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A Method of Luminiferous Ether Registration  [PDF]
Alexander I. Korolev
Open Access Library PrePrints (OALib PrePrints) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.preprints.1200125
Abstract: The paper draws attention to the importance of the notion “luminiferous ether” in physics. There is a proposed method to register its flows generated by natural cosmic movements or created artificially. The work presents the results of ether wind searching with a prototype of the proposed installation located at the altitude of <30 m above sea level. Ether flows with speeds > 20 km/s are not found, which is consistent with the results of previous experiments.
La hipótesis del cuanto de luz y la relatividad especial ?Por qué Einstein no las relacionó en 1905?
Cassini, Alejandro;Levinas, Marcelo Leonardo;
Scientiae Studia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-31662007000400001
Abstract: we attempt to determine why einstein did not mention his article on light-quanta hypothesis, written in march 1905, in his formulation of special relativity, devised just three months later. the main reasons we have found are the following: einstein's different attitudes towards the existence of ether and absolute space; his permanent commitment to the ontological primacy of the electromagnetic field; the non-classical properties he ought to attribute to light-quanta; his hesitant stance about maxwell electrodynamics as a complete and definitive representation of physical reality and at the same time, his suspection that a possible wave/particle duality would not lead to an unsolvable difficulty; his unstable and uncompromised attitude with respect to atomism; the more conservative, though less intuitive, character of special relativity; the different interpretation of the epistemological status of both theories and the marked differences in their formulation.
On the Nature of Photon  [PDF]
Alexander I. Korolev
Open Access Library PrePrints (OALib PrePrints) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.preprints.1200162
Abstract:
The article considers physical properties of photon as a quantum of electromagnetic wave in luminiferous medium. An experimental evaluation method for its energy and mass based on radiation pressure effect was presented. The of “photon amplitude” concept was introduced, through which energy is represented similarly to quantum (phonon) energy of elastic mechanical wave. A model of photon as a wave packet in the medium was considered, which based its volume evaluation. The resulting equation for energy corresponds to commonly known, regarding the first degree frequency proportionality, while it is more informative.
Entrainment of Luminiferous Medium with Massive Solids  [PDF]
Alexander I. Korolev
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104051
Abstract:
Experiments on searching the space flows of luminiferous medium through Sagnac interferometer have been conducted. To do this, in one of the interferometer arms the inhomogeneity has been introduced in the form of a transparent tube with distilled water. The difference in speeds of the interferometer was registered in relation to the medium when changing the tube orientation from S-N to W-E: By shifting the interference fringe on the screen. Measurements were carried out in two places: 30.2 East longitude/60.5 North latitude at a height of 165 m above sea level; 41.3 East longitude/43.6 North latitude at height 2850 m. Flows with speeds > 45 m/s were not observed. The result is explained by entrainment of the medium due to gravitational attraction to the Earth, the Sun and Center of the Milky Way: Similar to how it happens to other physical medium.
Leukotriene-A4-Hydrolase and Basic Aminopeptidase Activities Are Related with Collagen-Induced Arthritis in a Compartment-Dependent Manner  [PDF]
Mariana Trivilin Mendes, Paulo Flavio Silveira
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2013.34040
Abstract: Objective: Previous study demonstrated the involvement of basic aminopeptidase (APB) activity in the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Two zinc dependent metalloenzymes (EC 3.4.11.6 and EC 3.3.2.6) are known to exhibit concomitantly APB and leukotriene-A4-hydrolase (LT-A4-H) activities. Influence of the interrelationship between both activities on arthritic processes, however, is presently uncertain. This study aimed to compare these activities in CIA. Methods: CIA was induced in rats and arthritis was assessed macroscopically. Ultracentrifugation was used to separate soluble (S) and solubilized membrane-bound (M) fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial tissue (ST). Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure LT-A4-H activity, and Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction was used for evaluating EC 3.4.11.6 and EC 3.3.2.6 gene expressions. Results: The existence of genes for EC 3.3.2.6 and EC 3.4.11.6 was demonstrated in the ST. Compared with control, LT-A4-H activity increased in synovial fluid (SF) and in S-PBMCs of CIA-arthritic and CIA-resistant and in M-ST of CIA-resistant, while it decreased in M-PBMCs of CIA-arthritic and CIA-resistant. In all these locations APB activity remained unchanged or inversely correlated with LT-A4-H activity. Conclusions: LT-A4-H and APB activities in joint-related samples are associated, for the first time, with EC 3.3.2.6 and EC 3.4.11.6 genes, exhibiting a compartment-dependent differential modulation of their specificity, efficiency and/or affinity or an inverse concurrent pattern. Changes in LT-A4-H activity have implications for development or resistance to arthritis in CIA model with a potential to be a diagnostic tool.
Promotive Effects of Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cultured Mouse Cortical Oligodendrocytes  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Ueki, Yasushi Ikarashi, Zenji Kawakami, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yoshio Kase
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.57077
Abstract:

Effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocytes were examined using purified mouse cortical oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). OPCs were cultured for four days, and proliferation was evaluated by counting A2B5 (a specific antibody to OPC)-reactive cells on the second day of cell culture. Differentiation from OPC to oligodendrocyte was evaluated by counting O4 (a specific antibody to detect differentiated cells in various stages)-reactive cells on the fourth day of culture. The effects of yokukansan (final concentration: 100 or 200 μg/ml) on proliferation and differentiation were examined by adding it to the medium for four days. Yokukansan increased not only the number of A2B5-positive cells on the second day but also the number of O4-positive cells on the fourth day compared to those in the corresponding controls. A WST-8 assay was used to identify active components from seven components of Uncaria Hook (UH), one of the constituent galenicals of yokukansan. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM: 0.1 - 3.0 μM) was identified by this screening assay and increased the number of A2B5-positive cells on the second day and O4-positive cells on the fourth day as yokukansan did. These results suggest that yokukansan promotes the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocytes, and also that GM contained in UH is one of active components responsible for this effect of yokukansan.

Numerical investigation on the effect of injection pressure on the internal flow characteristics for diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel injectors using CFD
Vijayakumar Thulasi,Thundil Karrupa Raj Rajagopal,Nanthagopal Kasianantham
Thermal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/tsci100717091v
Abstract: The spray characteristics of the diesel fuel are greatly affected by the cavitation formed inside the injector due to the high pressure differential across the nozzle. Many researchers across the globe are exploring the potential of using diethyl ether and dimethyl ether as an alternate for diesel fuel to meet the strict emission norms. Due to the variation in the fuel properties the internal flow characteristics in injectors for ether fuels are expected to be different from that of the diesel fuel. In this paper computational technique is used to study and compare the internal flow characteristics of diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel. The two phase flow model considering the fuel as a mixture of liquid and vapor is adopted for the simulation study. The injection pressure is varied from 100 to 400 bar and the flow characteristics of all three fuels are simulated and compared. Results indicate that all three fuels have distinct cavitating patterns owing to different property values. The dimethyl ether is found to be more cavitating than diesel and diethyl ether fuels as expected. The mass of fuel injected are found to be decreasing for the ether fuels when compared with diesel fuel at all injection pressures.
Microwave Spectrum of the Ethylmethyl Ether Molecule
Shozo Tsunekawa,Yuji Kinai,Yuki Kondo,Hitoshi Odashima,Kojiro Takagi
Molecules , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/80100103
Abstract: We have observed rotational transitions of ethylmethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH3) in the 24-110 GHz frequency range. We newly assigned the transitions of four Q-branch series for J=1-38 with Ka=0-5 and six R-branch series of b-type transitions for J=7-37 with Ka=0-3. All these assigned transitions were observed to be split into two or four components due to the internal rotations of the methyl groups. We analyzed the averaged frequencies of the split components on the basis of the Watson A-reduced Hamiltonian, neglecting the effect of the internal rotations. A total of 122 transitions were fitted to eight molecular parameters to a 1s standard deviation of 24 kHz. The parameters A, B, C and DJ were improved, and DJK, Dk, dJ and dK were determined for the first time.
Microwave Irradiation-Assisted Synthesis of a Novel Crown Ether Crosslinked Chitosan as a Chelating Agent for Heavy Metal Ions (M+n)
Awwad A. Radwan,Fars K. Alanazi,Ibrahim A. Alsarra
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15096257
Abstract: Microwave irradiation was used to obtain a di-Schiff base type crosslinked chitosan dibenzocrown ether (CCdBE) via the reaction between the –NH2 and –CHO groups in chitosan and 4,4′-diformyldibenzo-18-c-6, respectively. The structure of the synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectra analysis. The results showed that the mass fraction of nitrogen in the CCdBE derivative was much lower than those of chitosan. The FT-IR spectra of CCdBE revealed the expected chitosan-crown ether structure, as evidenced by the presence of the characteristic C=N and Ar peaks. The adsorption properties of CCdBE for Pd2+ and Hg2+ were investigated and the results demonstrated that the adsorbent has both desirable adsorption properties with a high particular adsorption selectivity for Hg2+ when in the presence of Pb2+ as well as selectivity coefficients for metal ions of KHg2+ /Pb2+ = 8.00 and KHg 2+/Pb2+ = 10.62 at pH values of 4 and 6, respectively. The reusability tests for CCdBE for Pb2+ adsorption showed that complete recovery of the ion was possible with CCdBE after 10-multiple reuses while CTS had no reusability at acidic solution because of its higher dissolution. The studied features of CCdBE suggested that the material could be considered as a new adsorbent. It is envisaged that the crosslinking of CTS into CCdBE would enhance practicality and effectiveness of adsorption in ion separation and removal procedures.
Gr?os de oleaginosas na alimenta??o de novilhos zebuínos: consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho
Bassi, Marcelo Silva;Ladeira, Márcio Machado;Chizzotti, Mário Luiz;Chizzotti, Fernanda Helena Martins;Oliveira, Dalton Mendes de;Machado Neto, Otávio Rodrigues;Carvalho, José Rodolfo Reis de;Nogueira Neto, álvaro Augusto;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000200018
Abstract: this study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, performance and of digestibility diet containing different oilseeds to beef cattle finished in feedlot. thirty zebu steers (388.0±37.5 kg of body weight) were used in a completed randomized design. the diets consisted of corn silage and four different concentrates: one without lipids and three with inclusion of soybeans, cottonseed and linseed. the diets, which were isonitrogenous, had roughage:concentrate ratio of 60:40 and were offered ad libitum. to determinate the total apparent digestibility of nutrients, the fecal output was estimated through internal marker indigestible neutral detergent fiber. the lowest dry matter intake was observed for cottonseed (7.20 kg/d), but among the other diets, the dry matter intake did not differ. the average daily gain was lower when cottonseed was used, in comparison with linseed (0.93 vs. 1.16 kg/d, respectively). however, there was no difference on average daily gain in relation to other diets. there was reduction in the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in linseed diet. additionally, there was a reduction in the neutral detergent fiber digestibility in diets with cottonseed and linseed compared with soybeans, which did not differ from the control diet. the inclusion of ground cottonseed in feedlot beef cattle diets should be realized with caution, since it can decrease dry matter intake and average daily gain. however, feed efficiency is not affected by the addition of oilseeds in beef cattle diets when the maximum ether extract level in total dry matter diet does not exceed 6%.
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