntary movements, presented mirror movements during volitional movements of the contra lateral hand. Neurophysiologic studies have suggested that mirror movements are due the activation of the direct corticospinal pathway or simultaneous discharge of both motor cortexes due inhibitory pathways failures. Cortical origin seems unlikely for the movements in this patient, due to the injury of the internal capsule. Our case could be interpreted by the simultaneously brain innervations on both anterior horns, together with a congenital deregu
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